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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева, М.В. Царева, к.с.-х.н.
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., И.И. Дмитревская, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., С.Ю. Зайцев, д.б.н., д.х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., М.Г. Мустафаев, д.с.-х.н. (Азербайджан), С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Р. Рыспеков (Казахстан), к.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н., О.Х. Эргашева, к.б.н. (Узбекистан)
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2023 / Issue 2
Economic efficiency of land reclamation sector and problems of its development in The Republic of Tatarstan
The research assessed the economic efficiency of irrigated agriculture in the republic, it was found that under equal conditions of organization and technology of potato production only at the expense of irrigation, the yield increases by more than 3 times, and marketability by 2.6 times, the net income per hectare at marketability 80% was 496 thousand rubles, net income from 1 hectare of corn silage under irrigation is 52.4 thousand rubles/ha, one ruble of direct costs for irrigation provides an additional production of more than 12 rubles in the production of grain It has been revealed that, despite the high economic efficiency of agricultural land reclamation, the number of agricultural producers introducing it in their production activities, even taking into account state support measures, is still low. The article reveals a number of key problems that hinder the progressive development of ameliorative sector and proposes science-based measures that promote the development of the sector, not only on the scale of the Republic of Tatarstan, but also in the Russian Federation.
Keywords: irrigated agriculture, potato, corn, vegetables, efficiency of ameliorative sector, state development program, legislative regulation.
SOIL PROPERTIES AND FERTILITY
Soil-ecological-forestry characteristics of plantings at geomorphological profile of The Forest experimental station of The Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
The paper presents the results of soil-ecological and forestry-taxation studies conducted on the geomorphological profile passing through the quarters No 4 and 7 of the Forest experimental station of the Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. The geomorphological profile covers three main elements of the terrain: the top of the moraine hill, the slope and the fluvioglacial terrace. The soil cover is represented by soddy-podzolic soils of various granulometric composition, with different strengths of humus-accumulative and podzolic horizons, with different depth of manifestation of cleavage, the quantitative and qualitative parameters of which are largely determined by the geomorphological features of the territory. The best condition of the stand was found in the upper part of the moraine hill slope on the temporary trial site No 3 with soddy-podzolic shallow strongly deep-gleyey loamy sandy loam on moraine light loam. An assessment of the sanitary condition of the stand showed that trees belonging to category I were 9%, II – 28%, III – 34%, IV – 17%, V – 7% and VI – 4%. The conducted research showed the presence of dependence of taxa-sanitary indicators (stand stock, bonitet, plantation composition, sanitary evaluation) on soil-geomorphological conditions (power of humus horizon, humus content, manifestation of gleying, location on the geomorphological profile).
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soils, geomorphological profile, genetic horizons, granulometric composition, tree stand, larch, linden, oak, maple, birch, aspen, pine, elm, hazel, bird-cherry, rowan, euonymus, bonitet.
Gray forest soils fertility and efficiency of sulfur-containing fertilizers for sunflower cultivation in The Central Chernozem region
Studies have been carried out on the effectiveness of the use of sulfur-containing mineral fertilizers on gray forest soils of the CChR, differentiated by the degree of mobile sulfur content and soil fertility indicators. Sulfur-containing mineral fertilizers have a significant effect on the growth rate and height of sunflower plants on gray forest background soils. There is a significant influence of applied fertilizers on the indicators of the crop structure, depending on the soil fertility and the content of mobile sulfur. On dark gray forest background soil, the application of fertilizers with sulfur showed a more significant increase in the structure indicators in comparison with the cultivated soil area with an average sulfur content. On dark gray cultivated forest soil, a higher yield was obtained in comparison with the background soil. However, in the background soil, the absolute increases from fertilization were significantly higher than in the cultivated soil area with a higher level of soil fertility and an average sulfur content. Fertilizers with sulfur significantly increase the oil content of sunflower seeds on soils with a low content of mobile sulfur. There is a clear correlation between the effectiveness of sulfur-containing fertilizers on sunflower and the availability of sulfur forms available to plants.
Keywords: gray forest soils, soil fertility, mobile sulfur, availability of sulfur plants, sulfur-containing fertilizers, sunflower productivity.
Assessment of «action/inaction» at three layers of The Samara region administration: whole region, municipal district, agroeconomy
The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of restoring degraded soils and lands at three hierarchical levels of the spatial organization of the Samara region – the region as a whole, the Pokhvistnevsky municipal district and the Agro-Innovation Center «Orlovka» as of 2020. In the course of the work, the degree of degradation of soils and lands was determined by four indicators: a decrease in the content of humus, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium and phosphorus, and a change in acidity (for the Samara region as a whole, the indicator of the change in acidity was not considered). Based on the assessment of soil and land degradation, the specific damage from land degradation (Rub/ha) was calculated according to the «Methodology for determining the extent of damage from soil and land degradation» (1994), which is considered as the cost of restoring degraded territories. As a result of using the methodology of ecological and economic assessment of land degradation The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of restoring degraded soils and lands at three hierarchical levels of the spatial organization of the Samara region – the region as a whole, the Pokhvistnevsky municipal district and the Agro-Innovation Center «Orlovka» as of 2020. In the course of the work, the degree of degradation of soils and lands was determined by four indicators: a decrease in the content of humus, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium and phosphorus, and a change in acidity (for the Samara region as a whole, the indicator of the change in acidity was not considered). Based on the assessment of soil and land degradation, the specific damage from land degradation (Rub/ha) was calculated according to the «Methodology for determining the extent of damage from soil and land degradation» (1994), which is considered as the cost of restoring degraded territories. As a result of using the methodology of ecological and economic assessment of land degradation
Keywords: land degradation, ecological and economic assessment, assessment of «action/inaction».
Neural network diagnosis of self-organization the rhizosphere microflora of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) under the toxic exposure of copper and introduction of humic acids
Using the method of fractal analysis incorporated into the program for the neural network calculation of indices of bioconsolidation of microbial communities, the results of assessing the change in the taxonomic structure of the bacterial consortium of the rhizosphere of the calendula medicinal variety Geisha, grown for 50 days on fallow soddy-podzolic soil contaminated with copper and/or treated with a liquid fraction of humic acids, were obtained. extracted from peat. Indicators of variations in the taxonomic structure of bacterial communities in the studied samples were obtained by isolation of total DNA and analyze of it using the PCR method followed by pyrosequencing. According to the results in the microbial community, bacteria from the phylum Proteobacteria (47.5%), Bacteroidetes (13.4%), Actinobacteria (10.4%), Acidobacteria (15.3%), Planctomycetes (3.6%), Verrucomicrobia (2.8%), Firmicutes (1.0%), Gemmatimonadetes (2.8%), Cyanobacteria (1.3%), Chloroflexi (0.6%), Nitrospirae (0.3%) and Archaea from the phylum Thaumarchaeota (0.8%). There were few unclassified types (up to 3.5%). However, a series of numbers of bacterial taxons at the family level was chosen as the basis for calculating the bioconsolidation indices of communities, where the percentage of unclassified taxons reached 62.6%. As expected, the toxic effect of copper (450 mg/kg) inhibited plant growth and reduced the level of system self-organization to fractal indices of 0.05; 0.30 and 0.19. In the control variant of the experiment, they were 0.12; 0.36 and 0.21. A single introduction of humic acids into the nutrient medium at a dose of 0.01% or 100 ppm only slightly (+13%) increased the total plant biomass, but didn’t have a significant effect on the structural consolidation of the bacterial microbiota of the root zone respectively 0.08; 0.39 and 0.20. The joint application of the toxicant with the organic additive leveled the negative effect of copper ions in the soil, and contributed to an increase in the level of bioconsolidation to values of 0.14; 0.41 and 0.23. An increase in the indices of self-organization of microbial associations here is probably associated with the stimulating nature of the effect of humic acids, which are able to maintain a sufficient level of nutrition of bacterial cells in the presence of an external stimulus. The abiotic stress factor is thus partially neutralized, due to which the microbes activate their growth and sorption activity. There is an enhanced colonization of the root system, which also leads to the restoration of rhizogenesis and the accelerated development of plants in the biosystem. Based on this, it can be argued that humic acids have a positive effect on the development of this plant-microbial system only under the condition of metal-induced stress.
Keywords: marigold, rhizobiome, copper, humic acids, fractals, neural network.
Assessment of phytotoxicity of platinum for different agricultural crops
The impact of platinum soil pollution on plant growth and development has been little investigated. The work presents the results of a model experiment to assess the effect of contamination of Haplic Chernozem with platinum chlorides, oxides and nanoparticles at concentrations of 0.01; 0.1; 1.0; 10.0 and 100.0 mg/kg per germination, length of roots and green seedlings of radishes, winter wheat and corn 10 days after contamination. The negative influence of platinum compounds was manifested in the inhibition of the growth processes of the studied cultures at the early stages of ontogenesis, while there was no stimulating effect (hormesis). The degree of exposure depended on the concentration of the element in the soil and the form of the chemical compound. A direct dependence of the deterioration of phytotoxicity parameters on the dose of the contaminant has been established. The most sensitive crop to Pt pollution turned out to be radishes, to a lesser extent wheat and the least sensitive corn. Pt showed the greatest phytotoxicity upon entry into the soil in the form of chloride, to a lesser extent in the form of oxide and to a lesser extent in the form of nanoparticles.
Keywords: ecotoxicity, heavy metals, biotesting, radish, winter wheat, corn, germination, root length, green seedlings length, soil.
Prospects for the use of Chaetomium globosum as an agent for the biocontrol of fungal diseases of potato and tomato
Fungi of the genus Chaetomium have a high potential in the development of preparations for the biocontrol of dangerous plant pathogens. In China and Thailand, Chaetomium is active substance of the Ketomium biofungicide, but preparations based on these types of fungi are not used in Russia. The work shows the high antagonistic activity of the C. globosum 18KVTF3-1 strain isolated in the Krasnodar region against significant pathogens of potato and tomato plants: Colletotrichum coccodes, C. nigrum, Fusarium equiseti, F. irregulare, F. oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, A. linariae, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora infestans. C. globosum inhibited the growth of all studied strains. Depending on the species, growth slowed down by 30-76%. The culture liquid in which C. globosum 18KVTF3-1 was grown inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas sp. but did not affect the growth of Pectobacterium atrosepticum. The C. globosum 18KVTF3-1 strain is promising for use as an agent for the biocontrol of fungal diseases.
Keywords: biofungicides, Colletotrichum spp., Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora infestans.
New plant growth regulator in technology of spring wheat growing on soddy-podzolic soil
The effect of the new plant growth regulator Hardy on spring wheat of the Zlata variety when grown in the conditions of the Field Experimental Station of the Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University in 2021-2022. Epin-Extra and control (without treatment) were chosen as the standard of comparison. Spraying with the studied preparations was carried out twice in the phases of tillering and budding of wheat. Consumption rates for preparations: Epin-Extra 50 ml/ha, Hardy 300 ml/ha, working fluid consumption rate 300 l/ha. A high effect of Hardy was noted: the average height of the main stem was higher by 15.5% relative to the control and by 3.2% relative to Epin-Extra; the average length of the main spike was higher by 47.8% compared to the control and by 34.2% compared to Epin-Extra; the weight of 1000 grains was 18.94% more relative to the control and 11.37% more relative to Epin-Extra. Grain yield when wheat plants were treated with Hardy was 17.5% higher relative to the control, and against the background of the use of Epin-Extra by 10.9%. Hardy contributed to an increase in protein by 2.38%, gluten by 5.9% relative to control and by 2.32% protein and 2.8% gluten relative to Epin-Extra, which improves grain quality. According to the content of gluten in wheat grain, according to all variants of the experiment, it can be attributed to group A – it is possible to use it for baking purposes. Preparations Hardy and Epin-Extra contributed to an increase in fat, fiber in the grain, and a decrease in ash content. There was no difference in the microstructure of wheat grains according to the variants of the experiment, which could reveal its defects.
Keywords: spring wheat, Epin-Extra, Hardy, crop, near infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, grain quality.
Production of second-generation bioethanol from the waste of ordinary cane
As a potential alternative renewable energy source manufacturing of biofuels originally from common reed have been investigated. Bioethanol is currently the most produced biofuel, mainly of the first generation. Second-generation bioethanol is obtained from lignocellulose biomass, but expensive and complex pretreatment is required. The pulp and paper industry has the largest income from biomass for the production of non-food products and at the same time forms a large amount of residues. According to the circular economy model, these residues rich in monosaccharides or even polysaccharides, in addition to lignin, can be used as a suitable raw material for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Bio-cleaning plants can be integrated into existing pulp and paper industrial enterprises through the use of high-level technologies, as well as infrastructure and logistics that are necessary for the fractionation and processing of wood biomass. This would contribute to product diversification and increase the profitability of the pulp and paper industry with additional environmental benefits. This paper presents a review of the literature confirming the possibility of obtaining ethanol from kraft pulp, spent sulfite liquor and pulp and paper sludge, and also presents and discusses a practical attempt to introduce bio-purification at pulp and paper mills for the production of bioethanol.
Keywords: ordinary cane, lignocellulose biomass, lignin, hydrolysis, fermentation, bioethanol.
Productivity and chemical composition of barley varieties depending on the level of mineral nutrition
Under the conditions of field studies, the influence of various levels of mineral nutrition on the yield and chemical composition of spring barley plants of the varieties Moskovskiy 2, Nur and Elf was studied. An assessment was made of the effect of four levels of mineral nutrition on the change in the mass of the main and by-products, as well as on the total removal of the main nutrients with the harvest of barley plants. It was revealed that with an increase in the doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, the efficiency of the applied fertilizers decreases, since the intensity of the growth of grain increments and by-products decreases. It was found that the optimal level of mineral nutrition under these growing conditions to obtain the greatest efficiency from the applied fertilizers of barley of all three varieties is the variant where N120P120K120 was applied. It was noted that the increase in grain yield and by-products from the subsequent increase in doses of mineral fertilizers decreased. It was revealed that with an increase in the level of mineral nutrition, the removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium increases with the yield of spring barley plants. However, the relative changes in the size of the removal of nutrients with an increase in the level of mineral nutrition in comparison with the previous options generally decreased. It has been established that the largest increase in the removal of the main nutrients was obtained in the variety Moskovskiy 2 in the variants N60P60K60 and N90P90K90, in the varieties Nur and Elf in the variants N60P60K60 and N120P120K120.
Keywords: spring barley varieties, levels of mineral nutrition, yield of main and by-products, removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Efficiency of the phosphorous and magnesium fertilizers combination at different acidity of soddy-podzolic soil for winter wheat cultivation
In the field experiment the results of long-term effect of lime and mineral fertilizers on the agrochemical properties of soddy-podzolic heavy loamy soil, as well as the effectiveness of fertilizers in winter wheat crops of variety Moscow 56 were presented. Application of nitrogen-potassium fertilizers alone, worsened the physical and chemical properties of the soil, especially increased hydrolytic acidity (by 20%) and the content of mobile aluminum (twice). Yield of winter wheat in this case as minimal as in the control variant. Application of phosphate fertilizers without liming (pHKCl 4.0) increased yield by 80% at the level of NK 21.8 c/ha. Application of magnesium fertilizers in this case is ineffective. On calcareous soil with a medium reaction of 5.1 pH unit phosphate fertilizers increased yield by 21% with a background level of 52.1 c/ha, significantly (8.5%), while increasing the effectiveness of magnesium fertilizers. The maximum yield (69.3 c/ha) with the highest content of protein (13.3%) and gluten (29.5%), reached at the application of complete fertilizer (NPK) using magnesium on calcareous soil at pHKCl 5.1, the payback of mineral fertilizers, grain gain increased 2.7 times, reaching 15.8 kg/kg.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil (Umbric albelluviosols), acidity, phosphorus and magnesium fertilizers, winter wheat, yield, quality.
Influence of plant growth regulators in combination with fertilizers on yield of planting material of clone root-stocks of apple trees of the highest quality categories
The results of studies conducted in 2021-2022 at the Federal State Budgetary Research Center of Horticulture to study the effect of plant growth regulators in combination with fertilizer on the yield of planting material of clone rootstocks of apple trees 54-118 and 57-490 of the highest quality categories are presented. The rooted rootstocks obtained at the Plant Gene Pool and Bioresources Center by green cuttings were planted in a heated greenhouse and grown using technology using containers filled with a mixture of peat and sand. The optimal yield of planting material in the variant with the use of the drug Kornevin (IMC) at a dose of 1 g/l in combination with the fertilizer Aquarin brand «Universal» and was (in terms of) 291 thousand pcs/ha. Depending on the shape of the clonal root-stock, the specificity of the reaction to the treatments carried out did not manifest itself. Compared with the treatment with the Kornevin preparation, the Citadef preparation was 20% inferior in its effect on increasing the yield of clonal rootstocks with a closed root system per unit area of protected soil. The control variant with a stock of 57-490 differed the least, where the yield was 210 thousand pcs/ha, and the growth rates of the aboveground part were similar. The average growth rate in the optimal variant was 28 cm and the minimum was 22 cm.
Keywords: source plants, clone rootstocks of apple trees, fertilizers, plant growth regulators, protected soil, the highest quality categories.
HISTORY OF SCIENCE
50th anniversary of Soil Science faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University
An actualized article, published in 2018 for 45th anniversary of faculty containing brief presentation of the introductory article of the founder and first dean of the Soil Science Faculty of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, academician G.V. Dobrovolskiy (1915-2013) to the handbook on the educational and scientific activities of the faculty is presented. The history of the development of soil science is shown, beginning with the works of M.V. Lomonosov and ending with the work of modern scientists and teachers of the faculty not only in educational laboratories, but also in the field, which always differed the soil scientists of the Dokuchaev scientific school.
Keywords: university, Lomonosov Moscow State University, history, soil science faculty, scientific school, outstanding scientists.
Successor of academician V.M. Klechkovskiy (to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician Nikolai Andreevich Korneev)
The article is dedicated to the memory of the famous scientist-biologist, agronomist, leading specialist in feed production, radiologist and radioecologist academician Nikolai Andreevich Korneev. The formation of an outstanding scientist as a researcher and leader is shown. The contribution of N.A. Korneev to the development of feed production, the elimination of the consequences of the Kyshtym and then Chernobyl accidents, the development of measures to reduce the intake of radionuclides in agricultural products is described.
Keywords: scientist, science, practice, feed production, radiology, radioecology.