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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева, М.В. Царева, к.с.-х.н.
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., И.И. Дмитревская, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., С.Ю. Зайцев, д.б.н., д.х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., М.Г. Мустафаев, д.с.-х.н. (Азербайджан), С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Р. Рыспеков (Казахстан), к.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н., О.Х. Эргашева, к.б.н. (Узбекистан)
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Подписано в печать: 11.10.2011
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2011 / Issue 5
ANNIVERSARY OF MOSCOW SCIENTIFIC-RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURE «NEMCHINOVKA»
Soil quality and fertility of experimental fields of Moscow scientific-research institute for agriculture «Nemchinovka»
Particularities of soil surface and soil fertility of forming experimental fields of Moscow scientific-research institute for agriculture «Nemchinovka» are presented in article. Near occurrence of underlying waterproof layer which lead to temporary surplus dampening and uneven soil maturing at unfavourable elements of relief in spring is noticed. Soils have different parameters of agrochemical parameters, particularly phosphorous and potassium, pH and hydrolytic acidity. All experimental field doesn’t affected by technogenic pollution.
Keywords: soil, fertility, experimental fields.
Influence of nitrogen topdressing on harvest, quality and profitability of winter wheat of new generation
Efficiency of nitrogen top-dressings of winter wheat of four new varieties of Moscow scientific-research institute for agriculture «Nemchinovka» is presented in article. Increase of yield, albumin and gluten concentration can provide harvest of high quality in Non-chernozem regions.
Keywords: winter wheat, doze, nitrogen top-dressing, variety, yield, albumin, gluten.
Influence of growing technology on yield and quality of brewery barley
Established that brewery barley variety Nur exceeds by yield and grain quality varieties Raushan and Vladimir and foreign variety Annabel doesn’t have and advantages in compare with Nur.
Keywords: brewery barley, variety, technology, basic, intensive, high-intensive, sowing rate, yield, grain quality.
Efficiency of mineral fertilizers for grain crop varieties of intensive breeding type
Profitability of the mineral fertilizers at grain crops production for more than a half-century period is given. Role of grain crops breeding in increase of mineral fertilizers economic efficiency is presented. It’s shown that modern varieties of Moscow scientific-research institute for agriculture «Nemchinovka» provide high profitability of fertilizers at the rate of Western Europe.
Keywords: grain crops, varieties, breeding, profitability of fertilizers.
Microelements in the intensive grain crops production
In the intensive technologies of cultivation of grain cultures on background of the optimum doses of mineral fertilizers and herbicides used processing seeds and vegetative plants in trace elements and humic preparations. The results of field experiments with spring barley, winter and spring wheat are indicative of reliable positive influence of the joint using trace elements and humic preparations on harvest, mass of 1000 seed and contents in grain of protein nitrogen. The positive effect was more expressing under disadvantage weather conditions at period vegetation – raised temperature and defect of moisture in the soil.
Keywords: microelements, humic preparations, intensive technologies, grain crops.
Agrochemical means in technologies of cultivation of grades of winter crops and productivity
Results of long-term researches on application agrochemical means (fertilizer, pesticides) are resulted at technologies of cultivation of winter grain crops. High efficiency of application of recommended dozes of mineral fertilizers and means of protection of plants from wreckers, illnesses and weeds that provides productivity of new grades of a winter wheat, a rye and triticale at a level 6-8 t/ha is established.
Keywords: grain crops, technologies, productivity, quality.
Optimization of oat nitrogen nutrition in crop rotations in Central Non-Chernozem Zone
Parameters of soil and oats nitrogen supportability for sod-podzolic soil were found during long term stationary field experiment aiming the yield and grain quality provided with different grade based on current humidity conditions in the centre of Non-chernozem zone of Russia.
Keywords: sod-podzolic soil, nitric nitrogen, oats, total nitrogen in plant, nitrogen fertilizers, diagnostics.
Efficiency of new complex fertilizers under radioactive pollution
Study of agrochemical and anti-radiation efficiency of new complex fertilizers in long-term period experiment of sodpodzolic soil, polluted by radionuclides. Essential increase of yield and double decrease of radio-caesium concentration in plants were established.
Keywords: complex fertilizers, anti-radiation barriers, specific soil activity, radio-caesium accumulation, productivity of crop rotation chain.
Results and perspectives of determinant lupine narrow-leaved varieties
We conducted comparative study of determinate lupine grade Ladny with usual branchy grades Nemchinovsky 846 and Kristal with new determinate grades of Dikaf 14, Deco and Fasan.
Lupine grades favorably differed from peas grades under the lysine maintenance in grain, had higher indicators of the maintenance of a cellulose and fat, and at peas there were much more nitrogen free extractive substances, as has led to affinity between cultures and grades of indicators of exchange energy.
Keywords: lupine narrow-leaved, determinant, variety, sideration.
Efficiency of new generation fungicide Zenon Aero in winter rye crops
There has been studied the influence of different norms of a systematic polycomponent fungicide of new generation – Zenon Aero against the complex of leaf-steam diseases on winter rye crops of Tatyana variety in the conditions of Non-Chernozem regions. We have obtained experimental data that decrease of fungicide norm by 20-30% comparing with the recommended one doesn’t considerably affect the toxicity of the preparation against leaf-steam diseases.
Keywords: winter rye, fungicide, application doses, types of diseases, enumeration terms, intensity of disease development, grain yield.
Soil fertility condition in Tver region
There have been traced the dynamics of chemization remedies’ application in agriculture of Tver region and assessed the balance of nutritive substances in soil during 1990-2009. There are given the results of the basic soil fertility parameters’ changes as well as their interconnection with farming cultures’ productivity.
Keywords: mineral fertilizers, soil fertility, agrochemical examination, yield, balance of nutritive substances.
Liming of acid soils at resource saving technologies of it treatment
Comparative investigation of different applying lime fertilizers types and dozes at resource saving technologies of soil treatment in two stationary experiments is presented.
Keywords: liming, acid soils, resource saving technologies, soil treatment, applying types and dozes, lime fertilizers.
The change of agrochemical properties of automorph forest steppe soils in Prisalairya
In long-term supervision on reapers zones of local monitoring the decrease of the humus maintenance in an arable layer of grey wood soil and leached chernozem is established. At the same time in a grey wood soil it is noted decreasing of the maintenance of exchange potassium in leached chernozem – of movable phosphorous.
Keywords: grey wood soil, leached chernozem, humus, acidity, movable phosphorous, exchange potassium.
SOIL PROPERTIES AND FERTILITY
Biological toxicity of grey forest soil depending on the fertilizers system
Introduction of high portions mineral fertilizers (350-390 kg of reactants a year; 1335 kg of those reactants for crop rotation) in grey forest soil for 10-12 years results in increased level of soil phytotoxicity.
It will be introduction of humus in proportions of 60 and 80 tons/hectare with the intensive utilization of mineral fertilizers eliminates negative processes and reduces absolute values of toxicity from 20-23% to 4-7%.
Keywords: fertilizers, dozes, long-term use, phytotoxicity, microbiocoenosis of soil, mycotoxicity, microbe toxicosis.
Change of agrochemical and biological parameters of light-grey forest soil in dependence of it use
It is established that soils of one subtype essentially differ on a number of physical and chemical and biological parameters depending on character of use of sites. In a greater degree with agrochemical properties correlates nitrification ability and number of fungus microflora. Improvement are positively influences the maintenance of a bacterial pool and nitrification ability of soils and it is negative on catalase activity and quantity of microscopic fungus.
Keywords: soil, agrochemical and biological properties, land use, correlation dependence.
Nitrate mode of leached chernozem at different ways of fertilizer
The effectiveness of methods of fertilizer application on an annual basis directly dependent on the stock of productive soil moisture and rainfall during the growing season. Fertilizer dose N35P42K30, increasing the mineralization of organic matter and soil nitrogen, reduce it to 2-3 times the nitrogen deficiency in obtaining 25-28 t/ha of wheat and maintain high levels of nitrate nitrogen. Action splash and row application of fertilizers on the value of the yield of spring wheat was the same. Therefore, from an economic point of view of fertilizer for wheat it is expedient to make in rows with the seed at sowing.
Keywords: nitrate mode, leached chernozem, methods of fertilizer application, critical moisture, reserves of productive moisture.
Influence of spring wheat predecessors and nitrogen fertilizers on the nutritive regime of irrigated soils
There has been studied the influence of spring wheat predecessors and nitric fertilizers on the nutritive regime of alluvialmeadow soils of Mesopotamia plain of Iraq while irrigation on the accumulation of dry mass of vegetative remains and the content of nutritive substances in the same. The estimation of dry mass’ content in the root remains and the content of nutritive substances in the same depending on the predecessor and nitrogen doses is given.
Keywords: soil, irrigation, dry mass, nutrients, nitrogen doze, predecessor, spring wheat.