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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 26.11.2019
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2019 / Issue 6
Topical issues of liming acid soils of Non-chernozem zone
Natural soil formation in the Non-Chernozem zone is aimed at leaching the bases and gradual acidification of the soil. Its main regularities were studied in a series of long-term field experiments and stationary monitoring objects in the period 1984-2018 in the Pskov and Leningrad regions. In the course of their parameters and rates of degradation of acid-base and agrophysical properties of soil were established, new meliorants and accurate systems of their application were developed and tested in experiments. The average annual decrease in pHKCl in soddy-podzolic soils is 0.029 and in high-buffer soddy-carbonate soils is 0.015. The rate of increase in hydrolytic capacity is in the range of 0.02-0.04 and decrease in the amount of exchange bases-0.10-0.15 mmol-eq/100 g per year. They could increase dramatically in intensive vegetable crop rotations on the background of irrigation. This caused a decrease in the potential soil productivity of the currently actively used lands from 3.7 to 1.8 t/ha grain units. Overcoming the problems requires an early large-scale deployment of works on liming acidic soils using a new generation of meliorants and geoinformation technologies and systems. They can significantly reduce the cost of production of local meliorants and increase the agro-economic impact of them by 1.8-2.5 times.
Keywords: soil, acidity, degradation, liming, meliorant.
Influence of the mineral fertilizers and lime on fractional-group composition and balance of humus in the soddy-podzolic soil of the Middle Taiga in the Komi Republic
In the long-term field stationary experiment on soddy-podzolic weakly cultivated soil, studies were conducted on the effect of lime (aftereffect of 1983) and annual application of mineral fertilizers calculated from NPK removal by the planned harvest of perennial grasses, on the change in soil properties, including humus. Our studies have shown that the reserves of humus in the soil of the experimental site amounted to 41.6-46.8 t/ha. the Volumes of receipt of root crop residues in the soil under the variants of the experiment were 3.5-6.0 t/ha, the largest number of them was obtained in the variants of application of NPK for limed soil - 5.6-6.0 t/ha and the yield of perennial grasses for these options was the highest (4.5-4.8 t/ha dv). In the process of humification and mineralization of organic matter of root crop residues, the amount of newly formed humus was 0.63-1.08 t/ha, naturally the largest amount was also in the variants of NPK and meliorants (1.01-1.08 t/ha). The greatest balance of humus is also obtained in the above variants of experience. The use of lime and mineral fertilizers in the humus increased the amount of humic acids from 19.4 to 27.8%, in the version without fertilizers –19.4%. Especially increased (from 2.3 to 7.8%) fraction-2 associated with calcium and magnesium. The most aggressive fraction of FC-1A fulvic acids decreased significantly (from 4.3 to 1.5%). These changes in the labile part of the humus allowed to change the type of humus –from fulvatictype (Cha : Cfa 0.5) to humatic-fulvatic –Cha : Cfa > 0.5, which improved the soil structure and plant nutrition.
Keywords: fertilizers, lime, humus, labile forms of humus, humic and fulvic acids.
Humus state of rice fields soils
The aim of the work was to study the effect of mineral fertilizers on the humus regime of rice field soils. Studies were carried out on meadow light-loamy and meadow-bog average-loamy soils based on alluvial loam in the Republic of Adygea. As fertilizer, urea, double superphosphate and potassium chloride were used. Soil samples were taken before sowing and after harvesting rice from the arable layer. They determined the content of total and water-soluble humus, its fractional group composition. There was a tendency to increase the total humus content in soils by 0.08-0.17% when applying mineral fertilizers. In the composition of humic acids (HA), the HA-2 fractions account for 67.5-71.8%, HA-3 –18.2-27.1%, HA-1 –3.5-10.3%. In the composition of fulvic acids (FA), fractions of FA-3 prevail –50.0-56.4%, then FA-2 –16.4-32.2 and FA (1a + 1) – 16.3-30.4%. Mineral fertilizers contributed to the destruction of calcium humates (HA-2) and an increase in the fractions of humic acids associated with mobile sesquioxides (HA-1). The type of humus of the studied soils is humate or fulvate-humate. With increasing fertilizer norms, the fulvicity of humus increases. In meadow-bog soil, humus changes from the humate type to fulvate-humate. In the composition of total humus, the labile (mobile) part is 7.97-11.02% in meadow and 5.38-8.33% in meadow-bog soils. In meadow soil, the composition of labile humus is dominated by fulvic acids over humic ones (HA-1 : FA (1a + 1) = 0.71-0.89). In meadow-bog soil, humus is more fulvate (HA-1 : FA (1a + 1) =0.38-0.55). Under the influence of fertilizers, the formation of young labile humic substances occurs. Increased fertilizer rates N150P100K75 and N180P120K90 enhance the processes of humus formation.
Keywords: rice fields, meadow soil, meadow-bog soil, fertilizers, humus, humic acids, fulvic acids, labile humus, inert humus.
Primary algological indicators of natural meadow soils forming at Desna river floodplain
To create an information basis of the background soil monitoring, we studied the soil algae of the communities of four meadow vegetation associations forming in different parts of the floodplain of the second order river of the Bryansk region. The purpose of the work is to consider the species composition, the spectrum of ecobiomorphs and calculate the coefficients of ecological and coenotic significance for soil algosinusia as the primary monitoring diagnostic indicator. Algosinusia were formed by 33 species from six departments. The largest number of algae species was recorded in the soils of floodplain meadows of the association Poo palustris –Alopecuretum pratensis. Differences in the number of soil algae species in key areas of meadows are not statistically unreliable. The species of the departments Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta dominate. The species of the department Xantophyta can serve as indicators of intact communities, as well as natural biotope factors. There have been established Cylindrocystis brebissonii (Charophyta), Gloeocapsopsis magma (Cyanophyta), Pleurochloris imitans, Heterococcus caespitosus (Xanthophyta) among the dominants and subdominants in the soil samples of meadow communities. The revealed indicators of soil algobiota are the basis for agroecological monitoring researches during the long-term of meadow exploitation.
Keywords: soil algocenoses, soil-ecological monitoring, natural meadows, floodplain, Desna river, the Bryansk region.
Influence of various fertilizer systems on microbial biomass and complex of cultivated mycromycetes of soddy-podzolic soil in the Middle Taiga subzone
In the conditions of stationary test study of influence various doses of organic and mineral fertilizers on the microbiological properties of arable soddy-podzolic soil in the middle taiga of the Komi Republic. In the feed six-field crop rotation organic fertilizers were used in the form of peat-manure compost (PMC) and NPK mineral fertilizers. It is shown that microbial biomass in arable soils varies widely –from 242 to 1026 mcg/g of soil. Microbial biomass increases by 1.3 and 2.0 times compared with the control in the experimental variants with the introduction of 40 and 80 t/ha of PMCs, respectively. The maximum values of microbial biomass were revealed in the variant with the introduction of full mineral fertilizer against the background of PMCs at a dose of 40 t/ha. The combination of 1NPK with PMCs at a dose of 80 t/ha contributed to a decrease in microbial biomass due to the suppression of the activity of microscopic fungi. It is established that the stimulation of the microbial community is exerted by the introduction of a full dose of NPK. The number of bacteria increases with the introduction of various doses of organic fertilizers, both separately and in combination with mineral. The creation of a long fodder crop rotation led to a decrease in the numbers and species diversity of microscopic fungi compared with virgin soils of the middle taiga. Penicillium dominates in the complex of soil micromycetes. No cellulolytic fungi detected in soil fungi community. An increase in the number of soil microscopic fungi was facilitated by the introduction of complete mineral fertilizer without PMCs. The use of different doses of NPK in the background of PMCs stimulated the number of cultured micromycetes, compared with the options without applying mineral fertilizers.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, fertilizer system, microbial biomass, micromycetes.
Changes in mineral nitrogen reserves in soddy-podzolic loamy soil
Studies on soddy-podzolic soils, carried out with long crop rotations, have studied the accumulation of mineral nitrogen in the arable layer of the soil without application and with the introduction of mineral (including nitrogen) fertilizers depending on their dose, use of manure. The conditions for the emergence and use of extranitrogen from plants by the soil are revealed. It has been established that «extra-nitrogen» is a reserve fund for plant nutrition with nitrogen, as in favorable hydrothermal conditions of vegetation of plants, soils well supplied with nutrients, and also on soils poor in fertility. The regulating factor in the balance of nitrogen nutrition in the soil is «hard-to-reach» for plants, fixed by the soil ammonium. Due to ammonium, in a number of cases, superlimit was observed (in excess of the doses of nitrogen applied with fertilizers) nitrogen consumption. As a result, the productivity of crop rotation increased significantly. On average, nitrogen reserves increased against the background of manure to 37.6%, against the background of manure to 45.6%. Mineral nitrogen was accumulated during the rotation: when N47P31K37 was applied and 40 t/ha of manure were used in the amount of 140-158 kg/ha, which is sufficient to produce 3.0-3.4 t of grain units/ha.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, long-term crop rotation, manure, fertilizer nitrogen, soil mineral nitrogen, ammonium, nitrates, «extra nitrogen».
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Quality of barley varieties grain in dependence of dozes of the mineral fertilizers
In the field experiment on the gray forest soil of the Ryazan region, the influence of the level of fertilizer application on the yield of barley varieties, grain quality and brewing properties was studied. The data on the yield of varieties, some indicators of grain quality: protein content, starch, film content and extractivity are presented. Under favorable weather conditions in the first year of the experiment the best yield was Yaromir. In the second year, when the harvest was noticeably lower, the differences between the varieties were unreliable. It was found that the complex indicators to a greater extent has the properties of brewing variety Nadegniy. In equal conditions, the protein content in the grain of this variety had a lower protein content in the grain than in the varieties Vladimir and Yaromir. These varieties are better suited for the production of food or feed grains.
Keywords: barley varieties, malting barley, cultivation technology, grain quality.
Methods of yield increase and it’s impact on quality of raw materials and seeds of moldavian dragonhead
The efficiency of non-root treatments of the Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) by Zircon growth regulator together with microfertilizer Ferovit to enhance growth processes and increase the yield of raw materials by 20-40% is proved. Also, the resistance of the dragonhead plants to adverse environmental conditions has increased significantly. In years with adverse weather conditions (drought), the effect of biological products is enhanced, the properties of seeds are significantly improved. The use of a binary mixture of growth regulators Ribav-Extra or Zircon together with Ferovit microfertilizer allows to increase the content of essential oil in raw materials and increases the gross collection of essential oil by 80-86%. Organic-mineral fertilizer EcoFus rather noticeable influence showed on yield and harvest of oil in conditions of 2017 in conditions of sufficient gydration. On the basis of obtained results we can draw conclusions about what the weather conditions will be most appropriate to use certain growth regulators, microfertilizers, or their binary mixture.
Keywords: Moldavian dragonhead, Dracocephalum moldavica L., seeds, germination, plant growth regulators, Zircon, Ribav-Extra, microfertilizers, Ferovit, Zitovit, EcoFus, yield, essential oil.
Influence of saponite-containg materials on soil fertility and yield of annual field grasses after first year of application
Clay minerals obtained during the processing of diamonds in the Arkhangelsk region are presented by saponite. The volume of clay minerals mined to the earth surface is about 4 million tons, which requires a lot of space for storing. Today saponite can be used as mineral additives, fillers, granulates and soil filters. In this paper we concentrate on the use of saponite as a mineral fertilizer for annual herbs. The aim of the research was to study the effect of saponite-containing products on soil properties and annual herbs yield in the Arkhangelsk region. To do this we made a field experiment on the use of different doses of saponite with further laboratory studies of soils and herbs. As the results we found the influence of saponite on soil properties and crop yield. The use of all saponite doses showed an increase in calcium, soluble carbohydrates and raw fiber in annual herbs. At the same time minimum doses did not demonstrate any growth in soil nutrients but fixed the greatest own in yield. The maximum dose decreased soil acidity and a slightly lowered the annual crops yield. To determine the optimal dose of saponite as a mineral fertilizer, it is necessary to increase the number of dose options and conduct further research.
Keywords: saponite-containing materials, crops, product quality, yield, soil.
Influence of the dolomite flour and mineral fertilizers on growth and development of common lilac seedlings
The effect of dolomite flour and mineral fertilizers on the growth and development of the common lilac seedlings (Syringa vulgaris L.), and content of nutrients in plant tissues was studied. Small-plot field experiment carried out in nursery of fruit and ornamental plants in the Venev district of the Tula region on phaeozems. It was demonstrated that spring mineral fertilizer application with NPK ratio 1:1:1 can significantly enhance the growth and improve the ornamental qualities of lilac seedlings. High doses of dolomite flour and phosphorus has negative impact on grow and development of seedlings of lilac. This may be due to decrease in availability of micronutrients and imbalance of nutrients.
Keywords: fertility of phaeozems, dolomite flour, mineral fertilizers, common lilac.
Comparison of ecotoxicity of Ni and Ni2O3nanoparticles on biological indicators of the ordinary chernozem
Comparison of toxicity of nanoparticles of Ni and nanoparticles of Ni2O3 on change of biological indicators of the ordinary chernozem in Rostov-on-Don is carried out. In model experience influence of these nanopowders in concentration 100, 1000, 10000 mg/kg in 10 days after their entering into the soil is studied. Results of a research showed that on abundance of bacteria of the sort Azotobacter, activity of a catalase, viability and length of roots of a garden radish Ni nanoparticles, influence the total number of bacteria and activity of Ni2O3 dehydrogenases nanoparticles stronger. If to judge by soil Integral parameter of biological condition, then nanoparticles of «pure»nickel are more toxic. The most informative to pollution by nanoparticles of Ni and nanoparticles of Ni2O3 the indicator of abundance of bacteria of the sort Azotobacter (r from -0.96 to -0.98),and the most sensitive –the general of the number of bacteria and length of roots of a garden radish proved.
Keywords: ordinary chernozem, nanoparticles, nickel, toxicity, biological properties of the soi.
Studying of influence of biogenic substances content in rainwater on it’s removal from soil by sprinkling method
An experiment with the application of the method of sprinkling and a portable sprinkler is conducted. Three similar soil samples are prepared in metallic cylinders with a lateral weir. Three variants of rainwater with different content of biogenic substances: 1 –distilled water, 2 –distilled water + single rate of mineral fertilizers, 3–distilled water + double rate of mineral fertilizers are prepared. Sprinkling of every soil sample is carried out. For chemical analysis surface runoff from the soil is taken (1.3 l). The content of biogenic elements (NH4, NO3, K2O, P2O5) in the rainwater, the runoff water and in the soil is determined. The cases when the concentration of biogenic elements in the runoff water was: 1) more than in the rainwater (biogenic supplies in the soil decreased); 2) less than in the rainwater (biogenic supplies in the soil increased) are considered. Errors are analyzed. A conclusion is drawn: the increase of biogenic element content in rainwater resulted in the transition from the increase to the decrease of its content in the water running off the soil surface.
Keywords: biogenic substances, removal from the soil, content in rainwater, sprinkling method, error analysis.
Influence of Bastion and Igl pesticides on enzyme activity of chernozems in botanical garden of the Southern federal university
The results on the influence of pesticide pollution on the enzymatic activity of soils are presented. The research was carried out on Haplic Chernozem Loamic of the experimental plot of the Botanical garden of the Southern Federal University (Rostov-on-don). In the field experiment with crops of spring barley and oilseed flax, the influence of Bastion fungicide and IGL herbicide at a dose of 100 mg/kg on the activity of soil enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, dehydrogenase and phosphatase) was determined. Catalase activity decreased in all variants of the experiment. Especially significant inhibition of catalase (9-19%) was found in herbicide contamination. For peroxidase and dehydrogenase also more frequent cases of inhibition of activity in pollution. Phosphatase activity increased in soils by 6-28% in most variants with pesticide contamination (especially IGL herbicide).
Keywords: chernozem, bioindication, pesticides, pollution, biological activity.
Effect of land reclamation additives on agrochemical indicators of agro-soddy-podzolic soil contaminated with nickel
The results of many years field experiment on the remediation of agro-soddy-podzolic loamy soil (albeluvisoils) contaminated with nickel are analyzed. Various meliorant and fertilizer doses were studied as ameliorative additives: limestone and phosphorite meal, superphosphate, sodium sulfide, peat and zeolite. The effectiveness of the studied reclamation additives was determined by a combination of the following factors: their effect on the mobility of nickel in the soil; duration of action; a positive effect on the agrochemical parameters of the soil; increasing the yield and quality of crops; the cost of reclamation work. It was found that all the studied reclamation additives had a positive effect on the agrochemical parameters of contaminated soil and reduced the content of mobile forms of nickel in it. The nature and parameters of this effect were determined by their chemical composition, application dose, and the period after application. All this allows them to be recommended as promising ameliorants for remediation of soils contaminated with nickel.
Keywords: soil, pollution, heavy metals, nickel, remediation, reclamation additives, agrochemical indicators.
Monitoring of quarantine pest – cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatusFabricius by sex pheromone traps under storage conditions
One of the most dangerous pests of the genus Callosobruchus spp. is the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius) that has a quarantine status in the Russian Federation as an absent species, but it is widespread in neighboring countries. In 2018 the trial under the storage conditions was carried out in collaboration with the Institute of Soil Science, Agro-Technology and Plant Protection «Nikola Pushkarov» (Bulgaria) with the aim to study the attractive effect of synthetic sex pheromones, that has been produced in Russia, on catching insect males of cowpea weevil C. maculatus. Obtained results with infested beans of the cowpea Vigna sinensis that were stored in the warehouse showed that pheromone dosage of 2 and 16 mg had insignificant difference in the number of captured individuals, with an average number of 23 and 14 individuals/«delta trap», respectively, and 4 individuals/«book trap» in both variants. At the same time, the use of the «delta trap» demonstrated a higher attractive effect (14 individuals/trap) than the «book trap» with an average of 2 individuals/trap. Synthetic sex pheromone consisting of a mixture of five acids used with a minimum dosage of 2 mg with the «delta trap» can be a good tool in the field of phytosanitary monitoring for stored products as well as for the territory surveys that is infested by cowpea weevil.
Keywords: Callosobruchus maculatus, cowpea weevil, pests, phytosanitary monitoring, pheromones, traps.
The possibility of using of the stable isotopes of sulphur and nitrogen as a criteriaallowing to identify the nutrients at organic farming
Determination of the natural content of stable isotopes has become an effective method with which one can study the transformation of elements in biological and environmental studies, as well as to study the mechanisms of chemical reactions. However, unlike carbon and nitrogen isotopes, stable sulfur isotopes are used infrequently, and their potential as indicators in biochemical and physiological studies is only just beginning to be realized. Our review presents studies in which, along with nitrogen, the possibility of using δ34S to verify the authenticity of organic agricultural products was investigated.
Keywords: organic farming, organic products, confirmation of compliance, products authenticity, stable isotopes, nitrogen, sulfur, isotope signature, stable isotopes ratio analysis.