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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 22.04.2020
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2020 / Issue 2
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Application of complex microelement fertilizers for winter triticale cultivation
The results of studies on the effect of micronutrient fertilizers during foliar feeding on the formation of yield and grain quality of winter triticale of the Doktrina 110 variety. Studies carried out in 2017-2019 on the basis of Biokor-S Agrofirm LLC, located in the Mokshansky district of the Penza region on leached chernozem, medium humus, medium-grained, heavy sediment, are presented. Established that microelement fertilizers contributed to an increase in the photosynthesis parameters of winter triticale agrocoenosis. The highest productivity of winter triticale photosynthesis was observed with double sheet top dressing during the til lering and heading phase with Azosol 36 Extra: leaf area reached 47.9 thousand m 2/ha, photosynthesis potential – 1.86 million m2 day/ha, net productivity of photosynthesis – 4.48 g/m2 per day. The average grain yield of winter triticale for three years according to the experimental variants was 4.73-5.56 t/ha, which exceeds the control by 0.48-1.31 t/ha (11.2-30.8%). The highest triticale grain yield of 5.56 t/ha was obtained with double foliar top dressing of Azosol 36 Extra crops, while the protein content increased by 2.5%, gluten by 10.0%, the vitreous grain by 10.0%.
Ключевые слова: winter triticale, complex microelement fertilizers, photosynthesis, harvest structure, yield, grain quality, the Penza region.
Evaluation of the effect of new organomineral preparations on yield formation and grain quality of winter wheat
In recent years, the state catalog of pesticides and agrochemicals approved for use in the territory of the Russian Federation has been supplemented with new drugs that represent a whole complex of various compounds containing macro- and microelements, amino acids, polysaccharides and other biologically active substances. The mechanism of their action on the plant organism is not sufficiently covered in the literature. Therefore, it is necessary to study the production process of winter wheat plants when using this kind of drugs to study the features of this process, and develop scientifically based recommendations for their use. In this study in the Stavropol region in 2015-2017, it was found that the use of new preparations in winter wheat cultivation technology increases the yield of winter wheat by an average of 4.2-6.9 с/ha, improves the quality of grain, which is manifested in an increase in the protein content by 0.1-0.8% and the amount of raw gluten by 1.0-3.6%, as well as an increase in the chlorophyll photosynthetic potential of winter wheat crops by 1-15%. Treatment with the tested preparations increased the photosynthetic efficiency of crops (the value of net productivity is 25.7% higher than the control value). Preparations Atlante Plus and Nutrivant Grain contributed to improving the conditions of nitrogen nutrition of winter wheat, as can be seen by maintaining the activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase in the reproductive period (exceeding the control is 51.6-79.0%) and increasing the nitrogen content in plants by 64.8-102.2%.
Ключевые слова: winter wheat, organomineral preparations, productivity, chlorophyll photosynthetic potential, net productivity of photosynthesis, the Stavropol region.
Yield and microbiocoenosis of buckwheat when applying complex biofertilizers
Carried out modification of elective nutrient media for the growth of nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms. Concentrations of agrominerals in native and nanostructured forms used as additives to them were established. When creating complex fertilizers based on a consortium of microorganisms and agrominerals under study, the most effective among them for obtaining a high yield of buckwheat are phosphorite, nanostructured water-zeolite and nanostructured water-phosphorite suspensions (35.0; 43.0; 43.7%, respectively, compared to the control without fertilizers). Complex microbiological monitoring indicates the stimulation and growth of rhizosphere microorganisms, their activity when using a consortium of microorganisms, as well as complex fertilizers with the addition of nanostructured forms of agrominerals.
Ключевые слова: microbiocenosis, consortium, nanostructured suspensions, biofertilizer, buckwheat.
Content of humus and total nitrogen in the forest-steppe soils and dose of the nitrogen fertilizers under the planned yield of spring wheat
The statistical average humus content was calculated from the definitions of large-scale soil studies. From soddypodzolic to chernozems typical arable horizon of zonal soils contains 73.0-257.7; the half-meter thickness is 93.1-389.8 and the meter-thick is 131.9-545.7 t/ha of humus. Using the paired determinations of the humus and total nitrogen content of other sources, the average statistical C:N indicators of the profile distribution were also calculated. Using data on the content of humus and C:N, the total nitrogen reserves for the calculated layers were obtained. Mineral nitrogen is available to the root system of plants, the content of which in the total nitrogen reserves varies from 0.5 to 1.0% depending on the soil subtype; in the arable horizon of the zonal soil subtypes, it is 41.04 -80.82 kg/ha. The difference between the required amount of nitrogen for the formation of a wheat crop of 3 and 4 t/ha and the content of mineral nitrogen in the arable horizon of soils represents a dose of nitrogen fertilizer. After adjusting the coefficients of its use from soil and fertilizers, the dose of nitrogen fertilizers is 134-142 and 184-192 kg/ha.
Ключевые слова: the content of humus, total nitrogen, the form of nitrogen, fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers, the planned yield of spring wheat.
Biochar in technologies for the reclamation of bushy idle land
Under the conditions of a model field experiment in a crop rotation link, we compared the agronomic efficiency of embedding of derivative products of wood-shrub vegetation in the form of wood chips and biochar into the heavy loamy soil of the reclaimed idle land. A significant advantage of biochar was established when it was applied both in pure form and in conjunction with traditional chemical ameliorants. In the year of their application, a decrease in the yield of annual herbs by 55 and 46%, respectively, was observed. Against the background of ploughed wood chips, there was deterioration in the feed value of products due to a decrease in the content of crude protein and ash substances. The combined use of wood chips and biochar with a complex of chemical ameliorants allowed not only to prevent the noted damage but also to increase the productivity of the crop rotation link by 18 and 28%, respectively. The productivity of the crop rotation link when applying biochar was 21% higher than when plo ughing chips. Against the background of a complex of ameliorants, this superiority decreased to 9%. A reduction in the potential for carbon dioxide deposition into the atmosphere when biochar was applied was 3.5–4.5 times lower relative to the technologies of tree and shrubbery vegetation reduction adopted today. With the combined application of biochar with a complex of ameliorants, the maximum indicators of optimization of acid-base properties, nitrogen and phosphate regimes of the soil, as well as the quality of the green mass of annual and perennial grasses were achieved.
Ключевые слова: bushy idle land, soil, wood chips, biochar, crop rotation link, agronomical efficiency.
Agroecological efficiency of periodic use of neutralized phosphogy ps in rice
In the research are presented the results of a long–term field trial in rice crop rotation on the influence of periodic application of neutralized phosphogypsum (PG) of «EuroChem-BMU» LLC on meadow-chernozem soils of the Krasnodar region, the formation of productivity of rice agrocoenosis and the quality of rice grain. Was revealed the effective terms for PG application as a phosphorus-contain. Was proved its equivalence as mobile phosphorus source to standard phosphorus-contain fertilizers. In combination with nitrogen and potash fertilizers, the use of PG application lead to formation of a rice grain yield about 6.34 t/ha, what was equivalent to application standard fertilizers in dosage N120P80K60. It is shown that repeated application of PG does not lead to a noticeable deterioration of the ecological situation of rice agrocoenosis. 3 years after repeated PG application, its effect on mineral nutrition optimization reduce the costs of mineral nutrition compared to the traditional fertilizer system by 4155 rubles/ha. At the same time PG reduce the cost of 1 ton of rice-grain in the 1st year of the PG aftereffect by 445 rubles, in the 2nd year – by 105 rubles and in the 3rd year – by 34 rubles, while the profitability of rice production increases by 5.5, 1.3 and 0.4%, respectively. It was concluded that PG use in agriculture is the successful and positive way of its utilization. It allows to reach 100% use of phosphate raw materials, significantly improve the environmental situation in the region and use resource-saving technology for the production of high-quality crop products.
Ключевые слова: phosphogypsum, soil fertility, heavy metals, yield, rice, grain quality, the Krasnodar region.
Influence of biological factors on nutrients accumulation and on yield of cereals
In the conditions of the Sverdlovsk region in 2015-2019 in a stationary field experiment on dark gray forest soil, studies were conducted to study the impact of biofactors (manure, siderate, straw, clover, peas) on the yield of spring crops in field crop rotations. It was found that when plowing rapeseed on siderate in a steam field with 1 t on of ash weight, 11.0 kg of NPK entered the soil, with clover Otava – 13.0, with powdered rapeseed-10.4 and with straw - from 20.2 to 24.2 kg. The manure system of fertilizers in the grain-grass crop rotation provided the maximum total supply of the main elements of nutrition to 1 ha of the crop rotation area. When using siderates, solo-we and due to nitrogen fixation with annual and perennial legumes, on average, about 73.1-88.3 kg/ha of NPK is supplied. In grain-grass crop rotations, the share of biological nitrogen was 42.1-54.6% of the total number of accumulated elements of nutrition. On a wind-fed background, the highest yield of spring wheat is obtained when it is placed on a bed of clover and sideral steam, on barley-after glue and pure steam (the second culture). Application of mineral and their combinations with bio-factors practically leveled a difference in productivity of spring grain crops between predecessors. The greatest crop gains from the use of fertilizers were achieved on spring barley, the payback of 1 kg of NPK on the mineral background of nutrition was 14-20 kg, on the organomineral-about 11.5-13.7 kg of grain.
Ключевые слова: biologization, soil, crop rotation, mineral fertilizers, manure, siderate, straw, clover, peas, yield.
Technology of complex fertilizer production based on wastes of the phosphorous industry and it’s influence on yield of agricultural crops
Technology of producing complex fertilizer (NPS) from phosphorus industry wastes is presented in the article. The received new kind of complex fertilizers (NPS) composition P2O5totalsub> – 19,61-23,85; P2O5assimsub> – 19,25-23,70; P2O5watsub> – 15,55-21,85; N – 5,20-5,90; S – 11,45-13,68; H2O – 1,32-3,39 passed the test on crops of winter wheat and cotton in irrigated meadow-serozem soils of the Kur-Araz valley on the area of the hectare (each variant in 4 repetitions). The optimal dose of NPS (kg/ha) application under winter wheat (NPS150) and cotton (NPS200) which are provided a yield increase in relation to control, respectively, on 8,60% and 32,97%, also increased content of P2O5total to 0,318%, N – to 0,17% and S – to 0,095% (accordingly against – 0,225%; 0,11%; 0,085% in control) in soil. Organization of chemical industrial production of complex fertilizers allows liquidating wastes, to promote the ecology guarding in the territory, to expand assortment of fertilizers, to reduce production expenses on production of phosphorus fertilizers and to increase fertility of irrigated meadow-serozem soils.
Ключевые слова: wastes, complex fertilizer, chemical production, meadow-serozem, soils, productivity.
Assessment of the biosafety of nanostructured coal as a potential component of a complex biological product
The article presents an assessment of the effects caused by nanostructured coal on the mutation process in Salmonella typhimurium strains. The SOS-lux test found that the nanocarb had no genotoxicity and its safety in relation to mutagenic activity, it was Investigated how the nanocarbon modifies the response of cells to the DNA damaging activity of various compounds-mitomycin C, hydrogen peroxide, and ofloxacin. When interacting with mitomycin with nanocarbon, it has a weak suppression of the SOS-inducing activity of this compound With hydrogen peroxide, nanocarbon did not show a significant antimutagenic effect, and when interacting with ofloxacin, it increased the effect of this compound by 1.5-2.0 times. Thus, nanostructured coal in studies on bacterial test systems did not show mutagenic activity, so it can be considered safe for the environment and used for agricultural purposes, in particular as an additive to a biological product. The antimutagenic properties of nanocarbon are ambiguous, and the mechanism of such interaction requires more detailed study.
Ключевые слова: nanostructured coal, mutagenic activity, SOS-lux test, biological product, biosafety.
Use of modified lime fertilizer to reduce soil acidity
The presents the results of research during 2014-2016 on improving the acidic regime of the soil with the use of modified lime fertilizer. Dispersion of the meliorant on an 80-W ultrasound-0,25 with a frequency of 18,5 kHz and an oscillation amplitude of the ultrasonic waveguide of 5 microns at room temperature made it possible to obtain an ultrafine lime fertilizer with particle sizes of 40,0-120,0 nm, the average size was 50,0 nm. The resulting suspension represented particles of various sizes and shapes, evenly distributed in deionized water. In the experiment, the effectiveness of a modified lime fertilizer was compared with an analog ground to a powdery state. The size of conglomerates of powdered lime fertilizer ranged from 0,25 to 1,0 microns. Highly dispersed crushing contributed to an increase in the contact area of the modified lime fertilizer, which accelerated the interaction of its particles with the soil. Installed a decrease in soil acidity pHKCl by 0,3 units and obtaining additional increases in the yield of spring wheat grain 2,0% when using a modified lime fertilizer in doses calculated at 0,1 and 0,05 Hr. The comparability of the action of the modified lime fertilizer by 0,1 Hr with the powdered analog by 1,0 Hr was established.
Ключевые слова: liming, acidity, soil, fertilizer, highly dispersed, modified, spring wheat.
Вnfluence of after young growth herbicides on phytosanitary condition of sugar beet sowings in the Ryazan region
Data from field trials of herbicides based on methamitron, desmedypham, fenmedifama and ethofumerate and assessment of their effect on crop clogging and sugar beet yields in the Ryazan region are presented. The most effective schemes of using post-shoot herbicides to protect crops from annual double-din weeds have been identified. The use of tank mixtures of herbicides Pilot, VSK with B iceps 22, CE, and Biceps Garant, CE has helped to improve the phytosanitary state of sugar beet crops and to produce an additional crop of root vegetables.
Ключевые слова: sugar beet, debris, herbicides, efficiency, productivity, the Ryazan region.
Efficiency of herbicides in soya seeds in the Amur region
The results of studies on the biological effectiveness of herbicides for soybean cultivation conducted in 2017-2018 in LLC «Amur» in the Tambov district of the Amur region are presented. We made an assessment concerning the effectiveness of the following tank mixtures of herbicides: Corsair + Harmony + Miura, Corsair + Fabian + Adieu, Corsair + Gaur + Miura in soybean crops in the Amur region. The species sensitivity of weeds to these mixtures is presented. The sensitivity must be taken into account during the preparation of tank mixtures of herbicides. Soybean yield growth is shown which depends on the composition of tank mixtures. The highest value of the stored crop of 6.7 and 7.5 kg/ha was obtained by processing the sowing with the following mixtures of Cors air Super + Adju (1.6 + 0.3 l/ha) and Corsar + Fabian + Adju (1.5 + 0.1 + 0.3 l/ha).
Ключевые слова: herbicides, soybean, weed control, biological effectiveness, protection system, the Amur region
Influence of fertilizers and herbicides on weeds and productivity of flax crops on the Central Non-chernozem region
It was found that the most numerous in terms of Botanical diversity were juvenile species represente d by the spring early (6 species) and wintering (5 species) biogroups. Quantitatively, the following species were distinguished: Atriplex patula L., Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv., Eletrigia repens (L.) Nevski, Sonchus arvensis L. Strengthening the background of mineral nutrition through the use of Azofoski, as well as Azofoski with meliorant, increased the abundance of weeds to chemical weeding by an average of 22.3 -27.6%. All tank mixtures of herbicides considered in the research were characterized by high biological efficiency (from 92.1 to 100.0%). The highest productivity of flax (seeds-0.75 and 0.81 t/ha, long fiber – 1.17 and 1.27 t/ha at a level of profitability of 88.4 and 119.1%) was obtained against the background of a combination of mineral (N60P60K60) and mineral – organic (N45P45K45sub> + Nisaba (150 kg/ha)) fertilizers with foliar treatment of crops with Azotovit when using Hunter + Herbitox + Lontrel 300. Against the background of natural fertility, the best yield of seeds (0.44 t/ha) and long fiber (0.81 t/ha) was formed during chemical weeding with a tank mixture of herbicides Hunter + Herbitox + Secator Turbo.
Ключевые слова: flax, tank mixtures of herbicides, background of mineral nutrition, weeds, productivity of crops, biological and economic efficiency.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Influence of manure, siderate and biodestructor on the nutrients content in meadow-chernozem soil
A comparative assessment of manure, siderates and their combinations with stubble biodestructor influence on the content of nutrients in the arable layer of meadow-chernozem soil is carried out. The authors point out during 2017-2019 that the effect and aftereffect of manure, siderates and their complex effect and aftereffect with stubble biodestructor have positively influenced on the content of alkaline-hydrolyzable nitrogen, mobile phosphorus and mobile potassium. Siderate vapor in terms of influence efficiency on the content of nutrients was slightly inferior to the dunged vapor. A more significant effect on the change in the content of nutrients was exerted by the complex effect and aftereffect of manure, oilseed radishes and bean siderates with stubble biodestructor. The content of alkaline-hydrolyzable nitrogen against their background increased in relation to the control by 3.8-6.5 mg/kg of soil, mobile phosphorus – by 1.8-5.2 mg/kg of soil, mobile potassium – by 3.6-7.8 mg/kg of soil. Adding winter wheat straw to the soil increased the content of nutrients in the maize agrocoenosis.
Ключевые слова: meadow-black earth soil, manure, green manure, stubble biodestructor, alkaline-hydrolyzable nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, winter wheat, maize.
On the use of copper compounds in the technology of cultivation of spring soft wheat
The importance of copper in plant life is due to the fact that it is part of a number of enzymes, with the participation of which redox reactions occur. Together with manganese, being a part of plastocyanin, it plays an important role in photosynthesis, helps to increase the resistance of plants to adverse environmental conditions, as well as to defeat various fungal and bacterial diseases. It was in studies during 2017-2019 revealing that at a low mobile copper level (0.07-0.14 mg/kg) in the soil, it is advisable to use copper-containing fertilizers. The maximum spring wheat yield (3.37 t/ha) was obtained from pre-sowing seed treatment with a solution of chelated copper form (Cu EDTA) at a concentration of 0.25% through the nitrogen-phosphorus fertilization, the grain yield raise was 17%.
Ключевые слова: spring soft wheat, copper, chelated micro-fertilizers, pre-sowing treatment, yield, the Omsk region.
History of scientific research in agrochemistry and prospects for fertilizers application in Russia
World experience and practice of agriculture show that obtaining high and sustainable crop yields is associated with the effective use of mineral and organic fertilizers, plant protection products, modern growth stimulants, new promising microbiological and microelement-containing medicines preparations. The article reveals the history of fertilizer application in Russia from the first scientific articles in the works of the Imperial Free Economic Society to the present day, when precision technologies of precision agriculture as a comprehensive means of managing natural and man-made systems, as well as creating new types of fertilizers with controlled solubility. Create fertilizers with controlled solubility. Non-root nutrition of plants, which until recently was not considered a mandatory method in the cultivation of crops, is now a standard technological procedure, which in addition to a balanced plant nutrition allows agricultural producers to obtain quality products at the lowest cost.
Ключевые слова: mineral and organic fertilizers, microelements, methods of application, precision agriculture.