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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.

Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева

Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.

Адрес для переписки: 115419, Москва, Шаболовка, 65-1-50.

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E-mail: agrochem_herald@mail.ru

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ANNIVERSARY OF JOURNAL

History of scientific papers for agrochemistry

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10034

The history and significance of the scientific journal, starting with the first printed works on agrochemistry in Russia, are shown, and theoretical studies of foreign scientists are briefly reviewed in connection with the anniversary date of the first issue of «Fertilizer and Harvest». The difficult path traversed by his successor, the «Agrochemical Herald» journal, is shown.

Keywords: agrochemistry, history of science, scientific papers, scientific journal, «Harvest and Fertilizer» («Udobrenie I Urozhay»), «Chemization of Socialistic Agriculture» («Khimizatsiya socialisticheskogo zemledeliya»), «Chemistry in Agriculture» («Khimiya v sel’skom khozyaistve»), «Chemization of Agriculture» («Khimizatsiya sel’skogo khozyaistva»), «Agrochemical Herald» («Agrokhimicheskiy vestnik»).


Turning the pages of the publication: to the anniversary of the journal «Agrochemical Herald» (Agrokhimicheskiy Vestnik)

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10035

There is considered the development history of the journal «Agrochemical Herald». The publications of the journal over the 90-year existence have been analyzed: from 1929 till 2018 using the bibliometric methods. The status and remit of the journal, fullness of its sections, dynamics of changing the publication frequency, size of circulation, reference matter of the publication, readership, and principles of article design were studied. The journal was modern at each stage of its development functioning as a conductor of scientific and technical achievements. Over 90 years of its existence of the journal above 14 thousand publications regarding the theory and practice of using chemicals in agriculture, soil conservation and ecology have been published. The journal changed it title 7 times, but it remained true its subject matter. Having tasted the difficult years of “perestroika” it has saved its face, its reader and up-to-dated meeting the current requirements. The two-year RSCI impact factor is 0.517, and the five-year one is 0.458. The publication activity, impact factor and citedness of the journal are growing saying about its development and being highly sought.

Keywords: periodicals, history, publication activity, agronomical chemistry, agriculture, soil science, ecology.


ACTUAL THEMES

Analysis of normative acts in the practice of application environmental legislation in agriculture of Russia

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10036

Agricultural land to monitor their condition, along with other categories of land, is subjected to state monitoring (Art. 67 of the Land Code of the Russian Federation), the purpose of which is to provide citizens with information about the state of the environment. In the process of preparing conclusions on the state of the soil as a component of the environment, concepts and terms from the field of agrochemical knowledge are used, the validity and correctness of interpretation of which sometimes raises questions not only among information consumers, but also among agricultural chemists-professionals. The paper attempts to analyze the normative acts of the Russian Federation, providing for the conservation of soils of agricultural lands and their fertility, the protection of soils from all sorts of harmful effects, leading to land degradation, the preservation of their national economic importance. Special attention is paid to the practice and problems of the use of the conceptual apparatus in the field of agrochemistry.

Keywords: agrochemicals, soil, fertility, fertilizers, lands of agricultural use, environment protection, state monitoring, regulation laws, concepts and terms.


Estimation of energy resource of degraded soils of agricultural lands

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10037

Processes of degradation for the zonal soils of the European part of Russia are considered. The basic agrochemical indicators determining the degree of degradation are substantiated. Theoretical approaches to the estimation of the energy status of the soil depending on the degree of degradation are developed, and the method on the soil bioenergy potential estimation being proposed. The latter is calculated using the amount of ATP which is synthesized by the cell in the complete biological oxidation of the organic matter into carbon dioxide and water, based on its elemental composition based on stoichiometry, the laws of biological oxidation and thermodynamic laws. Knowing the content of elemental carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in organic matter, it is possible to calculate the amount of biogenic energy extracted by the cell in the process of complete biological oxidation of the substrate to carbon dioxide. The above approach gives opportunity to calculate the bioenergy value or bioenergy potential of any organic compound, including the labile part of the soil humus without studying the structure and metabolic pathways. The algorithm of rehabilitation of the degraded soils, including: determination of the bioenergy potential of humus; the calculation of the amount of biogenic energy to restore the optimal functioning of the degraded soils is developed. To replenish the lost energy, the calculated doses of organic fertilizer application were substantiated.

Keywords: soil, degradation, agrochemical parameters, humus, fertility, energy resource, bioenergy potential, lost energy.


METHODS OF SOIL FERTILITY INCREASE: LIMING, PHOSPHORITING, GYPSING

History and practical aspects of acid soils liming in Russia

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10038

Years of experience and practice of agriculture have shown continuous acidification and depletion of calcium and magnesium agricultural land, with the result that every year our country gets about 20 million tons in terms of grain. The efficiency of mineral fertilizers is sharply reduced, the ecological situation of the environment is deteriorating, the quality of agricultural products is falling. The article reveals the historical stages of liming, new approaches to this technique associated with the use of raw dolomite flour. It is shown that along with natural lime materials, it is important to use lime containing industrial waste as an important and fairly cheap source of chemical meliorants. Many of them, having a high activity of interaction with the soil, significantly exceed natural carbonates, and the impurities of trace elements contained in them often have a positive effect on the growth and development of cultivated crops. However, most of them may contain a variety of heavy metals and other toxic elements that are hazardous to the ecological status of soils and adjacent environments, and should therefore be subject to comprehensive environmental assessment and regulation based on monitoring results. Much attention is paid to the creation of software and hardware systems for the differentiated application of lime meliorants and mineral fertilizers with the help of modern machines.

Keywords: acidity and soil fertility, methods of liming, ameliorants, fineness of grind, wet-grined dolomite powder, lime containing wastes.


Acidity of arable soils and efficiency of liming in the Kemerovo region

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10039

The data of agrochemical studies and field experiments, which allowed to establish the dynamics of soil acidity from 1966 to the present time, are presented. A measure of the acidity (pHKCl) during this period, decreased by 8%, and there was a transformation of arable land by expanding the area of acidic soils and reducing – neutral from 43 to 10%. Acidic soils appeared even in the steppe regions of the Kemerovo region. In need of liming 141000 hectares of acidic soils and supporting – 430 000 hectares of slightly acidic soils of arable land. For the liming of soils heavy loam granulometric composition specified the optimal values of pHKCl of different soil types and flow CaCO3 to shift by 0.1 pH units. The efficiency of mineral fertilizers on the produced soils increases significantly, the payback of fertilizers for spring wheat ranged from 7.8 kg to 36.2 kg of grain/kg of grain. On the prevailing area of arable land revealed low availability of field crops trace elements Mn, Zn, Cu, Co. It is determined that the yield of spring wheat increases with an increase in the content of trace elements from 10-15 to 30-41 C/ha. After the liming of soils in the cultivation of crops in the Kemerovo region requires the mandatory use of mineral and micronutrients.

Keywords: agrochemical survey, acidic soil, middle-acidic soil, slightly acidic soil, liming, trace elements, mineral fertilizers efficiency.


CONSEQUENCES OF CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

Measures for yield increase and reduce of radionuclides inflow into feeds at arable sandy soils

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10040

The results of the researches carried out on the experimental field of Novozybkov Agricultural Experimental Station contaminated by radionuclides have been presented. Various doses of potassium fertilizers (K120-210) have been studied against the background of Р60 application to obtain the highest yields of legumes and cereals and their mixed crops and the maximum reduction of radiocesium content in fodder products. It has been established that the highest yields of green mass among the studied crops was shown by a mixture of blue bastard alfalfa with an awnless brome (in the total for two cuttings). Thus, on the optimum variant (Р60К210) yields of green mass of a mixture was higher, than at alfalfa on 7.6 t/ha, a brome on 23.2 t/ha, the increase from fertilizers was 10.1 t/ha. The researches have established that the guaranteed receipt of normative clean fodder on the basis of blue alfalfa, a awnless brome and grass mixture on their basis is provided by the use of phosphate-potassium fertilizer in the dose of Р60К120. The Increase in the dose of potassium fertilizer to 210 kg/ha led to a decrease in the content of 137Сs in feed.

Keywords: radioactively contaminated lands, 137Сs, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, blue bastard alfalfa, awnless brome, single species crops, mixed crops, yields.


Influence of mineral fertilizers on the productivity and quality of yellow lupine cultivated on light sandy soils in the conditions of radioactive contamination

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10041

In field experiment at soddy-podzolic sandy soil polluted by radionuclides the efficiency of doses of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers accumulation of 137Cs on productivity and power value of a lupine yellow is studied. It is established that for obtaining the increased productivity of green material and grain of a lupine the optimum dose of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers makes Р45К90-120, for decrease in accumulation 137Cs in green material the dose makes Р45К150, in grain – Р45К210.

Keywords: sandy soils, radioactive pollution, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, lupine yellow, productivity, quality, accumulation of 137Cs in green material and grain.


CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGIES AND FERTILIZER SYSTEMS

Change of physiological parameters of spring wheat varieties from technology of their cultivation

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10042

The presented research results were conducted in the conditions of the Central Non-Chernozem regions of Russia on soddy-podzolic cultivated soil. The dependence of the productivity of spring wheat varieties on the value of the photosynthetic potential (PhP), which is regulated by technological elements during cultivation, is shown. As a result of the research, a differentiated level of photosynthetic potential was established in million m2 of days for different varieties of spring wheat using basic, intensive and high-intensity technologies. The composing value of the formation of the harvest of spring wheat is the net productivity of photosynthesis (NPPh). The NPPh establishes the optimal course of the photosynthetic activity of crops for the zone, which makes it possible to determine the necessary conditions for the growth of plants in a specific period. To carry out technological measures effectively. It is established that the magnitude of the PhP depends on the degree of wetting of the growth of plants. Under highly hydrated conditions of PhP, the maximum yield was from 0.84 to 1.03 kg of grain per day from one thousand m2 of the photosynthesizing surface. Under dry conditions 1.56-2.05 kg of grain/thous. m2 per day. This indicator reached its maximum under mildly arid conditions, and, depending on the variety, ranged from 2.32 to 2.49 kg of grain thousand square meters per day.

Keywords: variety, technology, spring wheat, photosynthetic potential, net photosynthesis productivity, seeding rate, biological yield.


Efficiency of mineral and organic fertilization systems at soddy-podzolic soil in conditions of deficient nutrition balance

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10043

In the field experience, the relation between the agrocoenosis productivity, the agrochemical properties of soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil, the types and doses of fertilizers at for partial and full return of removal is established. It is shown the deficit balance of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium leads to a significant lower the productivity of crop rotation regardless of the soil nutrients availability. When using fertilizers in doses that compensate for the 50-60% of nutrients removal, the decrease in productivity was 13-21% in the mineral fertilizer system (N20P23K28) and 25-33% in the organic system (manure 8 t/ha per year) compared to the option with a full return of removal (N40P45K47). For three years of research, the decrease in the content of humus and mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium was noted in the soil with an initial elevated level of nutrients when partial compensation of removal. The combined use of the manure at a dose of 8 t/ha and mineral fertilizers at a dose of N20P23K18 contributed to the maintaining of optimal agrochemical soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil indicators.

Keywords: productivity, crop rotation, soddy-podzolic soil, fertilizer system, agrochemical indicators, balance.


PLANTS PROTECTION

Influence of fungicides on winter wheat defeat by fungi diseases and also on yield and grain quality

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10044

On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of affected winter wheat plants, the presence of pathogens (Erysiphe, Septoria, Pyrenophora, Alternaria, Fusarium, Cladosporium) and bacterial diseases, for the suppression of which the fungicides were used are established: Credo, Kolosal Pro, Rakurs, Spirit. The preparations were used in a tank mix with herbicides, insecticides and fertilizers Azosol 36 according to the schemes of August 1 and August II. According to the size of the crop and the infection of seeds of the new crop, the advantage of using fungicides according to the scheme August II was revealed.

Keywords: winter wheat, fungicides, fungi diseases, tank mixes, yield, quality of grain.


Incidence of rhizoctoniosis on different potato varieties in the Central region of Russia

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10045

The defeat of potato by Rhizoctonia solani in the Central region of Russia depends on the resistance of cultivated varieties to disease and soil and climatic conditions. It is shown that there is an inverse correlation between the prevalence of rhizoctoniosis in the field and the average daily air temperature (y = -0.0878 x + 18.54), and a positive dependence on the amount of precipitation during the growing season (y = 2.32559 x + 250.4). During all years of observations (2016-2018) symptoms of damage by Rhizoctonia was absent only in the cultivar Gornyak. Early and middle-early varieties were the most affected.

Keywords: potato, Rhizoctonia solani, soil and climatic conditions, variety.


YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH

Evaluation of the composition of soil solutions and water extracts from soil in the field and in model experiments

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10046

It was shown that soil solutions and surface waters are characterized by their material composition, properties, processes and modes occurring in them. An additional assessment of soil solutions based on the kinetics factor, depositing ability, suspension effect, content of positively and negatively charged complex compounds is proposed. The processes occurring in soil solutions are characterized by regular interrelations between their properties, the content of aeroions, oxidants and antioxidants, energy assessment according to gas discharge visualization. Modes of soil solutions and surface waters are characterized by a regular change in their properties and processes in time and space.

Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, ordinary chernozem, soil solutions, surface water.


Dynamics of arable soil fertility in the Rakityanskiy district of the Belgorod region

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10047

The studies were carried out in the Rakityansky District of the Belgorod Region, located in the southwest of the forest-steppe zone of the Central Chernozem Region, where the mean annual value of the hydrothermal coefficient according to Selyaninov is 1.2. The soil cover was represented by typical and leached chernozem, the share of eroded arable land was 28.6%. The work uses materials of a continuous agrochemical survey. The purpose of the work was to analyze the dynamics of soil fertility during 2005-2015. It is established that when the average for 2010-2015 is introduced, 10.1 t/ha of organic and 70.5 kg/ha of mineral fertilizers, high yields of winter wheat (4.65 t/ha), barley (3.32 t/ha), maize grains (7.52 t/ha), root crops of sugar beet (48.9 t/ha). There is a significant increase in the content of organic matter in mobile soils, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium. At the same time, the availability of zinc, copper, cobalt, and sulfur remains low.

Keywords: chernozem, soil acidity, liming, microelements, soil organic matter, soil fertility, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, fertilizers.


HISTORY OF SCIENCE

The first Russian scientist-agrochemist

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2019-10048

In article activity of outstanding Russian scientist A.T. Bolotov in the field of agriculture is short stated. The contribution of the scientist to formation of domestic agrochemistry is shown. Progressive ideas in the field of a food of plants and their embodiment in practice are shined.

Keywords: history of agriculture, agrochemistry, agriculture, manure, compost, cattle breeding.