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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 14.12.2018
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2018 / Issue 6
Estimation of spatial variety of agrochemical parameters at current field
In the course of the work, a detailed agrochemical survey of the field with soddy-podzolic light loamy soil in the Minsk region of Belarus republic was carried out. On an area of 40 hectares, 143 samples were sampled using the regular grid method, 10 samples were selected additionally as a control. In the laboratory, the soil acidity, humus content, and mobile phosphorus and potassium compounds were determined by standard methods. To assess the variability of agrochemical indicators, the field was divided into elementary sites with an area of 6.0 and 2.5 hectares. It is shown that even in the elementary sections of 50 х 50 m, the heterogeneity of the basic agrochemical properties can’t be fully appreciated. In the course of the work, the possibility of constructing an interpolation model based on a dense grid of soil samples selection was evaluated.
Keywords: geoinformation systems, agrochemical soil survey, elementary sites, interpolation models, cross-validation, spatial analysis, Belarus republic.
Application of complex instrumental approach for cadmium determination in plants and products of crop cultivation
In conditions of distribution of organic farming, special attention is paid to the properties of crop production, suitable for the preparation of feed in organic livestock. The safety of such feeds is determined, among other things, by the content of toxic pollutants, like cadmium. At the present time, the normative documents relevant to the Russian Federation prescribe the determination of the content of this heavy metal using classical dry and/or wet ashing for sample preparation and AAS analysis. To solve this problem at a modern, essentially higher level, we proposed a comprehensive approach, including microwave digestion of samples and analysis by the AES-ICP method.
Keywords: cadmium, methods of determination, atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma, microwave digestion, plants, plant products.
Comparative estimation of chernozem soils at Middle Volga regions and Don river valley
The ecological assessment of some subtypes of the Middle Volga chernozem (for example, landscapes of JSC «Uchkhoz «Mummovskoye», Saratov region) and field agrolandscapes of the All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Sugar Beet in (Voronezh Region) within the watershed of the Voronezh and Don rivers is presented. The factors that determine the evolution of chernozems on plakors and above-floodplain river terraces of the Saratov region are revealed: climate aridization, droughts, fires, the formation of a «plow soles» in arable horizons, the use of «pure» fallows in crop rotations causing overheating of upper soil horizons and upward migration of water soluble salts and as a result, a more rapid alkalinization (and salting) is the degradation of chernozems.
Keywords: chernozem typical, ordinary and leached, agrolandscapes, Bolshoi Kolyshley, Don and Voronezh river valleys, parent rocks, evolution of chernozems, dehumification of chernozems.
Changes of physical-chemical soil properties under technogenic pressure (for example Krasnouralskiy industrial district)
The research in the area of action of the Krasnouralsky copper smelter plant on changes in the physical and chemical properties of soils with the allocation of the main zones of the degree of anthropogenic load, background, buffer, impact components are Considered, affecting the redistribution of ions in the soil-absorbing complex at different distances from the source of technogenesis. In the background zone, located more than 8 km from the plant, the natural geochemical processes due to the natural cycle of migration and distribution of elements in the soil profile prevail. At a distance of 4-8 km from the torch, in the buffer zone, with increased anthropogenic activity, acidity increases by an average of 1.5 pH. Gray-humus horizons are characterized by regressive-accumulative type of distribution of exchange cations and decrease of their share by 10% on average in the lower part of the profile, the transition to the transgression-illuvial type. In the impact zone, the pH decreases by 2-2.5 units. Due to the increase in acidity, the removal of calcium and magnesium exchange cations from the gray-humus horizons increases by 30% on average and increases in the illuvial by 40%. The distribution of the main components is characterized to a greater extent by progressive eluvial types. These processes occur as a result of the destruction of the mineral part of the soil, due to the high activity of acidic agents received from man-made streams of aerosol particles. The total buffering of the system is broken. Abundant flows of sulfate ions contribute to the extraction of metabolic cations associated with the soil-absorbing complex, disrupting the balance of nutrients in the soil.
Keywords: technogenesis, physical and chemical properties of soils, Krasnouralsky copper smelter plant, zones of technogenic pressure.
Dynamics of phytotoxicity of gray forest soil polluted by oil at application of sorbents
Phytotoxicity studies of oil polluted gray forest soil with sorbents have been carried out. A number of morphophobiometric parameters of plants were determined according to the degree of sensitivity to oil pollution: root length > root biomass > seedlings biomass > length of sprouts. The use of sorbents allowed to effectively reducing the oil phytotoxic effect. The phytostimulation of sorbents to the length and biomass of roots and sprouts at an average and strong level of oil contamination with the best indices for nanostructured bentonite was revealed.
Keywords: oil, gray forest soil, phytotoxicity, sorbents, nanostructured bentonite.
Fertilizer elements accumulationin sweet sorghum plants, depending on the feeding of nitrogen fertilizers on various grounds mobile phosphorus supply of soils
Three-year results of studies on the effect of fertilizers on the nutrients accumulation in sweet sorghum plants in the early and late stages of growth and development of sweet sorghum of Kazakhstanskoe 16 and Kazakhstanskoe 20 varietieson irrigated light chestnut soils of the southeast Kazakhstan are presented. The results of the research showed that the content of nutrients in sweet sorghum plants due to the fertilization with nitrogen fertilizers has changed significantly. The tendency of changes in the content of nutrients was preserved on both grounds of soil availability by mobile phosphorus and on varieties of sweet sorghum. The accumulation of nitrogen by sweet sorghum plants depended not only on nutritional conditions, but also on the biological characteristics of plants and the availability of soils with mobile phosphorus, while in Kazakhstanskoe 20 variety contained more nitrogen in the tillering phase with an average availability of 2.05-2.20%, and with increased availability in Kazakhstanskoe 16 – 2.23-2.31%. The content of nitrogen in harvesting was higher in grain in sweet sorghum varietiesand depended on the level of mobile phosphorussupply of soils. Against the ground of increased availability, the nitrogen content was 2.71 and 2.80%, and the average content was 2.56 and 2.65%, respectively, in Kazakhstanskoe 16 and Kazakhstanskoe 20 varieties. The effect of fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers was dependent on the availability of soils with mobile phosphorus. At the level of average availability, the increase in grain yield from doses of nitrogen fertilizers in varieties of sweet sorghum amounted to 8.1-12.2 c/ha, and with increased availability of 4.7-8.9 c/ha.
Keywords: sweet sorghum, variety, ground, nitrogen fertilizers, nutrients, yield.
Prospects of the use of complex agrochemical for differentiated its introduction as a means of growth management and plant development
The use of complex agro-adaptogens of the KAA series, intended for correction of growth and plant development, is considered. These fertilizers differed from all previous complex fertilizers in that their composition was determined by a multicomponent composition of various functional agents. With the action of fertilizers on plants, a synergistic effect was observed, which was provided by a new quality inherent in the ecosystem emergence. These fertilizers can be applied in the system of precise farming.
Keywords: complex agro-adaptogens, correction of plant growth and development, critical phases of ontogeny, precision agriculture.
Influence of polyfunctional fertilizers containing humic substances, amino-acids, macro- and microelements on yield and quality of spring and winter wheat
The results of field experiments of new multifunctional fertilizers with the inclusion of humic substances, aminoacids, macro- and microelements on spring and winter wheat are presented. The use of these fertilizers for application to the soil for presowing treatment or in top-dressing during vegetation provides activation of growth and form-building processes, increase plant resistance to negative environmental factors and diseases, increase yields and improve grain quality. Under the conditions of the Tambov region, the yield increase of winter wheat grain of the Viola variety was 5.8-26.0%. Under the conditions of the Ulyanovsk region, the yield increase of the grain of spring wheat of the Simbirtsit variety was 8.7-15.1%. The yield of spring wheat of the Arka variety under conditions of the Kurgan region increased by 6%. In the Ryazan region, the yield increase of spring wheat of the Daria variety was 8.2-29.2%.
Keywords: spring and winter wheat, humic substances, aminoacids, polyfunctional fertilizers, plant diseases, biological efficiency, yield, grain quality.
Agrochemical efficiency of glauconite for quality of spring barley grain
Data of long-term researches of application of glauconite-containing rocks on the leached Chernozem at cultivation of spring barley are presented. High efficiency of glauconites embedded in the soil on the background of nitrogen fertilizers is established. The positive effect of natural glauconite, both in action and in the aftereffect, on the quality of spring barley grain was revealed. The accumulation of protein in the year of direct action of agromineral was 13.3%, and in the aftereffect for the fourth and fifth years – 20.3% to the background. A positive effect of low dose (15 t/ha) of glauconite on the dynamics of nitrogen and protein in the grain of spring barley in the aftereffect for the fourth and fifth years was established. High dose – 20 t/ha, was less effective.
Keywords: glauconite, fertilizers, spring barley, grain, protein, yield.
Assessment of the impact of glauconite in consequence of the cultivation of sugar beet
The data of long-term studies of the use of glauconite-containing rocks in the cultivation of sugar beet in leached chernozem are presented. High efficiency of glauconites on a background of nitrogen fertilizers, confirmed by productivity of culture is established. The comparative analysis of yield and biochemical composition of root crops under the influence of glauconites in the second and sixth years of the experiment is given. An additional harvest of sugar beet in the aftermath of glauconite in the second year was 13.8 and 14.7 t/ha, and for the sixth year – 4.8 and 6.5 t/ha. The sugar content of root crops under the influence of agromineral increased: for the second year – by 8.2 and 11.5%, and for the sixth year – by 7.4 and 11.1%, respectively, doses of 15 and 20 t/ha to the background. The payback harvest from the use of glauconites in doses of 15 and 20 t/ha in terms of 1 t was: the second year – 1.16 and 0.91 t/ha, and the sixth year – 0.20 and 0.23 t/ha, respectively.
Keywords: sugar beet, glauconites, agromineral, mineral fertilizers, productivity, sugar content.
Evaluation of the action of biohumus and sapropel and their nanostructural analogues on the yield and quality of grease
Research has been carried out on the use of nanostructural suspensions of sapropel and biohumus in the cultivation of buckwheat. The nature and degree of influence of macro- and nanostructural suspensions on the yield and quality of buckwheat during their use for presowing seed treatment and foliar treatment of plants during the growing season, both in the form of separate suspensions, and in complex application are revealed. The most effective for increasing crop yields were variants with nanosuspensions of biohumus with sapropel and using biohumus for seed and plant treatments – 13.16 and 13.30 g/vessel, an increase to the background of 30.82 and 32.21% respectively. When using nano-vermicompost for seed treatment before sowing and foliar feeding of buckwheat plants, crop quality indicators increased: the protein content to 11.74%, nitrogen – to 2.04%.
Keywords: sapropel, biohumus, nanostructured suspension, mineral fertilizers, yield, grain quality.
Efficiency of nanostructured water-bentonite suspension for presowing seeds treatment
Investigations of biosafety and efficiency of using nanostructured water-bentonite suspension for precise seed treatment were conducted. There were established a biological safety of nanostructured water-bentonite suspension on 9 species of test plants at concentrations of 0.25-10.0 kg/t of seeds. The use of a nanostructured water-bentonite suspension promoted an increase the field germination of vetch and alfalfa seed to 90.0-91.0%, above-ground biomass to 1.15-1.22 kg/m2.
Keywords: nanostructured water-bentonite suspension, biosafety, vetch, alfalfa, yield of green mass.
Particularities of microfertilizers application for medicinal plants
The results of tests of chelated microfertilizers with different microelements composition and mechanism of action are presented on medicinal plants. Microfertilizers promote increase yields of medicinal raw and improvement of its quality. Studies have shown that it is advisable to use iron-containing microfertilizer Ferovit for increasing the yield of Atropa belladonna and Echinacea purpurea herb; usage of silicon microfertilizer Siliplant has a positive effect on the biological productivity of Echinacea purpurea (rhizomes with roots) and Ammi majus (fruits). Complex handling Echinacea plants by Siliplant with growth regulator Zircon provided an active growth of the root system and increased yield on 28-30%, the content of biologically active substances – 5-7%.
Keywords: microfertilizers, Macleaya cordata (Will) R. Br., Atropa belladonna L., Echinacea purpurea L., Ammi majus L., biologically active substances, plant-growth regulators.
Thesaurus as a reflection system of the state of subject area «Plant growth regulators»
The results of researches on development of new elements of industry-wide linguistic facilities allowing to form, structure databases and effective search in them are presented. The purpose of the work was to actualize the polythematic information retrieval thesaurus in agriculture and foods (IRT) with new lexis to provide exact description of domain areas, reflection of the content of documents, unified representation of data and indexing documents. The content of the IRT was enriched in terms of terminological area «Growth regulators» in hierarchic trees to make the description of the domain area full The IRT has been created since 1992, in 2018 its volume amounted to 51 thousand lexical items. During the research the terminology absent in the IRT was revealed, including for concepts that have already become firmly established in the modern science and practice in the domain area «Growth regulators». The lexical entry has been revised in terms of revealing, adding and verifying synonymy, paradigmatic relations, building hierarchic tree, status terms and their tags. The reflection of objects and relations of objects in this subject area in the CSAL IRT is presented. Lexical entries from the terminological area «Growth regulators» were revised and replenished in accordance with the modern scientific ideas of their structure and mechanisms of action. It is shown that the lexical entry «Growth regulators» comprised descriptors reflecting their modern classification. Conclusions are made that the creation and development of the CSAL IRT meet the current world level of development of thesauri; in the IRT the terminology relating to the domain area «Growth regulators» having a total volume of 288 lexical items fully enough reflected; the given lexical entries do not contradict with the modern classification of the growth regulators.
Keywords: plant growth regulators, terminology, information-search languages, thesauruses.
Microbiological activity and prooxidant effects of Eisenia fetida Savygni, 1826 in the field of nanoparticles of tungsten
The results of studying the influence of increasing concentrations of tungsten nanoparticles (10, 30, 90 and 120 mg/kg of dry matter) in artificial soil on the adaptive capacity of worms, microbiocoenosis of intestinal worms and soil before and after vermicultivation for 28 days are presented. Tungsten (W) nanoparticles of 50.7±0.3 nM were used, and the Z potential was 30.00±0.26 mV. A preliminary analysis of the biological activity of nanoparticles W in vitro was carried out in the inhibition test of bacterial bioluminescence. The EC50 toxicological parameter values indicated a high toxicity of nanoparticles W at low dosages with prolonged contact (0.05 M after 170 min., 0.0125 M after 180 min.). The introduction of similar doses of nanoparticles W into the substrate was accompanied by an increase in the biomass of the worm at doses of 30-120 mg/kg. The level of adaptation of the organism Eisenia fetida was expressed in the growth of activity of superoxidedismutase and decrease in the level of catalase depending on the dose load. The protein level increased throughout the range of dosages tested. At application of nanoparticles W in a dosage from 10 to 120 mg/kg bactericidal effect is fixed, in particular, decrease of soil microflora by 44.50-82.25%, intestinal microflora Eisenia fetida by 25.8-54.2%. In this regard, a nanoparticles of W in the primary phase acts as a catalyst for biochemical processes in the body of the worm, whereas as the W concentration increases, the bactericidal effect increases.
Keywords: nanoparticles of tungsten, Eisenia fetida, soil, catalase, superoxidedismutase, microorganisms.