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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева, М.В. Царева, к.с.-х.н.
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., И.И. Дмитревская, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., С.Ю. Зайцев, д.б.н., д.х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., М.Г. Мустафаев, д.с.-х.н. (Азербайджан), С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Р. Рыспеков (Казахстан), к.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н., О.Х. Эргашева, к.б.н. (Узбекистан)
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2023 / Issue 3
Phosphorous and it’s content in «Soil – Plant – Fertilizer» system
An analysis of the results of a study on the presence of phosphorus in the «soil – plant – fertilizer» system based on experimental and literary sources showed that the assimilation of phosphorus from fertilizers and soils by the root system of plants occurs in the form of the Н2РО4- anion. Absorption occurs in an acidic environment, which is created by plant root secretions and fungal association. In soils with a neutral and alkaline reaction of the soil solution, in the presence of calcium and iron cations, Н2РО4- anions pass into insoluble forms that are inaccessible to plants, both from the soil and from phosphorus-containing fertilizers. It is proposed to introduce the designation of the quantitative content of phosphorus in soil, plants, fertilizers and water in the form of the symbol P, instead of Р2О5.
Keywords: phosphorous, soil, plant, fertilizer, term, P, Р2О5.
Monitoring of mobile (sulfate) sulfur content in soils of arable land under conditions of the north-west, west and south-west of the Novosibirsk region
Along with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, sulfur is an essential element for plant nutrition, their development, the formation of additional yields and the improvement of the quality of many crops. The lack of sulfur in agrocoenosis can be one of the significant factors limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. Under the conditions of the north-west, west and south-west of the Novosibirsk region, an assessment of the state of arable land soils according to the content of mobile sulfur (sulphate) is given. It is shown that most of the surveyed soils (59.1-64.6%) are characterized by an average content of mobile sulfur; high levels of the content of this mesoelement were noted on 28.2% of the surveyed area in the conditions of the west of the region, the southern forest-steppe Baraba agrolandscape region (Tatar administrative region). An analysis was made of the use of mineral sulfur-containing fertilizers in 14 districts of the Novosibirsk region for 2020-2021. For spring wheat, fertilizers were used for 7.5%, for barley – for 6.4, for oats – for 0.7, for rapeseed – for 72.1% of the total sown area of these crops. The amount of applied mineral fertilizers for wheat was 8.6 kg/ha, for barley – 11.1, for oats – 6.1, for rapeseed – 33.3, for peas – 8.7 kg/ha of active substance, which is not enough to replenish the removal sulfur with the harvest.
Keywords: mobile (sulfate) sulfur, agrolandscape area, sulfur-containing fertilizers.
Optimal agrochemical indicators of soddy-podzolic soils fertility in the Vologda region
Based on long-term observations of changes in the main indicators of soil fertility, a method for determining the optimal content of mobile phosphorus and potassium (according to Kirsanov), acidity (pHKCl) and organic matter in soddy-podzolic soil is proposed. In the natural conditions of the Vologda region, the following optimal fertility values were determined for the arable layer of soddy-podzolic soils, which occupy more than 80% of the arable area: acidity 5.7 units, the content of mobile phosphorus 157 mg/k g, mobile potassium – 132 mg/k g, organic matter – 2.47%.
Keywords: optimal fertility indicators, soil fertility coefficient, soddy-podzolic soil, yield.
SOIL PROPERTIES AND FERTILITY
Particularities of humic compounds transformation in soddy-podzolic soil under agrogenic pressure in the Komi republic
In a long-term stationary experiment (since 1978) on soddy-podzolic light loamy soil, the effect of organic and mineral fertilizers, as well as their combined use, on the balance and fractional-group composition of humus was studied. It has been established that the use of mineral fertilizers against the background of a high dose of peat-manure compost increased the humus balance to the greatest extent (+1.34-1.39 t/ha per year) and its quality. Under the influence of the complex use of fertilizers in high doses, the ratio of Cha : Cfa increased from 1.39 to 1.53. Type of humus changed from humate-fulvate (Cha : Cfa ratio = 0.5-1.0) to fulvate-humate (Cha : Cfa ratio = 1.0-1.5). Systematic application of various fertilizer systems contributed to transformation of fractional-group composition of humus in soddy-podzolic light loamy soil while maintaining characteristic zonal genetic features.
Keywords: humus, humic acids, fulvic acids, peat-manure compost, organic and mineral fertilizers.
Organic matter of arable soils of the Smolensk region and its transformation under influence of factors of agricultural intensification
The dynamics of the humus content in the arable soils of the Smolensk region on the tour of the examination, as well as an assessment of the action of soil lime and fertilizers for the humus content and the yield of agricultural crops, is shown. The low humus content of soddy-podzolic soils of the Smolensk region is due to an acidic reaction of the soil solution, insufficient introduction of organic fertilizers, a sharp reduction in area with perennial legumes, and crop rotation. The intensification of the agriculture of the Smolensk r egion is associated with an increase in the volume of organic fertilizers, an increase in space under perennial legumes grasses and legumes crops, and the cultivation of various intermediate cultures for food and sideration. The use of «supporting» doses of mineral fertilizers and periodic lime, allow you to maintain the achieved level of humus content at 2.12% and with the systematic use of data from agricultural technologies – to exceed it.
Keywords: humus, nutrients, density, soil structure, microorganisms, water-physical properties, crop rotation.
Determination of the functional state of soil organic matter by chemodestruction methods of fractionation
Content and reserves of organic matter in soils are main criteria for assessing soil fertility. One of the integral indicators characterizing the state and functioning of soil organic matter (SOM) is the ratio of stable and labile forms of organic compounds obtained by chemodestructive analysis. The determination of the bichromate oxidizability of SOM showed that the virgin soils of the Southern Cis-Baikal region contain an equal amount of stable and labile forms of organic compounds. Accordingly, SOM in them is a stable and balanced system in relation to external influences. Plowing led to a significant decrease in the easily and hardly hydrolysable humus fractions. In the fallow areas, the upper part of the humus horizon, in terms of the ratio of SOM fractions, approaches virgin soils, and the lower part approaches the arable horizons of agricultural soils. The method of permanganate oxidizability of SOM revealed a noticeable enrichment in easily oxidizable forms of virgin and, especially, fallow soils of the region. Compared to them, agrosoils contained noticeably less labile humus, which indicates a sharp decrease in their fertility.
Keywords: soil organic matter, easily oxidizable SOM, hardly oxidizable SOM, bichromate oxidizability of humus, permanganate oxidizability of humus, the Irkutsk region.
Influence of primary tillage methods on soil fertility in spring barley cultivation
The results of studying the effect of the following primary tillage methods (plowing with a formation turnover, 20-22 cm deep, combined tillage (disking + chisel, 20-22 cm deep), surface tillage (disking up to 8 cm deep), direct sowing) on agrochemical indicators of typical chernozem fertility, under the soil and climatic conditions of Kursk Region under spring barley are presented. The tendency to acidification of the soil during the applica tion of plowing and direct sowing pHKCl from 5.5 to 5.2, and an increase in the content of exchangeable calcium during combined and surface treatments was revealed. It was found that with a decrease in tillage depth, the content of humus in the soil increased by 0.04-0.13%, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen by 2.9-3.8 mg/kg, mobile phosphorus by 33-43 mg/kg, mobile potassium by 26-34 mg/kg. When soil cultivation was minimized, the degree of mobility of phosphorus (by 0.200-0.247 mg/l) and potassium (by 1.73-2.30 mg/l) increased. There was a tendency to an increase in the nitrate content against the background of combined tillage by 0.07-0.12 mg/100 g, and a decrease of its amount during direct sowing by 0.3-0.12 mg/100 g, compared with other methods of primary tillage. A decrease in ammonium nitrogen in the soil in case of plowing and direct sowing relative to combined and surface treatments by 0.08-0.17 mg/100 g was found. When tillage was minimized, differentiation of soil fertility by layers was observed with the accumulation of humus, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen, mobile phosphorus and potassium in the upper 0-10 cm layer, and the greatest degree of differentiation was manifested in direct sowing.
Keywords: plowing, combined tillage, surface tillage, direct sowing, soil fertility, fertility differentiation.
Experience in assessing the neutral balance of land degradation of test facilities in the Vladimir region
The purpose of the research was to test various options for the methodology of neutral balance of land degradation (NBDZ) for arable land in the Vladimir region at three hierarchical levels of its administrative and economic structure (the region as a whole, the Suzdal municipal district and the agricultural farm of the FSBSE «Verkhnevolzhsky Federal Agrarian Scientific Center». The estimated period is from 2003 to 2019. Based on the default installations (standard methodology) laid down in the Trends. Earth platform, it was found that the share of improved land exceeds the share of degraded land both for the level of the Vladimir region as a whole and for the level of the Suzdal municipal district, which indicates sufficient stability of the functioning of the arable land of these test facilities. The use of an adapted method for calculating the NBDZ index of the Vladimir region showed a deterioration in the values of the used agrochemical indicators (acidity, content of humus, mobile forms of phosphorous and potassium) of soils for all test objects (at hierarchical levels of the administrative and economic structure). At the same time, this deterioration of a particular soil property was often observed in the optimal range of values.
Keywords: soil and land degradation, neutral balance, agroexhaustion, productivity, arable land , sustainable development of agriculture.
Characteristics of soddy-podzolic soils humus horizons formed in metropolitan area conditions, on the example of the Forest experimental station of the Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
The paper presents the two-year results of a study of the humus horizons of soddy-podzolic soils from permanent sample plots at the Forest experimental station of the Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timirya- zev Agricultural Academy. In seasonal dynamics (spring, summer, autu mn) we determined the values of actual and hydrolytic acidity, the content and group composition of humus in the soils of four sample plots of the Forest experimental station of the Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. A statistical analysis of the patterns of change in these indicators depending on the species and quantitative ratio of species in the stand was carried out. The dependence on the composition of the stand of such soil indicators as the thickness of the humus horizon and humus content, the values of actual and hydrolytic acidity, in the seasonal dynamics of the group composition of humus was revealed. Statistical indicators show a strong heterogeneity and heterogeneity of the soil cover by the determined indicators.
Keywords: forest soils, soddy-podzolic soils, soil organic matter, humus, group composition of humus, season- al dynamics.
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Efficiency of gray forest soil liming when cultivating corn for silage in Pre-Baikal region
The results of studies on the effect of liming on reducing the acidity in gray forest soil and the yield of corn green mass have been presented. The research was carried out in 2019-2021 in the alternating crop rotation: corn, barley with clover later sown, clover, wheat under conditions of Pre-Baikal region. It has been found that as a result of systematic application of lime for corn sowing (from 2001 to 2020 at the rate of 0.5 Hg, from 2021 at the rate of 0.25 Hg), the acidity of gray forest soil decreased (pHKCl 5.7-6.3; hydrolytic acidity 1.8-3.0 mg-eq/100 g of soil; the degree of base saturation was 91.6-95.1%). The yield increment from lime use was in 2019 – 1.1-2.2 t/hа (3-7%), in 2020 – 2.7-4.1 t/hа (8-12%), in 2021 – 2.5-3.6 t/hа (8-13%). The maximum yield of green mass in the trial (in 2019 – 39.8, in 2020 – 42.0, in 2021 – 32.1 t/ha) was obtained on the background of lime application and N60P30K60.
Keywords: corn, lime, mineral fertilizers, yield.
Use of poultry manure in organic agriculture
The possibility of using poultry manure as an organic fertilizer in the cultivation of winter wheat in organic agriculture in the Republic of Tatarstan is presented. The technology for obtaining fertilizer consists in introducing 461 ml of Mefosfon per 1 ton of chicken manure. The analysis of winter wheat variety Skipetr ES carried out at the end of the experiment, showed the promise of using poultry manure treated with Mefosfon for the safe cultivation of winter wheat suitable for the production of bakery products. The use of the Mefosfon preparation is relevant, since it accelerates the enzymatic reaction in chicken manure, helps to increase the tillering coefficient by 7%, provides higher yields (4.2-4.3 t/ha), and also helps to significantly reduce the unpleasant odor entering the environment. According to the analysis of grain quality, it was revealed that the products grown on the site using compost treated with Mefosfon were better than in the control in terms of such indicators as vitreousness (by 16-28%), the content of raw and dry gluten (by 5.2-5.6 and by 1.92-2.42%, respectively), the falling number (by 53 units).
Keywords: bedless poultry manure, Mefosfon, winter wheat, organic agriculture.
Influence of liquid organic-mineral fertilizers on yield and qualitative parameters of potato varieties
The results of studies on the use of liquid organic-mineral fertilizers of domestic production on potato crops in the mountainous zone of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic are presented. The analysis of the studies showed that the productivity of potatoes directly depends on the studied varieties, correlates with the length of the growing season, and the liquid organic-mineral fertilizers used for foliar feeding, and differed significantly depending on the year of the studies. On average, for 2020-2022, the maximum potato yield was recorded for the Goryanka variety and varied in the range from 37.5 t/ha in the control to 42.6 t/ha in the experimental variants using liquid organic-mineral fertilizer Polydon Bio Profi. For the Osetinskiy variety, the average yield for 2020-2022 was 25.1-25.9% lower than that of the Goryanka variety. The highest yield was noted in the experimental variants with the use of Polydon Bio Profi and was equal to 31.6 t/ha. For the Kislovodsky variety, the yield was 22.4-22.8% less than the value of this indicator for the Goryanka variety. Maximum yield was established in the variant with the use of Polydon Bio Profi (32.9 t/ha). The content of starch for the variety Goryanka on average over research varied from 12.4% in the control (water) and in the variant of the experiment using the liquid organic-mineral fertilizer Biostim Universal to 12.3% in the variant using Polydon Bio Profi as a foliar application. The value of the content of ascorbic acid in the variety Goryanka on average over research varied in the range from 15.3% in the control (water) and the variant using Biostim Universal to 15.6% in the variant of Polydon Bio Profi as a foliar application. On average, for 2020-2022, the concentration of nitrates in potato tubers under experimental conditions for the Goryanka variety varied in the range of 138.4 mg/k g in the control and 144.3 mg/k g in the variant with the use of Polydon Bio Profi.
Keywords: potatoes, liquid organic-mineral fertilizers, productivity, quality, the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic.
Features of winter wheat crop formation when using Hardy growth regulator
An assessment of the biological effectiveness of the use of the new Hardy growth regulator in winter wheat crops of the Alekseich variety is given. The research was carried out in production conditions in «Consent» LLC in the Lipetsk region and «Maxim» LLC in the Voronezh region. In the conditions of insufficient humidification of the growing season of 2021, the use of a growth regulator of the Hardy type in the technology of cultivating winter wheat Alekseich did not lead to a significant decrease in plant height, only a tendency to decrease in height by 2-3 cm was not-ed. With sufficient moisture in 2022, the use of Hardy's drug at a dose of 0.40 l/ha at the beginning of the growing season stimulated growth, increasing the height of plants by 1.9 cm compared to the control variant. But already by theearingphase,plantgrowthsloweddown,andatadoseofHardy0.30l/ha,plantheightdecreasedby 2.7 cmand at a dose of 0.40 l/ha – by 4.5 cm compared to the option without treatment. Under the conditions of this year, the use of the Hardy drug stimulated the development of an ear of winter wheat. When using Hardy's drug at a dose of 0.30 l/ha, the length of the ear increased by 0.5 cm, and at a dose of 0.40 l/ha – by 1.3 cm or 15.7% compared to untreated plants. Treatment with the Hardy preparation in 2021 increased the total by 45.0-46.4% and the productive bushiness of winter wheat by 38.8-40.1%. At the same time, the length of the ear increased by 0.5-0.6 cm, the number of spikelets in the ear – by 0.4-0.6 pieces and the number of grains in the ear – by 1.8-2.3 pieces. An increase in the number of grains led to an increase in the weight of grain from the ear by 0.7-0.8 g and an increase in the yield of winter wheat by 27.4-28.0 c/ha. In the conditions of 2022, treatment with the Hardy preparation did not have a noticeable effect on the bushiness of winter wheat, only a tendency to decrease it when using Hardy by 8.8 -9.1% was noted. However, when using the Hardy preparation, the weight of grain from the ear increased by 0.13-0.18 g, the number of grains in the ear increased by an average of 0.7 pieces and the weight of 1000 grains – by 4.2-4.9 g. The yield of winter wheat of the Alekseich variety when treating plants with the Hardy preparation at a dose of 0.30 l/ha increased by 14.5 c/ha, and at a dose of 0.40 l/ha – by 14.3 c/ha compared with the control. There were no significant biochemical changes in wheat grain during the treatment of plants with the Hardy retardant, except for the protein content, where the treatment of plants with the Hardy retardant led to a decrease in protein content by 1.23-1.36% compared to the control variant, which is probably due to the effect of «dilution» during the formation of a higher yield.
Keywords: retardant, winter wheat, Hardy preparation, yield, crop structure.
Agronomic, energy and economic assessment of cultivation of spring rapeseed hybrids on settlement funds of mineral nutrition in soil-climatic conditions of the Republic of Tatarstan.
A comparative assessment of the productivity of two spring rapeseed hybrids with the standard Ruyan variety on the calculated backgrounds of mineral nutrition showed a mathematically provable advantage of hybrids of this crop. On average, for 3 years of research against the background of mineral nutrition N56P22K27, the yield of the Jarus hybrid was 2.48 t/ha versus 2.13 t/ha for the standard Ruyan variety. The gross harvest of rapeseed vegetable oil of the Jarus hybrid exceeded the standard Ruyan variety by 241.6 kg/ha. However, without the use of mineral fertilizers on gray forest soils of the Republic of Tatarstan, as well as at a low level of mineral nutrition, designed to obtain 2.0 t/ha of commercial oilseeds, the efficiency of cultivation of spring rapeseed hybrids is leveled, since the increase in yield is lower than the smallest significant difference with 95% reliability of field experience. The high agronomic efficiency of the cultivation of the Jarus hybrid is confirmed by both economic and energy calculations. Thus, the net profit from each hectare of arable land amounted to 15.3 thousand rubles, the profitability of the production of oilseeds was at the level of 52%, and the cost price was 11.8 thousand rubles/t at a selling price of 18.0 thousand rubles/t. The payback of energy costs exceeded by more than 3 times against 1.5 rubles for each ruble spent on the cultivation of the Jarus hybrid.
Keywords: spring rapeseed, hybrids, standard grade, nitrogen-phosphorus and potash fertilizers, fruit elements, yield, crude fat, vegetable oil, net profit, profitability, cost, energy costs and their payback.
Quality of soilgrounds and their components according to indicators of inorganic substances
Research is devoted to determining the composition of soilgrounds, manufacturing from organic wastes of different types and using for agriculture, landscape gardening and remediation of anthropogenic-disturbed areas. The components of soilgrounds were investigated: peat and compost («GruntEco»). The macro-component composition of samples (SiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, MgO, CaO, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, S) was determined. The compost obtained in the production of soilgrounds «GruntEco» is characterized by the highest content of phosphorus and potassium among the samples. The concentration of a number of rare and trace elements in the samples (Co, Cr, Ga, Mo, Nb, V, Sc, Sr, Th, U, Y, Zr) was below the word soil average values and detection limits of the used methods. Concentrations of the priority ecotoxicants As, Hg, and Pb in all the samples were significantly less than the values established by Sanitary Rules and Regulations.
Keywords: soilgrounds, waste-free technology, decarbonization technology, organic waste, phytopractices, bi- ochemical parameters, chemical composition.
Phytodiagnostics of a new bioorganic fertilizers based on peat
The article presents the results of laboratory experiments to study the biological activity of peat-based bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) extracts on the growth and development of barley (Hordeum sativum L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds. Phytotesting of humic substances, the mechanism of action of which is to stimulate all biochemical processes in the plant body at the stage of seed germination and the formation of the root system, water extracts in various concentrations, made it possible to determine the best concentration of bioorganic fertilizer for plants at the beginning of ontogeny. It is shown that various green manures contained in BOF act in different directions, if BOF 1 (winter rye) was an activator of sprout germination for barley seedlings, then a similar concentration had a positive effect on pea seeds only on the formation of roots. In general, a high biological activity of aqueous extracts of a new bioorganic fertilizer obtained from a mixture of lowland peat with green manure grown on it was revealed, which stimulates the germination energy of pea seeds by 7-55%, and germination by 2-8%. Research has shown a significant effect of BOF water extracts on the activation of shoot and root formation on barley and pea seeds, significantly increasing the length of shoots and roots by 4-13% and 8-22%, respectively. The greatest increase in the length of sprouts by 8-12% and the length of roots by 10-30% in pea seeds caused BOF 3 at higher concentrations (1:50 and 1:60).
Keywords: peat, bioorganic fertilizer, phytodiagnostics, waterextracts, seeds.
Comparative assessment of phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles of different sizes
Comparative assessment of the ecotoxicity of different sizes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in terms of phytotoxicity (germination and root length) of radish, winter wheat, and seed peas is presented. It was found that the ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles is determined by their size and content in the soil and depends on the type of plant. The greater the concentration of AgNPs in the soil, the greater the decrease in germination and root length. It was determined that in most cases AgNPs 10 nm in size had a stronger ecotoxic effect on phytotoxicity indicators, while AgNPs 100 and 1000 nm in size had a less pronounced toxic effect. It has been established that contamination with AgNPs of any size has a stronger effect on the germination of winter wheat than on the germination of radishes and peas. Sensitivity series of test crops under 10 nm AgNPs contamination by germination: winter wheat > radish > pea; along the length of the roots: radish > peas > winter wheat. The results of the study can be used in assessing the ecotoxicity of soils contaminated with silver nanoparticles of different sizes.
Keywords: soil, pollution, silver, germination, root length, radish, wheat, peas.
Estimation of structure-improving additions and mineral fertilizers influence on heavy metals content in urban soils under lawns
The results of studies on the analysis of the effect of accumulation of heavy metals of hazard class I and II in the soil of lawn grass stands of rolled and seeded type with the use of structure-improving additives (perlite) and complex mineral fertilizers are presented. The experiment was carried out on the territory of the ecological territory of the Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University (RSAU-MTAA) in Moscow during 2019-2022. It was found that the reduction of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc, copper) in the conditions of anthropogenic pressure on growth of lawn grasses, which was achieved when using structure improver (perlite) and a granular fertilizer of the Fertika brand on rolled lawns, when using a water-soluble fertilizer of the EuroChem brand and organic-mineral fertilizer of the Buy chemical plant on seeded lawns. The specificity of heavy metals sorption during the cultivation of lawn grass stands in the conditions of a metropolis has been revealed.
Keywords: rolled lawn, seeded lawn, urban soils, heavy metals, perlite, complex mineral fertilizers.