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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 19.06.2017
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2017 / Issue 3
OUR GUEST – BRYANSK STATE AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY
Comparative assessment of various fertilizer systems in case of cultivation of winterrye in the conditions of radioactive pollution of the territory
Results of long experiment on studying of combined action of mineral and organic fertilizers on productivity and quality of grain of winter rye in conditions are provided it is radioactive the polluted soils of the southwest of the Bryansk region. Increase in doses of the introduced fertilizers promoted the reliable growth of productivity of grain of winter rye (by 1.5-2.2 times in relation to control) and to increase in protein content in it. Accumulating of macrocells in products practically didn't depend on the level of mineral food of plants, variability made 0.02%. The systems of fertilizer studied in experience promoted decrease in the amount of accumulating 137Cs in grain of winter rye. Specific activity of grain of winter rye on average for years of researches didn't exceed the standard rate and made 26-58 Bq/kg depending on system of fertilizer.
Keywords: winter rye, fertilizer systems, crop rotation, yield, seradella, radioactive pollution of soil.
Efficiency of solar energy use by winter wheat at different technologies of blasting
Presented are the results of studies to determine the efficiency of the use of solar energy in winter wheat crops cultivated according to various technologies on gray forest medium loam soil of the Bryansk region. It has been established that the FAR (photosynthetically active radiation) utilization factor can be improved by agrotechnical methods of cultivation, primarily by optimizing the mineral nutrition of plants. It is shown that the introduction of mineral fertilizers in intensive agrotechnologies contributed to a greater accumulation of solar energy in the biomass of sowing winter wheat Moscow 56 and Nemchinovskaya 57 in 1.8-2.0 times compared with the control. When growing winter wheat Moscow 56 and Nemchinovskaya 57 on a high background of mineral nutrition, in comparison with the control, the cost of solar energy per unit grain yield was reduced due to the formation of a higher yield of 5.75-6.36 t/ha of grain. Such an «economical» expenditure of solar energy on the economically valuable part of the planting biomass can be explained by an increase in the FAR use factor by crops to 2.8-2.9% on a high agrophic, compared with the control of 1.4-1.6%. Multiple correlation-regression analysis made it possible to reveal a close positive relationship between the yield of winter wheat grains and the values of the dry biomass of the sowing (r = 0.998), the total accumulated energy (r = 0.998), the FAR factor (r = 0.998).
Keywords: winter wheat, cultivation technologies, grain yield, solar energy, photosynthetically active radiation (FAR), the utilization factor of phased arrays.
Regularities of changes in someagrochemical properties of the Opolje arable soils of the Bryansk region
Experimental datas are presented that reveal the patterns of changes in some agrochemical properties of the Bryansk region soil in natural and agrarian ecosystems. It is established that the soils of natural ecosystems of closed castles of the opium differ substantially in morphogenetic features and agrochemical properties. The agrarian effect and its intensification significantly changes the upper part of the soil profile. In gray forest soils, humus content and cation exchange capacity decrease, density, exchange and hydrolytic acidity increase, the amount of exchange bases decreases. In the soil of an intensive agroecosystem, the removal of bases predominates. In gray forest soils with the second humus horizon the content of humus decreases, but the capacity of cation exchange in the agrarian horizon and some underlying horizons increases, soil density also increases. The exchange and hydrolytic acidity significantly decreases and the amount of exchange bases increases. The degree of accumulation of exchange bases is increasing. All this makes it possible to scientifically substantiate the strategy of rational use and protection of soil in the Bryansk region.
Keywords: agrochemical properties, soil of opolje, Bryansk region.
Productivity and quality of long-term herbsdepending on application of chemization means and agrotechnicalactions on the inundated meadow in the conditions of radioactive pollution
In long stationary experience influence of fertilizers and methods of handling of the soil on a harvest and quality of hay of long-term herbs is studied. It is established that productivity of natural herbage is low. Use of mineral fertilizers increased a harvest of hay of long-term herbs of a natural meadow of the 1st hay crop to 5,39 t/hectare. Carrying out radical handling of the soil (regular plowing) promoted more complete use of mineral fertilizers plants and, as a result, to growth of productivity and improvement of indicators of quality of a forage. The greatest productivity of hay in three years of researches is noted in N60Р60К90 option. Nitrogen fertilizers promoted increase in specific activity of hay of long-term herbs. Decrease in concentration 137Cs in hay caused use of potash fertilizers in consistently increasing doses.
Keywords: radical improvement, mineral fertilizers, natural herbage, regular plowing, crude protein, crude fat, carotene, nitrates, 137Cs.
Efficiency of fertilizers and Epin-Extra preparationon yields and grain quality of Lupinus angustifolius at radioactive contamination of agrocoenosis
The results of researches on the influence of mineral fertilizers and drug Epin-Extra on yield and grain quality of Lupinus angustifolius of the cultivar Crystal have been presented. The application of growth regulator Epin-Extra on the background of mineral fertilizers increases the grain yields of lupine on 0.19-0.42 t/ha (11.3-21.1%) has been shown. The mineral fertilizers, both at separate application, and in a complex with the drug Epin-Extra provided the increase in such indicators of the biochemical composition of grain, such as crude fiber, crude ash, crude fat, were reducing the specific activity of 137Cs in grain.
Keywords: Lupinus angustifolius, Epin-Extra, fertilizers, yields, grain quality, specific activity, 137Сs.
Influence of fertilizers and Gumistim biopreparation on productivity and quality of barley grain in conditions of radioactive pollution
Data of researches on studying of influence of different doses and combinations of mineral fertilizers are submitted, both at separate application, and in a complex with a biological product Gumistim on productivity and quality of grain of barley on it is radioactive to the polluted cespitose and podzolic sandy soil. It is shown what processing of crops of barley a biological product Gumistim against the background of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer provided increase in productivity of grain of barley on 0.33 t/ha (30,6%). Application medicine Gumistim against the background of full mineral fertilizer increases productivity of grain of barley on 0.33-0.65 t/ha (30.632.8%). The highest productivity (4.8 t/ha) and payback of 1 kg of NPK is received by a harvest increase (6.8 kg of grain) at complex application of a biological product Gumistim against the background of N120P90K180. Under the influence of mineral fertilizers and a biological product Gumistim the content of crude protein in barley grain increased, and indicators of biochemical composition of grain of barley (crude fat, crude cellulose, starch) decreased. Use of medicine Gumistim against the background of N120P60K180 provided the greatest frequency rate of decrease in specific activity of 137Сs (by 3 times) in barley grain in relation to control.
Keywords: mineral fertilizers, biopreparation Gumistim, barley, productivity, quality of grain, 137Сs.
Influence of fertilizers and Albit biopreparation on oat cultivation at radioactively polluted soil
In the field stationary experiment on soddy-podzolic sandy loamy radioactively contaminated soil, the influence of various fertilizer backgrounds, both in separate applications and in combination with Albit biopreparation, on the yield and quality of oat grain was studied. The results of three-year field experiments showed that the use of the Albit biopreparation provides an increase in the yield of grain compared to the control by 9%. The highest yield (2.45 t/ha) with a protein content of 13.8% was obtained using N90P90K150 with Albit biopreparation. Under the influence of the fertilizer systems studied, the content of raw fiber decreased and the content of raw fat and crude ash increased. Consistently increasing doses of potassium in NPK composition, both in separate application and together with Albit biopreparation, reduced the specific activity of 137Сs in oat grain by more than 2 times.
Keywords: oat, soddy-podzolic soil, mineral fertilizers, harvest, quality, 137Сs.
Application offertilizers and Gumistim biopreparation for winter wheat cultivation in conditions of agrolandscape radioactive pollution
The results of studies on the effect of Gumistim biopreparation on yield and quality of winter wheat of variety Moscow 39 on different backgrounds of mineral nutrition are presented. It is established that the studied factors significantly influenced the productivity and quality indicators of the grain of winter wheat. The application of Gumistim promotes an increase in yield by 20.4%, and depending on the background of fertilization from 33.5 to 126.3%. Application Gumistim on all backgrounds of fertilizer application provides an increase in the content of crude protein in the grain of winter wheat, and also noted the improvement of other physical and chemical parameters of the grain (the number of drops, the content of gluten). The complex application of chemization agents reduced the specific activity of 137Cs in the grain of winter wheat from 13.47 to 4.81 Bq/kg (60 Bq/kg).
Keywords: winter wheat, fertilizers, Gumistim biopreparation, yield, 137Сs.
ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Results of complex passportization of agricultural lands of southwestern districts of the Bryansk region polluted by radionuclides
The results of the complex passportization (2012-2015) of agricultural lands in south-western districts of the Bryansk region located on the territories affected by the Chernobyl accident are presented. It is established that the average density of 137Cs contamination in the last 20 years has decreased by an average of 1.5 times, more than 75% of previously withdrawn from land use territories can be returned to circulation by a radiological criterion. Despite the reduction in levels of radioactive contamination, more than 29% of 137Cs contaminated land remains in need of rehabilitation measures.
Keywords: passportization, Chernobyl accident, agriculture, radioactive contamination, Bryansk region.
Regularities of accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the «soil-plant» system in conditions of the urban environment
The article presents the results of soil studies and the dominant species of woody and herbaceous vegetation in areas near the roadside leaf highways for heavy metal content. Revealed the connection between the content of heavy metals in the soil and the degree of traffic congestion. The dependence of the content of heavy metals in the vegetation on their concentration in the soil. Election revealed the ability of certain types of plant organisms to the accumulation of heavy metals. The factors contributing to the accumulation of heavy metals urban vegetation.
Keywords: technogenic pollution, urban soil, urban vegetation, motor transport, heavy metals.
Influence of multi-purpose compost on agrochemical parameters ofsoil contaminated by heavy metals and quality of plant output
Evaluation of the effectiveness of multi-purpose compost (MPC) on soils subjected to technogenic pollution is presented. The influence of MPC usage on agrochemical soil indicators and quality of crop products with different levels of soil pollution with heavy metals (НМ). 3 variants of experience with different levels of soil pollution with heavy metals and different doses of MPC usage were developed. The pollutants were zinc, lead and copper. The most significant positive impact on concentration of Р2О5 и NO3-in soils was observed in the variant with dangerous pollution with HM on the background of usage of different KMP doses. The results of the experiment showed that MPC usage on soils polluted with heavy metals didn’t affect significantly their humification. Usage of increasing doses of MPC resulted in increase of yield in the experimental variants. The highest yield increase of 87% was observed in the variant with MPC introduction of 24 t/ha on the background of dangerous pollution of soil with HM. MPC usage allowed to overcome negative effects of HM on formation of protein and concentration of minerals in the herbage mixture. Concentration of copper, zinc and lead in the herbage mixture didn’t exceed phytotoxic level due to positive effect of MPC usage.
Keywords: multi-purpose compost, heavy metals, soil, perennial grasses, agrochemical parameters, yield.
Effects of oil pollution and meliorative additives on agrochemical properties of alluvial peat soils
The results of the impact a wide range doses of oil pollution (from 5 to 300 g/kg abs. dry peat), the joint application of limestone powder and compound mineral fertilizers on agrochemical parameters of alluvial peat soils. It was found that method for determining the oil content by means of n-hexane which is the most common in practice and determined by GOST, allows dislodge from contaminated peat on average only 15-25% of these compounds. It was revealed that medium and higher doses of oil pollution statistically authentically reduced ash content of peat, decreased in it the amount of exchangeable bases and the content of mobile forms of mineral nutrition elements. At the maximum dose of pollution (300 g/kg), decrease in ash content was 19-39%, the amount of exchangeable bases – 34-42%, mineral nutrients – 26-100%. These indicators proposed to use for assessing the degree of contamination peat soils with petroleum products. The use of limestone flour and mineral fertilizers, despite the dramatic improvement of chemical and physical-chemical properties of the contaminated peat soils, has not led to a significant increase rate of oil decomposition therein, so the remediation of such soils must also include measures to enhance their biological activity.
Keywords: oil pollution, peat soils, agrochemical parameters, remediation.
The testing of the environmental and economic assessment of land degradation
As a result of approbation of the methodology of the environmental and economic assessment of land degradation by J. von Braun, based on comparison of the economic indicators of agricultural production with sustainable land management and «traditional» land use, was established that reclamation works should be carried out on the territory of two agro-farms of the Moscow Region – Educational-Experimental Soil-Ecological Center of Lomonosov Moscow State University «Chashnikovo» (Solnechnogorsk district) and «Lukino» (Istra district).
Keywords: land degradation, ecosystem services, land restoration, cost of action/inaction.
System of informing on ecologically safe technologies in agroindustrial complex
The analysis of information resources content was done concerning issues of creation and use of ecologically safe technologies used in information services for scientists and specialists of AIC of the Russian Federation. A short qualitative and quantitative definition is given for different types and forms of current and retrospective informing through multichannel system of information services of innovative activity in AIC directed to ensuring the ecological safety in the country, in particular within the program for the current year of ecology. Importance of standardization of scientific terminology for increase in efficiency, completeness and accuracy of information support of scientific research and realization of their results in AIC branches, including the introduction of green technologies, is shown. High efficiency of information institutes cooperation in creation and use of corporate information resources and services is noted.
Keywords: ecological safety, ecologically safe technologies, agroindustrial complex, information resources, information technologies, terminology, CSAL.