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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева, М.В. Царева, к.с.-х.н.
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., И.И. Дмитревская, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., С.Ю. Зайцев, д.б.н., д.х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., М.Г. Мустафаев, д.с.-х.н. (Азербайджан), С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Р. Рыспеков (Казахстан), к.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н., О.Х. Эргашева, к.б.н. (Узбекистан)
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2023 / Issue 1
Agroecological statement of soddy-middle-podzolic middle-loamy soil after 40-year application of different fertilizer systems
The results of studies in a long-term field experiment, laid on a soddy-medium-podzolic medium-loamy soil of the Udmurt Republic, typical for the conditions of the Vyatka-Kama agricultural province in 1979, are presented. The soil before laying the experiment was slightly humus, had a slightly acidic reaction and an average supply of mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium. The aim of the research was to study the aftereffect of the mineral, organic and organomineral fertilization systems on the change in the agrochemical and biological indicators of the soil and the productivity of the crop rotation link «barley + clover – clover of the 1st year of use – clover of the 2nd year of use». These crops were cultivated without the use of fertilizers according to the aftereffect (2019-2021). During 1979-2018 average annual doses of mineral fertilizers amounted to N63Р64К64. Under the influence of long-term use of fertilization systems, a change in the content of humus and mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium was revealed. The most significant influence was exerted by the mineral and organomineral fertilizer systems against the background of systematic liming, which contributed to an increase in the content of mobile phosphorus to an increased and high level of supply. A significant accumulation of mobile potassium in the soil has not been established; without the use of fertilizers during 2019-2021 a decrease in its content relative to the initial state was revealed. The use of mineral fertilizers without liming contributed to the acidification of the soil to a medium acid level. Against the background of systematic liming, a weakly acidic reaction is maintained in the soil. Organomineral and mineral fertilization systems contributed to an increase in the number of soil microorganisms and cellulolytic activity. A regular increase in the content of heavy metals with prolonged use of fertilizers has not been established; these indicators do not exceed MPC (maximum permissible concentrations). Mineral and organomineral fertilization systems against the background of liming in the aftereffect contributed to a significant increase in the productivity of the crop rotation link by 34.3-43.8% on average per year.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, soil fertility, agrochemical parameters, soil biological properties, fertilizer system, fertilizer aftereffect, productivity of crop rotation.
Features of heavy metal content in alluvial soils of the upper reaches of the Belaya river (Southern Urals)
The arable soils of the Beloretsk district of the Republic of Bashkortostan were studied according to the content of heavy metals (HM) and the level of contamination of alluvial dark humus soils (Gleyic Fluvisols (Geoabruptic, Humic) of the upper reaches of the Belaya River in the zone of impact of the enterprises of JSC Beloretsk Metallurgical Plant was assessed. It is shown that arable soils are characterized by a low content of HM. For alluvial soils with minimal anthropogenic impact, a natural increased content of HM is characteristic. In the zone of influence of Plant, the predominantly anthropogenic nature of their pollution has been revealed. A decrease in the content of all studied heavy metals down the soil profile was revealed, with the exception of iron. The results obtained can be used for ecological and geochemical zoning of floodplain soils of the upper Belaya River.
Keywords: soil pollution, alluvial soils, heavy metals, Beloretsk Metallurgical Plant.
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Effectiveness of sulfur-containing fertilizers on winter wheat in the Central Chernozem zone of Russia
Field trials were set to determine the efficiency of sulfur-containing fertilizers containing sulfur in the sulfate form and elemental forms, and mixed with UAN and their effect on a productivity and quality of winter wheat. Found patterns allow to conclude about the positive effect of sulfur nutrition in the form of sulfates in the yield and protein content increasing of the winter wheat.
Keywords: winter wheat, top-dressing of winter cereals, UAN-32, nitrogen nutrition, sulfur, yield, fertilizers, grain quality.
Use of biomodification of fertilizers in order to increase sustainability of crop production
The publication presents the results of a study of the effectiveness of the use of modified mineral fertilizers, using the example of a fertilizer of a precocious sunflower variety Aley. The conducted field studies have confirmed the expediency of using biological modification of solid mineral fertilizers with humic preparations as an effective way to increase their agronomic and economic efficiency. The use of this method makes it possible to increase the sustainability of crop production, due to the potential reduction in the production and use of mineral fertilizers, characterized by high greenhouse gas emissions. Due to the fact that humic preparations do not have a pronounced effect on nitrogen nitrification processes, it can be concluded that their use as a modifier does not pose a potential threat of contamination of soils, groundwater and products with nitrates.
Keywords: stability, modified fertilizers, humic preparations.
Influence of soil treatment and mineral fertilizers on cotton yields in the Karabakh zone of Azerbaijan
In field experiments, the influence of methods of processing gray-brown soils and various norms of mineral fertilizers on the yield of raw cotton in the conditions of the Karabakh zone of Azerbaijan was studied. It was revealed that in comparison with the non-maneuverable variant, the yield of raw cotton with different methods of tillage and the introduction of mineral fertilizers (option: In autumn – 27-30 cm depth of plowing + loosening to a depth of 6-8 cm before sowing) increased by 2.8-14.1 c/ha or by 12.8-64.4%; in the variant: In autumn – 27-30 cm plowing depth+ before sowing, disking to a depth of 10-12 cm – by 2.8-14.3 c/ha or 11.5-59.6%, and on the variant: In autumn – 27-30 cm plowing depth + before sowing disking to a depth of 14-16 cm – by 3.3- 17.3 c/ha or 66.3%. Based on the results obtained, in order to obtain a high yield of raw cotton on irrigated gray-brown soils, we recommend that the farms of the Karabakh Economic Zone annually plow the soil to a depth of 27-30 cm in autumn, and disking to a depth of 14-16 cm before sowing.
Keywords: gray-brown soil, irrigation, soil treatment type, raw cotton, mineral fertilizers, yield.
Fertilizers and nitrogen nutrition of spring wheat on gray forest soils
The influence of fertilizers and weather conditions in 2019-2021 on the content and stocks of mobile nitrogen forms under spring wheat was studied on the gray forest soils of the Vladimir Opolye in the 4th rotation of the 7-field crop rotation. An increase in its yield was found mainly from the application of complete mineral fertilizer (nitrogen of mineral fertilizers), including the aftereffect of cattle manure. The reserves of N-NO3 in the 0-40 cm soil layer, ac- cumulating from the transformation of soil nitrogen and nitrogen fertilizers introduced and sealed by pre-sowing cul- tivation, to full shoots, had a decisive influence on it. By this period, in the control options, liming background and application of PK fertilizers, N-NO3 reserves ranged from 45.7 to 75.7 kg/ha, single dose of NPK – from 129 to 152 kg/ha, double dose – from 175 to 248 kg/ha. Due to the combination of NPK and the aftereffect of manure, compared only with NPK, N-NO3 reserves increased slightly. In 2020-2021, the stocks of N-NO3 in the earing phase decreased several times compared to seedlings due to absorption by plants. In 2019, due to the lengthening of the growing sea- son of spring wheat, this decrease was observed by the time of harvesting in NPK application variants. A smaller de- crease in N-NO3 reserves in earing compared to seedlings than 70% nitrogen removal by grain and straw crops indi- cated the nitrification process from seedlings before earing and after it. N-NH4 reserves changed less during the growing season and were higher when using NPK. In these variants, the degree of transition of N-NH4 of the soil to the liquid phase also increased. Ammonium ions passing into the soil solution (liquid phase) were subjected to nitrifi- cation. The N-NO3 reserves formed in the soil provided nitrogen nutrition for the cultivated crop.
Keywords: gray forest soils, the Vladimir Opolye, spring wheat, nitrate and ammonium nitrogen, nitrification, liquid phase of fertilizers.
Changes in peppermint essential oil components content under influence of diflufenican-based drug
Peppermint essential oil is a valuable raw material, widely demanded all over the world in various sectors of the national economy. The change in the accumulation of individual components depends on many factors of crop cultivation. The use of growth regulators that inhibit the synthesis of carotenoids in the plant, at the same time, can influence the processes of synthesis of valuable components of the essential oil. In our work, we evaluated the severity of this effect for peppermint Krasnodarskaya 2 variety 10 and 20 days after its treatment with a drug based on diflufenican, a phytoene desaturase inhibitor, at three different doses. The experiment showed that a number of components of the essential oil were characterized by a decrease in the content under the influence of the drug, but at the same time, a significant increase was noted for other components. From the point of view of increasing the collection of total menthol, the most valuable component, it is advisable to spray peppermint plants of the Krasnodarskaya 2 variety with a diflufenican-containing drug at a dose of a.i. 0.01 g/m2 and harvest mint 20 days after treatment.
Keywords: peppermint, Krasnodarskaya 2, diflufenican, cutting, essential oil, menthol.
Research of biochar application for soil fertility increase in the Astrakhan region
Interest in bio-coal from agricultural enterprises is increasing every year. Thus, according to many studies, biochar is able to retain moisture and soil nutrients, preventing their leaching from the root zone, which allows improving the agrochemical parameters of the soil, and also provides ideal conditions for the habitat of soil microorganisms. However, empirical data is still scarce from a wide variety of raw materials for the production of bio-coal, natural and climatic factors, and others. In experiment, the effect of various doses of bio-coal obtained during pyrolysis of rice husks on the microbiological and physico-chemical properties of the low-density alluvialturf soil of the Astrakhan region was investigated. Based on the analysis of the parameters of functional diversity according to multisubstrate testing, it was found that the introduction of biochar favorably affects the state of soil microbial communities, increases their stability, functional diversity, and metabolic work.
Keywords: biochar, rice husk, agrochemical indicators, meliorant, soil microorganisms, soil.
Lability in soil and accumulation of Zn and Cd in barley under conditions of co-contamination
To identify the patterns of distribution and estimate the parameters of Zn and Cd migration in the «soil – soil solution – plant» system, a plant growing experiment was carried out on soddy-podzolic soil using a test culture of barley. The experiment included 5 scenarios with different combinations of Cd and Zn doses: Cd0Zn0, Cd25Zn0, Cd25Zn50, Cd25Zn100, Cd25Zn150. The physical and chemical characteristics of the soil, the content of labile (F1) and sum of labile and OMC-bound (F1 + F2) forms of HM, morphometric parameters and concentrations of Zn and Cd in barley during ontogenesis were determined. Parametrization of the equations of vegetative mass growth was performed, the regularities of Cd and Zn accumulation in the barley crop were established, and the phytotoxic effect of high concentrations of these metals on plants was estimated. It was found that the relative content of F1 and (F1 + F2) forms of Cd and Zn in the soil increased when Cd (25 mg/kg) and Zn (50-150) mg/kg were applied to the soil simultaneously. The change in barley biomass is well approximated by logistic curves. Contamination of the studied soil with Cd at a dose of 25 mg/kg (critical concentration) leads to a pronounced phytotoxic effect. In native soil (variant Cd0Zn0) Cd accumulation in straw was 32 times higher than in barley grain. When only cadmium was applied to the soil at a dose of 25 mg/kg, the highest ratio of metal concentrations in straw and grain was observed. If, along with cadmium at a dose of 25 mg/kg, zinc was introduced into the soil in the amounts of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, then for the corresponding variants of the experiment, the ratio of [Cd]straw /[Cd]grain was consistently reduced. When successively increasing amounts of Zn (variants Cd0Zn0, Cd25Zn0, Cd25Zn50, Cd25Zn100, Cd25Zn150) were applied to the soil, the content of the element in straw and barley grain increased. The corresponding dependencies can be described by linear functions. There were also very significant changes in the structure of the crop.
Keywords: heavy metals, forms, migration, Cd, Zn, barley, phytotoxicity, yield.
Belarus experience in managing radiation safety of its territories after the Chernobyl accident
Sustainable development of agricultural production in the areas of radioactive contamination requires an advanced agricultural management concept to be implemented in these specific conditions in order to minimize radionuclide intake (especially 90Sr) by populations and reduce their radiation doses. Production of ‘regulatory clean’ agricultural foodstuffs in contaminated areas can be achieved only through controlled transformation of the lands, differentiated crop allocation and cultivation, and targeted-purpose use of end products based on yield contamination forecasts, soil properties and radiation control results. The budget funds should be allocated on implementing protective measures in the areas with high radionuclide deposition densities (137Cs 185-1480 kBq/m2, 90Sr 11-111 kBq/m2), with high-maintenance or poorly cultivated soils, and where residents predominantly consume self-produced foodstuffs.
Keywords: 137Cs and 90Sr, radionuclides, agricultural soils, population exposure doses.
Sensitivity of potato varieties to preparations for processing tubers
For three years (2019-2021), the effect of pre-planting treatment of potato tubers of various varieties with Celest Top, CS and Idikum, CS preparations on germination, biometric indicators of growth and yield was studied. The negative effect of preparations for the processing of tubers on these indicators is shown, depending on the potato variety, the place of cultivation and, to a lesser extent, on weather conditions at the beginning of the vegetation of plants. It was revealed that in the Dmitrov district of the Moscow region, the drug Celest Top did not affect the germination dynamics of potato tubers in all varieties, but reduced biometric indicators in the varieties Luck and Lyubava. On the Santa variety, this mordant reduced the dynamics of germination in the Lyubertsy district of the Moscow region. In both experiments, the height of plants and the number of stems on this variety were at the control level. However, there was no significant decrease in productivity. In the Lyubertsy district, the Grand, Gulliver and Santa varieties are more sensitive to the drug Idikum than the Northern Lights, Kumach and Kolobok varieties. And during the flowering phase, the depressive effect of the mordant (a decrease in the height of the bush and the number of stems) remained on the Grand variety. In the Dmitrov district, a decrease in germination and biometric indicators was noted on the varieties of Santa and Varyag. For the Santa variety, the delay of full shoots was 13 days, for the Varangian variety – 17 days. On the Madeira variety, the dynamics of seedlings in all records, as well as growth and development indicators – the height of the bush and the number of stems were at the control level.
Keywords: preparations for pre-planting processing of tubers, potatoes, variety, germination dynamics, biometric indicators, yield.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Diversity of the prokaryotic complex of soil biota in monoculture and in crop rotation (on the example of the long-term experience of the Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University)
In this study, the genetic diversity of bacteria and archaea at the genus level in the soil was determined with permanent crops (flax, clover, barley, potatoes, winter rye), perpetual fallow and in crop rotation. Studying the impact of monoculture and crop rotation on microbial diversity is important because microbial diversity is fundamental to the stability and resilience of the soil ecosystem. The study included an assessment of the genetic diversity of archaea and bacteria using PCR analysis of the V3-V4 region of the 16SrRNA gene using high-throughput sequencing (MiSeq, Illumin). It was found that the diversity of bacteria, according to the Shannon and Chao1 indices, was the highest in the potato monoculture variant. The lowest is with clover monoculture. Representatives of the genera Bacillus, Pseudarthrobacter and Pseudolabrys were found in all soil samples. The most numerous bacilli were in the soil under flax, potatoes, clover and winter rye. In the studied soil samples, archaea are represented by only one genus Methanosarcina, was found in only three samples: barley, crop rotation and potatoes.
Keywords: biodiversity, nucleic acid analysis, monoculture, permanent crops, crop rotation, soil, bacteria, archaea.
Criteria for classifying lands as viticultural on the example of soils of the Temryuk district of the Krasnodar region
Soil characteristics of southern chernozem in the complex of limiting factors for grape cultivation are considered. We analyzed parameters of grape-soils, such as: humus content, its reserves, physical properties of soils, content of mobile calcium according to Druino-Galle scale, soil thickness, mechanical (granulometric) composition and skeletonization of soils, depth of dense rocks, reaction of soil environment (pH), salinity, solonetzicity, and hydrological conditions. On the example of the soils of the Temryuk district of the Krasnodar region we conducted a study on the validity of their assignment to the grape-dominant soils. Southern chernozem was found to prevail in the area. According to the results of the study, it was found that the southern chernozem of the Temryuk District meet the requirements of grape cultivation for soil conditions, and therefore should be classified as especially valuable productive agricultural land.
Keywords: grape-producing lands, especially valuable lands, humus, granulometric composition, southern chernozem, soil density, active calcium, thickness of loose thickness.
HISTORY OF SCIENCE
Timiryazev school of soil scientists
History of Soil Science, Geology and Landscape department at the Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University since 1912 is presented.
Keywords: V.R. Williams, V.P. Bushinskiy, S.P. Yarkov, I.P. Grechin, I.S. Kaurichev, M.N. Pershina, N.P. Panov, N.N. Poddubny, V.I. Kiryushin, V.I. Savich, N.N. Ignatiev, N.F. Ganzhara, B.A. Borisov, A.I. Karpukhin, A.D. Fokin, R.F. Baybekov, V.G. Mamontov, A.D. Kashanskiy.