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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 14.09.2015
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2015 / Issue 5
OUR GUEST BRYANSK STATE AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY
From agricultural school to university
Short historical sketch about formation of Bryansk State Agrarian University is presented. The main milestones of higher education institution history (from foundation of agricultural school with its teaching structure and material equipment, transition to a new step of development – technical school, transformation to institute, renaming into academy, obtaining the status of university) are described. Not only organizational statuses of higher educational institution are considered, but change of its teaching structure, ensuring educational and scientific process, life of students.
Keywords: foundation and formation history, agricultural school, technical school, institute, academy, university.
Influence of fertilizers on yield and quality of winter wheat
The influence of mineral fertilizers on productivity and crude gluten in winter wheat grain is considered in the article. It is established, that in comparison with the control variant the greatest productivity increase is received on the variant with N98P64K124 in autumn and two dressings (during the renewal of spring vegetation and in the beginning of the booting stage at the rate of N30. The given variant of the estimated mineral fertilization has ensured the planned productivity 5,6 t/ha with the crude gluten of over 28%. The quality of the crude gluten met the requirements for valuable wheat.
Keywords: winter wheat, mineral fertilizers, yield, quality.
Influence of humic and mineral fertilizers on yield of winter wheat
The article deals with results of research carried out in the conditions of the south-western part of the Central Non-chernozem zone. They show that humic and mineral fertilizers influence winter wheat productivity. It is found that the cultivation of winter wheat with Gumistim and sodium K-humate with microelements backgrounds N60P60K60 and N90P90K90 can increase significantly the amount of productive stalks, preservation of plants before harvesting and crop yields.
Keywords: grey forest soil, fertilizers, humic fertilizers, winter wheat, yield.
Application of supramolecular substances for crop cultivation
Application prospects of supramolecular substances in plant growing are discussed. It is noted that for their education it is expedient to use organic humic substances and clay fine minerals (zeolites, smektita) which are capable to self-organize with use of different types of communication. Their interactions lead to formation of the ensembles organized the supramolecular allowing to connect a large number of various molecules and ions. In field experiments it is established that use such supramolecular substances in the established dosages gives an essential positive effect at cultivation of a number of cultures on usual, intensive and biological technology, and also at cultivation of a ginseng.
Keywords: supramolecular substances, humic substances, clay minerals, positive effect in plant growing.
Complex application of Borofoska and fertilizers for legume-bluegrass mixture
The paper presents the results of the experiment on studying the effectiveness of complex using borofoska and nitrogen fertilizers on perennial legume-grass mixtures the third year of life. Making borofoska and ammonium nitrate can increase the productivity of legume-grass mixtures up to 50-65 t/ha of green mass for the three harvests. The best background of mineral nutrition for mixtures of clover with timothy grass, fescue grass and cock’s-foot grass can be considered the background P60K70 + N30, whereas for mixture with brome grass P105K120 + N30.
Keywords: perennial legume-grass mixtures, mineral fertilizers, productivity, borofoska.
Improvement of sorghum crops cultivation technology
In this article it is presented the results of improvement some elements of technology sorghum crops for fodder in the conditions of gray wooded in Non-Chernozem zone of Central Russia. There has been established of influence of albit and gumisol-M preparations, mineral fertilizers on productivity and quality of sorghum fodder mass. Practical recommendations of technology fodder sorghum are presented for agriculture in Bryansk region.
Keywords: sorghum crops, mineral fertilizers, albit, gumisol-M, productivity, cultivation technology.
Efficiency of actions on improvement of hay-makings yield
The studies revealed that the natural fertility of soil doesn’t allow to obtain high yields of hay of perennial grasses.
Use of mineral fertilizers increases yield of hay first mowing to 6,23 t/ha and 3,16 t/ha of the second. Agrotechnical
measures increase the potential productivity of hayfields 20% in the first and 15% in the second cut.
Payback addition of hay yield of perennial grasses above a superficial or radical improvement of meadows. Established that the most radical improvement to gain payback harvest hay first mowing require less mineral fertilizer than a superficial improvement.
Keywords: system of fertilizer, superficial and radical improvement, efficiency of long-term herbs, natural fodder grounds, payback.
Efficiency and quality of one-specific and mixed forage crops in conditions of radioactive pollution
Results of researches on cultivation of the one-specific and mixed crops of annual fodder herbs are presented on sandy radioactive polluted soil. It is shown that from one-specific crops the maximum level of productivity of green material distinguished a yellow lupine. Cereal forage crops (oats, ryegrass one-year, Sudanese grass) on the level of productivity conceded to a yellow lupine depending on an background by 1,5-3,7 times. From the mixed crops of a lupine with cereal cultures the greatest efficiency distinguished mixes (lupine + Sudanese grass and lupine + millet). Consistently increasing doses of potassium (К180 and К210) had rather weak impact on increase in productivity both the one-specific, and mixed crops of forage crops, but considerably raised the maintenance of protein in a stern. Under the influence of potash fertilizer receipt 137Cs on a crop of green material decreased. The guaranteed receiving green material both the one-specific, and mixed crops of the forage crops corresponding to the standard for the contents in them 137Cs provides introduction of potash fertilizer in К210 dose.
Keywords: forage crops, productivity, the one-specific and mixed crops, quality, radioactive pollution.
Influence of different agricultural pressure on physical properties of agro grey forest soil
On grey forest soils of the Bryansk Opolie shows that agricultural processing will fundamentally alter the physical state of soil, leading not only to reduce the content of agronomically valuable aggregates, but also reduce their water stability. This is accompanied by the reduction of soil expansibility and primarily should be explained by reduce of the content of humus compared to non-tilled place. Complex soil cover composed of the soils with contrasting humus content does not clearly extract the role of specific soil treatment, however, the change sequence forest-field-permanent treatment are clear.
Keywords: grey forest soil, soil physical properties, soil treatment.
Efficiency of herbicides for spring wheat sowings
In the field stationary experiment on the gray forest loam soil studied the species composition and abundance of weeds in spring wheat varieties Irene and the effectiveness of the use of modern herbicides and their impact on productivity. It was found that the use of herbicides contributed to a significant decrease in the number and air-dry biomass of weeds. Therefore, the use of plant protection chemicals has provided a stable increase grain 0,27-0,93 t/ha. However, the main economic indicators (production cost, net income and profitability of grain production) were the best when using a herbicide Ballerina normal 0,3 l/ha.
Keywords: spring wheat, herbicides, economic efficiency, yield.
Results of agroecological monitoring at reference areas in Ivanovo region
The article presents the results of long-term observations of soils, vegetation, precipitation and surface waters on 12 benchmark sites in different soil-climatic zones of the Ivanovo region.
Keywords: soil, monitoring, fertility, heavy metals, toxicants, radiation conditions.
Economic efficiency of mineral fertilizers in Republic of Northern Osetia – Alania for agricultural crops cultivation
Article results calculations of economic efficiency of mineral fertilizers for cultivation of agricultural crops at different soil types in Republic of Northern Osetia – Alania. Established that highest income has been gathered at potato cultivation in spite of high cost of fertilizers.
Keywords: mineral fertilizers, harvest increase, cost of fertilizers, cost of output, profitability, net income.
Zinc in agricultural soils of Kaliningrad region
The content of total and mobile zinc was defined in parent rocks and soils of agricultural landscapes of the Kaliningrad region. The dependence of the availability of farmland soil by zinc from the particle size distribution, agrochemical properties of soils, range and volume of application of mineral fertilizers. Prepared recommendations on the use of zinc micronutrients.
Keywords: zinc gross, mobile zinc, parent rocks, soil, correlation.