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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.Г. Сычев, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., д.с.-х.н.
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2020 / Issue 1
Efficiency of liming of chernozems Republic of Tatarstan
The results of studies on the efficiency of liming of chernozems carried out on the territory of the agricultural complex «Embulatovo» in the Buinsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan are presented. It has been established that the use of mineral fertilizers in moderate (N30-90Р60-90К60-90) and high (N75-90Р75-120К75-120) doses in combination with liming increases the effective fertility of the slightly acidic leached chernozem, ensuring an average annual increase in the yield of agricultural crops at 11.7-16.1 and 16.2-18.8 centners of grain respectively from 1 ha. The share of the crop due to natural soil fertility is 61.3%, mineral fertilizers – 24.3% and lime – 14.4%. The average annual payback of 1 ton of lime with an additional crop in the rotation of the field crop rotation is 0.77-0.90 c. h. units from 1 ha.
Keywords:chernozems, exchange acidity, hydrolytic acidity, liming of acid soils, the Republic of Tatarstan.
Study of water migration of carbon, iron, calcium, sodium in chernozems of Volga upland
During 2015-2018 on stationary sites of JSC «Uchkhoz «Mummovskoye» of the Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University (RSAU-MTAA) in the Saratov region at Volga upland landscapes the water migration of several compounds was studied in virgin chernozems (meadow-steppe) and degraded facies at wastelands (broken pasture with malty chernozems). Using the method of sorption lysimeters in native and degraded chernozems, water migration of soil degradation products such as humates and fulvates of sodium, compounds of Fe, Ca, Na were investigated. These processes are most actively expressed in degraded chernozems in the wastelands. Here their mountains. A1 migrates 19.3 g/m2 Corg. Organic-mineral compounds in the whitish layer of ancient alluvium at a depth of 67-83 cm are biodegraded, and Fe compounds form a reddish-yellow chromatogram. Significantly smaller scale of water migration of organic substances is manifested in ordinary chernozem with virgin meadow-steppe vegetation. Thus, 6.0 g/m2 of Corg. is washed out of the sod horizon, and 2.8 g/m2 from the humus horizon. The barrier-geochemical functions of virgin and degraded chernozems are characterized. The processes of alkalinization, dehydration and chernozems formation are clarified. Such surveys in the region are not yet carried out, obviously, due to their laboriousness and methodological features of assessing water migration of substances.
Keywords: virgin and degraded chernozems, degradation, alkalinity, humates and fulvates of sodium, water migration, sorption lysimeters.
Ecological aspects of soil fertility evolution during intensive use of soil resources in arid ecosystems
The fertility of soil resources of arid territories in its evolutionary development is undergoing a significant transformation in time. It is established that their intensive use significantly reduces the thickness of the humus layer as well as its organic matter contents. Concurrently with increasing soil degradation there is a decrease in the contents in physical clay and silt, the cation exchange capacity, exchangeable calcium and potassium as well as the contents in mobile phosphorus, while the contents of exchangeable sodium increases. A statistical analysis of these soil fertility parameters of allowed to develop a graduation of the adverse changes and to estimate the dynamics with time, i.e. rates of soil degradation. In the environmental aspect, the soil should be considered as a natural system, the fertility of which must be managed to stop negative deviations in the soil-forming process. It was found that changes in fertility parameters not higher than 0.2% per year should be attributed to the natural process of soil formation, as it corresponds to weakly dynamic natural deviations. In contrast, degradation of fertility parameters of arable soils from 0.2 to 0.3% per year correspond to moderately dynamic deviations, from 0.3 to 0.5% per year to intermediate dynamic deviations, and above 0.5% per year to highly dynamic deviations. Using these of dynamics of soil fertility changes we conclude that arable soils of arid territories are characterized mainly by moderately and intermediate dynamic deviations.
Keywords: evolution of fertility, dynamics of parameters of fertility, deflation, alkalinization, the degree of dynamism, Agropoli, humus, humus horizon, physical clay, clay fraction, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium, absorbed calcium, mobile phosphorus, exchange potassium.
Influence of different fractions and doses of pig manure on changes of humus content and its fractions fractional-group composition in soddy-podzolic soil
It was studied the influence of different types and doses of pig manure on the change of humus content, its fractional-group composition in the soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil. It was found that different fractions of manure in pure form, equalized by nitrogen at N<100 and N200, as well as together with straw (4 t/ha) allowed to increase the carbon content of organic matter in the soil by 0.11-0.24%. The introduction of pig manure into the soil, especially its solid fraction, caused an increase in the content of humic acids in the composition of organic matter, up to 5.9%. In the composition of humic acids, the first fraction accounted for 12.8%, in second place in quantitative terms was the third fraction (11.1%). The composition of fulvic acids was dominated by the second and first fractions (12.7 and 11.2%, respectively).
Keywords: pig manure, humus, fractional-group composition of humus, soddy-podzolic soil, fertilizers.
Degradation phenomena in arable and fallow soddy-podzolic soils
The results of observations of the processes of acculturation and degradation of arable and fallow lands in long-term stationary experiments at Lomonosov Moscow State University (Educational-Experimental SoilEcological Center «Chashnikovo») located in the Solnechnogorsk area of the Moscow region at zone of soddypodzolic soils are presented. It is shown that the degradation phenomena in these soils, their intensity and direction, are associated with the intensity and ratio of the activity of natural and anthropogenic factors of soil formation in specific locations. In arable soils with a high crop of agriculture, degradation phenomena do not have a significant impact on soil productivity. In fallow soils, degradation prevails.
Keywords: degradation, cultivation, fertility, soil-forming processes, soddy-podzolic soils.
Use of pH-differential UV-visible spectroscopy method to examine soil organic matter in chernozem under different land use
The pH-differential ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy method was preformed to study soil organic matter. A method approach that allows to stabilize humic substances in acidic and neutral solutions is proposed. Analytical analysis of UV-visible spectrums were preformed to characterize the structure of the organic compounds in different soil organic matter fraction (dissolved organic matter, labile organic matter and humic substance ) in haplic chernozem under different land-use. Descriptors E4/E6 и E2/E3 were calculated and cluster analysis was preformed for all studied fraction of soil organic matter under different land-use. Our results show that chemical structure of organic matter has the closed similarity in the organic substance fractions of chernozem under a crop rotation and a cornfield.
Keywords: soil organic matter, labile organic matter, dissolved organic matter, long-term field experiments, pH-differential UV-visible spectroscopy, colour index, chromophore, auxochrome, Haplic Chernozem.
On the substantiation of logarithmic scales in a multivariate multi-level experiment with Chlorella Vulgaris
A simplified technique is proposed for conducting a multifactor multilevel experiment on modeling the effect of NPK fertilizers on the productivity of Chlorella Vulgaris using logarithmic scales in the range of NPK concentrations of 0.004-0.25 g/dm3. The results of regression analysis in linear coordinates showed that the most significant members in the measurement range are P and K (R2 = 0.7198), the addition of N, cross and quadratic terms in various combinations increased the R² value slightly (up to 0.746), while the coefficients at these members were statistically unreliable according to the t criterion. Statistical processing of the measurement results showed the correspondence of the experimental data of the Boguslavsky model (Gaussian in the logarithmic scale of factor intensity). For NP, a quadratic approximation was observed with passage through the maximum (R2 = 0.967 and R2 = 0.998), respectively, for K, a quadratic approximation of the ascending branch (R2 = 0.981).
Keywords: Chlorella Vulgaris, fertilizer effects, modeling, experiment planning, logarithmic scale, multivariate multi-level experiment technique, statistical processing, model validation, Boguslavsky model
Structure and functions of bacterial communities in phyllosphere and rhizosphere of different goldenrod species
Results of research of structure and functions of bacteria communities in phyllosphere and rhizosphere of goldenrod of different species are presented. As dominants for all investigated species stood proteobacteria, which is the typical copiotrophic. The dominance of hydrolytic bacteria was observed in the soil at all stages. The dominant representatives of the proteobacteria were identified to genus and species based on 16sрНК. Most of these taxa were discovered by us earlier in the study of the composition of bacterial communities of 5 species of medicinal plants. Multivariate analysis of the correspondences allowed establishing that the taxonomic composition of bacteria varies most on different organs of plants, then there is a phase of vegetation and only in the last place the plant species. To the greatest extent of the studied species of goldenrod is far on the physiological characteristics of moss sphagnum, a little closer to him, representatives of the heather plants. Of the 40 strains of bacteria isolated from different organs of the goldenrod, more than 40% showed antibiotic activity against 1-3 species of phytopathogenic bacteria.
Keywords: goldenrod, bacteria, taxonomic composition, genera and species of proteobacteria, physiological diversity, antibiotic activity.
Justification of environmentally safe use sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants housing and communal services
Monitoring studies performed on a stationary site showed that over the past 25 y ears, the agrochemical indicators of reclaimed alluvial soils in the Ryazan region have significantly deteriorated. Under the influence of long-term drainage and more than half a century of use in agriculture, the peat-podzolic-gley soil also underwent a significant change in properties: the peat layer was compacted, humified and mineralized, which eventually led to its transformation into a humus horizon. To restore the fertility of degraded agricultural lands and increase their productivity, it is necessary to actively develop and implement modern multi-component organic-mineral fertilizers obtained, including from sewage sludge. Ecological and agrochemical assessment of sewage sludge from sewage treatment facilities of housing and communal services in the Ryazan region. In the studied sediment, the following content of gross forms of pollutants was found: lead 244.3 mg/kg; cadmium 0.75 mg/kg; nickel 127.3 mg/kg; zinc 173.9 mg/kg; copper 95.6 mg/kg, chromium 27.1 mg/kg; mercury 0.003 mg/kg and arsenic 4.75 mg/kg, which does not exceed the standards established by GOST R 17.4.3.07-2001 for group I precipitation. Based on the analysis of the results of chemical and analytical studies and calculation of the concentration coefficients of heavy metals and arsenic in sewage sludge, an empirical series of their accumulation is constructed: Pb > Ni > As > Cu > Zn > Cr > Cd > Hg. At the initial stage, special attention should be paid to pollutants with the highest concentration coefficients (lead, nickel, and arsenic) when determining the doses of sewage sludge from sewage treatment facilities of housing and communal services for agricultural crops. According to the content of normalized metals, the surveyed sewage sludge can serve as a source of trace elements for plants and such as copper, zinc, and nickel, which are necessary for the normal course of physiological and biochemical processes.
Keywords:agrochemical properties, arsenic, sewage sludge, pollutants, soil, heavy metals, environmental safety.
Efficiency of protective measures for perennial bluegrass herbs cultivation at radioactively contaminated floodplain meadows
The effect of mineral fertilizers and methods of surface and radical improvement of soil on the yields and quality of hay of perennial bluegrass herbs with two-cuts use in the conditions of radioactive soil contamination has been studied. It has been established that the perennial grasses form the highest yields of the first-cuts hay when applying full mineral fertilizer at a dose of N60P60K90, and that of the second-cuts when applying N60K90. It was shown that the hay yields of perennial grasses with the radical improvement in the average over the years of research was higher compared to the surface improvement. Under the influence of agrochemical measures against the background of the surface and radical tillage method, an increase in the biochemical feed composition has been noted. The content of residual nitrates in the hay of perennial grasses of the first and second-cuts was below the maximum permissible level. The introduction of nitrogen fertilizers in composition NPK in increasing doses contributed to an increase in the specific activity of 137Сs in the hay of perennial grasses, both of the firstand second-cuts. The use of sequentially increasing doses of potassium fertilizer as part of a complete mineral fertilizer led to a decrease in the intake of 137Сs in perennial hay to levels corresponding to the sanitary and hygienic standards (VP 13.5.13/06-01).
Keywords: natural feeding grasslands, surface and radical improvement, mineral fertilizers, perennial grasses, yields, biochemical composition, 137Сs.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Experience of ecological and economic assessment of agricultural land degradation in the Lipetsk region
The paper deals with the actual problem of assessing environmental damage from soil degradation agricultural enterprise JSC «Agrogard», located in the Usman district of the Lipetsk region. Based on the study of physical and agrochemical properties of soils, the degree of their degradation is determined. The model of high fertility of leached chernozem was the standard (non-degraded analogue). The studied soils of agricultural enterprises, in General, are characterized by high density of addition, close to the neutral reaction of the medium, varying the content of available phosphorus in a wide range, high content of exchangeable potassium. Humus content in soils varies from 4.52 to 8.68%, averaging 6.6%. The highest (IV) degree of soil degradation is determined by the index of decreasing the content of mobile phosphorus. The total amount of damage from soil degradation and agricultural land amounted to 88 073 thousand rubles (42.7 thousand rubles/ha).
Keywords: damage, harm, pollution, degradation, soil, agricultural enterprise, ecological and economic assessment, the Lipetsk region.
Assessment of waste of alcohol industry (fugat) application for agriculture
The results of a growing experiment on assessing the possibility of using the waste from the alcohol industry (fugat) as fertilizer for winter rye grown on green mass are presented. The experiment was carried out in 2015-2017, Moskovskaya 15 variety was grown. The soil is light gray forest loamy with low humus content, high content of mobile phosphorus and average content of mobile potassium, slightly acidic. The fugat in its natural state has a high humidity (96%), an acidic reaction (pHKCl 4.1), a low content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium – 0.12, 0.07 and 0.06%, respectively, based on natural humidity. The neutralization of the acidity of the fugat was carried out with KOH and NH4ОН solutions; the pH of the fugat after neutralization was 6.8 units. We studied the effectiveness of root and non-root (foliar) top dressing with a fresh fugat according to the background of introducing the fugat of the long-term storage in the entire soil mass of the vessel. It was established that root top dressing with a fresh fugat with an initial pH value had a significant positive effect on the yield of winter rye phytomass, estimated at 35%. At the same time, neutralization of the acidity of the fugat did not give an additional effect, showing only a tendency to increase yields. Foliar top dressing with a neutralized fugat led to inhibition of plants and a decrease in productivity. To eliminate the specific odor of the fugat, it is possible to use lime together with ferric chloride, used as a coagulant at a dose of 10-20% CaO and 3-5% FeCl3 from the mass of the fugat.
Keywords: alcohol industry, wastes, fugat, odor, neutralization of acidity, root and non-root top-dressing, winter rye, yield.