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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 17.08.2016
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2016 / Issue 4
Heavy metals in soils and agricultural crops in Bashkortostan Republic forest steppe
In arable steppe soil of Bashkortostan Republic, the content of cadmium, lead and mercury in the last 10 years has increased by 60% or more, but is still well below maximum permissible concentrations. Maximum lead content has been detected in southern forest steppe at leached chernozem (13.5 mg/kg); cadmium – at grey forest soils – 0.57 and 0.63 in northern and north-eastern forest steppe; mercury – 0.25 mg/kg at light-grey light-acid soils in northern forest steppe. Content of lead and cadmium has increased double and more; lead – up to 60% during 10 years. When the organic-mineral fertilization system, the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and agricultural products within the sanitary norms, therefore quality of agricultural output meet requirements for meal production.
Keywords: agricultural soils, heavy metals, mercury, cadmium, lead, manure, green manure, mineral fertilizers, the balance of heavy metals.
Influence of soil cultivation on plow productivity in Lipetsk region
It presents the results of monitoring the fertility of arable lands of the Lipetsk region. In the re-examination results of agrochemical soil Lipetsk region have provided an average-of humus (5.7%), the average availability of phosphorus (99 mg/kg) and higher-assured of potassium (112 mg/kg). Dependence of arable land productivity by making mineral, organic fertilizers and chemical meliorants is presented. In 2015, it made 102 kg/ha of organic fertilizers, application reached 3.1 t/ha. Volumes held liming is not avoided the exclusion reduce the soil acidity, in the last 5 years applied about 100 kg/ha of CaCO3. Efficiency of arable land, respectively, increased from 1.4 to 3.0 tons of grain units/ha. Payback 1 kg nutrients (NPK) was 5.4 kg of standard grain (on arable land), providing 109% of the norm.
Keywords: monitoring, arable land, fertilizers, productivity, soil fertility, agrochemical characteristics.
Variation-static model of the dynamics mobile forms of copper and boron in soils agricultural lands of the Kaliningrad region
Natural and climatic conditions contribute to the Kaliningrad region relatively rapid change in some agrochemical soil properties. The content of mobile forms of trace elements is the dynamic factor. In order to identify the dynamics depending on the content of mobile compounds of boron and copper by changing acid-base properties, content of organic matter. A direct correlation between the change in the mobile boron content and the shift amount pHKCl, and back - between the change in the content of organic matter and rolling forest. The close correlation of dynamics of the content of mobile boron and hydrolytic acidity. Content of mobile copper in the soils of reference sites varied in different directions. An inverse correlation between the change in the content of the exchange of absorbed copper and organic matter.
Keywords: moving boron, copper, movable, soil agricultural landscapes, linear correlation, regression equation.
RESEARCH AND APPLICATION OF NON-TRADITIONAL ORGANIC FERTILIZERS
Nanostructured sewage sludge – highly-effective fertilizer-meliorant
Designed enzyme-cavitation method of bioremediation of waste water and deep processing of the resulting precipitate to the nanoscale. The method of creating different microcavitation medium for microorganisms, which ensure the destruction of organics. Nanostructured organic in processed sediment available plant roots and soil biota. The most important property of nanosediment – enormous sorption properties. When making such a pellet at a dose of 20 t/ha, high-arid conditions on light-brown soils are obtained high yields of winter wheat. Along with the precipitate was subject to field studies and deep primary tillage. The combination of deep chizel (37-40 cm) and the precipitate gives a good result, but the sediment is necessary to make the field on the surface of a layer of mulch. Due to this precipitate to accumulate sorption properties of air and atmospheric moisture. Also carried out experiments on the use of nanosediment in irrigated agriculture. To the residue was added natural meliorant - glauconite at a ratio of sediment and glauconite 10:1. It is found that the nanosediment sludge has versatile properties and water-saving solves the problem.
Keywords: sewage sludge, nanostructured sediment, sediment treatment, fertilizer, meliorant, sorption.
Influence of sewage sludge on fertility of leached chernozem and yield of spring wheat
Displaying the use of sewage sludge (WWS), a non-traditional fertilizers, while in a field experiment using SALT treatment plant in Naberezhnye Chelny the WWS-1 and WWS-2, passed a thermophilic anaerobic digestion process in digesters to pro-attraction 10-12 days at temperature of 53-55°C and dehydrated for 8 years in silt maps with drainage. Determination of metal content showed that the maximum performance in WWS-1 and WWS- 2 set for zinc. In WWS-2 content of this element is almost 3 times more than in WWS-1. It should be noted that WWS-2 content of almost all kinds of heavy metals is slightly higher than WWS-1, but in both types of values does not exceed the MPC. Studies on the effects of WWS on indicators of fertility of a leached chernozem Pre-Volga area Tatarstan Republic found that increasing the dose of WWS-1 and WWS-2 from 30 to 40 t/ha led to an increase in the content of mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium in the soil, marked increase in the amount of absorbed bases. Maximum grain yield of spring wheat (2.79 t/ha) was obtained in the variant with the WWS-2, with the introduction of a dose of 40 t/ha.
Keywords: sewage sludge, chernozem, soil fertility, spring wheat, yield.
Influence of non-traditional organic fertilizers on soil fertility and agroresource potential of alluvial soils in Arkhangelsk region
Non-traditional organic fertilizers made from waste isopropyl-industrial complex (bark, lignin) and livestock (cattle manure and poultry manure). The main method of producing fertilizer – bio-thermal compo-when insuring a thorough mixing of the mixture components. Studied their effect on the state of humus, acidity, water-physical and agrochemical soil properties, crop yields and agri-resource potential. It was found that application of fertilizer increases the content of humus on 0.15-0.27%, mobile phosphorus on 69-78 mg/kg soil, exchange potassium by 39-70 mg/kg of soil, and to reduce the density of the arable layer with 1.31-1.36 to 1.26-1.27 t/m3. Organic fertilizers, both in action and the aftereffect of contributed to the optimization of water-air regime, agrochemical parameters and yield of agricultural crops, which affected the increase of agri-resource potential of the soil at 31-32% in an average year.
Keywords: alluvial soils, soil fertility, humus, organic matter, bark, lignin, organic fertilizers, complex composts, Arkhangelsk region.
Influence of litter-lignin compost on properties and productivity of soddy-podzolic soil
In field stationary experiments on soddy-podzolic sandy soil in the conditions of the Komi Republic influence of various doses of litter-lignin compost on a harvest and quality of long-term herbs is established. The greatest harvests of hay are received when using PLK in a dose of 1000 t/ha, and also peat-litter compost in a dose of 200 t/ha. Quality of hay conformed to requirements of zootechnical science. It is noted that the high dose of PLK considerably increased the maintenance of a humus (to 6.32%) and mobile forms of phosphorus (to 1791.2) and potassium (to 350.1 mg/kg) in soddy-podzolic soil of a skilled site (in control the given indicators were: 2.77; 56.2 and 48.3 respectively).
Keywords: litter-lignin compost, lignin, dolomite powder, peat, litter, acidity, productivity, soil.
Change of soil potash status under influence of complex fertilizer based on natural zeolite and effluent livestock complexes
Zeolite-containing rocks, activated by a variety of processing techniques allow to use them in agriculture to improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, in plant - as highly meliorants and fertilizers, in animal husbandry - to improve the hygiene conditions of livestock farms. It was found that compound fertilizers obtained by saturating the zeolite rock sinks livestock farms are fertilizing value in improving the soil of mobile forms of potassium. At the same time the most efficient complex fertilizers have shown against the background of mineral fertilizers: the content of water-soluble potassium increased by 4, 18 and 25 mg/kg, exchangeable potassium on Maslova – 30, 49 and 118 mg/kg of soil, respectively increasing doses of complex fertilizer 10, 15 and 20 t/ha.
Keywords: soil potash status, zeolite, complex fertilizer, drains of livestock complexes, soil.
Effect of selenium on the productivity and quality of spring wheat under conditions of soil contamination with CAD
Effect of different methods of application of sodium Selenite on the yield and some quality indices of spring wheat varieties Zlata studied under conditions of soil contamination with cadmium. Installed that the greatest impact of selenium on the formation of grain productivity are more affected by presowing treatment of seeds and spraying of vegetating plants by sodium Selenite. In this case, when the seed treatment increased plant yield occurred as a result of increased attraversa ability of the ear, resulting in the improvement of the execution of kernels. When spraying vegetative plants revealed more and more bookmarks and the implementation of the reproductive organs that caused the growth in the number of kernels in ear. It should be noted that the indicators of quality of grain of wheat varieties Zlata largely influenced by the introduction of selenium in the soil. At the same time increased the contents of crude protein, indicating that the restoration processes of nitrogen in plants and its accumulation in grain as well as other processes productive use of nitrogen for protein synthesis.
Keywords: soil cadmium pollution, presowing seeds treatment, plant spraying, spring wheat, yield, quality.
Endogenous formation of nitrates in plants and role of some stress factors and selenium
The results of laboratory studies with triticale (X Triticosecale Wittm.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) sterile seedlings in Petri dishes proving the possibility of endogenous formation of nitrates in plant tissues and the influence of external factors on this process are shown. The physiological expediency of the reduced nitrogen compounds to nitrate forms playing an indispensable role in the plant development, in particular direct or indirect (through a nitrogen monoxide) effect of nitrate to the plant stress resistance is discussed. The increase of endogenous formation of nitrates was observed in triticale and wheat sterile seedlings changing from the effects of high concentration salt solutions and some other stress factors and the influence of selenium on this process. The increase of nitrate content was noted in triticale 7 old days sterile seedlings more than 8 times in stress free conditions. In additional the increase of nitrate content was shown in wheat sterile seedlings more than three times in stress free conditions. Our studies also showed that the decrease endogenous formation of nitrates in wheat sterile seedlings using selenium with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride respectively 35% and 4 times.
Keywords: triticale, wheat, stress factors, endogenous formation of nitrates, 15N-labeled substances, sterile crops.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Influence of root feeding of potassium fertilizers on seed production alfalfa
In the context of the Republic of Tatarstan alfalfa plants lack potassium, as in recent years, agricultural producers do not receive potash in its purest form. To increase the level of fruit alfalfa, effective method is the root feeding one of the following types of fertilizers: potassium sulfate, potassium-magnesium, potassium monophosphate, the rate of 50 kg/ha of active ingredient in the phase of budding plants. This increases the amount of beans and knotting normally developing seeds per pod 1.
Keywords: Seeds, alfalfa, fertilizer, potassium, yield, bean, root feeding.
Vladimir opolie agrogrey soils phosphorous potential buffer capacity and its relationship with mineralogical composition of the clay fraction
2NPK application reducing potential buffer capacity of soils, but it allows to support concentration of mobile phosphates at high level. 2NPK with manure application leads to reducing concentration of «reserved» phosphates forms, like in the control variant. In variants with moderate fertilizer application concentration of mobile phosphates, «reserved» phosphates forms and PBCP remains at a high level. Lime and manure application leads to the optimization of all parameters, except for the content of mobile phosphates – it is low. Fertilizer application increases the content of water-peptizationed clay and content of hydromicas, kaolinite and chlorite in it composition, but reduces content of mixed-layer minerals. Lime and manure application increasing concentration of aggregated clay.
Keywords: the effect of fertilizer application, long field experiment, phosphorus mobility factor, PBCP by K.E. Ginzburg, the total reserve of mobile soil phosphate, water-peptizationed clay, aggregated clay, x-ray diffractometrics.
Dynamics of nutrition elements in corn plants under the influence of foliar nutritions
The article analyzes influence of foliar nutritions biostimulant «Biostim Kukuruza» and microfertilizer «Intermag Pro Kukuruza» on the dynamics of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in plants corn in its cultivation of grain on leached chernozems of the Chuvash Republic. It is established that double processing of corn agroecosystem in phase 4-6 and 7-9 leaves biostimulant «Biostim Kukuruza» in doses 0,5; 1,0 and 1,5 l/ha and microfertilizer «Intermag Pro Kukuruza» in the dose of 1,5 l/ha, and also their combined use promote the maximum accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a phase of 10-12 leaves, exceeding values of control parameters. The difference of the defined indicators between the processed and raw plants has remained in phases of a ear formations, milky stages and wax ripeness. In a phase of full ripeness in the processed plants the content of nitrogen in cormophyte weight ranged from 0,73-0,85%, phosphorus 0,23-0,25%, potassium – 1,36-1,55%. Content of nitrogen in grain – 1,40-1,58%, phosphorus 0,38-0,45%, potassium – 0,55-0,65%. Thus, biostimulant «Biostim Kukuruza» and microfertilizer «Intermag Pro Kukuruza» allow to optimize mineral nutrition of crops, reducing their sensitivity to a lack of nutrients in the soil and realize the potential productivity.
Keywords: corn, foliar nutrition, mineral nutrition, biostimulant, microfertilizer.