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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.

Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева, М.В. Царева, к.с.-х.н.

Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., И.И. Дмитревская, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., С.Ю. Зайцев, д.б.н., д.х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., М.Г. Мустафаев, д.с.-х.н. (Азербайджан), С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Р. Рыспеков (Казахстан), к.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н., О.Х. Эргашева, к.б.н. (Узбекистан)

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Подписано в печать: 26.12.2022
Формат 60х90/8.

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Свидетельство № 011095.

SOIL FERTILITY

Influence of landscape-morphological factor on soil productivity

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-001

Studies conducted in 2019-2021 on the territory of the FCAR of the South-East Region in the Krasnokutsky district of the Saratov region were aimed at reducing the influence of the landscape structure of the territory on the yield of spring wheat. It was revealed that soils of facies types are stable in space and time in terms of the content of basic nutrients with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.90. The content of macronutrients could explain up to 80% of the yield of spring soft wheat. Facies of hollows and watersheds are characterized by higher yields (1.2 t/ha) relative to slopes of 0-1о, low-lying slopes, watersheds of the 3rd order (0.9 t/ha). As a result of the application of fertilizers, it was possible to reduce the yield variability from 31.6% in the control to 9.9% at the dose of N90 and to 16.9% at the calculated dose of NSx. The effect of the calculated dosage of ammonium sulfate on the quality of spring wheat was even more significant. So, on average, for all types of facies, it was possible to increase gluten from 21.6% in the control to 41.7% in the fertilized area. The protein gain was 4.9%. Agrochemical experience has revealed the economic efficiency of the differentiated use of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, making it possible to make a profit of 9000 rubles per hectare on 79% of the cultivated area.

Keywords: slope steepness, landscapes, productivity, facies types, slope exposure, fertilizers, the Saratov region.


Influence of farming systems on dynamics of mobile phosphorous in chernozem typical of the South-western part of the CChR

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-002

In the typical chernozem of the southwestern part of the CChR, on a field experiment, an analysis was made of the change in the phosphorus state under the influence of a complex of agrotechnical factors (crop rotations, fertilizers and soil cultivation methods) over a long period of time (34 years). It has been established that the content of mobile phosphorus in the soil of the experimental plot, the upper (0-30 cm) and subarable (30-50 cm) layers, is affected by the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers, and especially their combined use. With the same doses of the studied fertilizers and the methods of tillage used, the highest phosphorus content was in crop rotations containing more row crops in the structure of the sown areas. So, in the grain-fallow and grain-row crop rotations during plowing and the use of double doses of fertilizers, the saturation of the soil layer 0-30 cm with mobile phosphorus is very high and amounts to 258 and 366 mg/kg, respectively, which is significantly higher than in the grain-grass-row crop rotation (184 mg/kg).

Keywords: typical chernozem, mobile phosphorus, crop rotation, main tillage method, fertilizers, fertilizer system, field experience, the Belgorod region.


To the assessment of the phosphate status of permafrost soils of the Central and Southern Yakutia

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-003

The phosphate state of 8 types of permafrost soils in the cryolithozone of the Central and Southern Yakutia has been studied and evaluated. It is shown that these soils, formed in harsh hydrothermal conditions of soil formation, are characterized by a reduced biological accumulation of total P in comparison with the soils of non-permafrost regions of the European territory of Russia. It is also noted that the average content of mobile phosphates in these permafrost soils varies mainly in the range of 13-74 mg/kg and allows us to assess their phosphorus supply as very low and low. The low availability of the studied permafrost soils is undoubtedly due to their low biological activity. It was also revealed that the average amount of loosely bound phosphates most accessible to plants, determined by Chang-Jackson, is 19-67 mg/kg or 1-8% in these soils, that is, below 10% of the total amount of all forms of mineral phosphates. The fractional composition of these phosphates is dominated by phosphates of one and a half oxides, which account for up to 70-80%, and among the latter – absolutely iron phosphates, making up to 60-70% of the total amount of mineral phosphates. This specificity of the composition of mineral phosphates of permafrost soils of Yakutia, in our opinion, is due to the influence of the cryogenic hardening process, manifested in their genesis.

Keywords: cryolithozone, permafrost soils, composition and properties, total phosphorus, mobile phosphates, forms of mineral phosphates.


Organic fertilizer impact on cellulose-decomposing ability of quasigleyic agrochernozem

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-004

The article presents the results of the study on the solid fraction of litter-free pig manure effect on the cellulose-decomposing ability of agrochernozem as an indicator of soil biological activity and effective fertility. The research was conducted in 2017-2019. Field and laboratory experiments were performed, and the application method was used. The cellulose-decomposing ability was evaluated by cotton fabrics weight loss and decomposition rate for 30, 60 and 90 days. Quasigleyic light-loamy agrochernozem with a medium-thick arable horizon had a weak cellulose-decomposing ability associated with a low content of humus, gross and nitrate nitrogen. The degree of the cellulose decomposition during the growing season in the upper 20 cm of soil was 13.2-16.8%. The use of pig manure boosted the cellulose-decomposing ability of agrochernozem, increasing the cotton sheets weight loss by 1.2 times when 20 t/ha of the organic fertilizer were applied; and with a dose of 60 t/ha the weight loss rates accelerated by 2.1 times. The effect of manure on the cellulose decomposition was observed from the 1st to the 3rd year of aftereffect. It was expressed as a more active decomposition of cellulose (9.0-48.6% faster with a minimum dose of the fertilizer and 10.5-130% faster with a maximum one). The decomposition of cellulose was more intense in the summer period, well provided with precipitation, compared to dry conditions. In laboratory experiments at a temperature of +25°C and soil moisture of 60% of the total moisture-holding capacity, the cellulose-decomposing ability of the soil was higher than in field experiments. The cellulose decomposition in the fertilized soil in all periods of observation exceeded the indicator obtained in the control variant. The strongest effect on the cellulose-decomposing ability of the soil was caused by a dose of manure of 60 t/ha, while a dose of 20 t/ha resulted in an unstable effect.

Keywords: quasigleyic agrochernozem, cellulose-decomposing ability, litter-free pig manure, the Omsk region.


Agroecological assessment of the adaptive agricultural potential of drained and irrigated soils

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-005

An agroecological assessment of the adaptive-agricultural potential of reclaimed soils was carried out to clarify the set of crops and their placement in crop rotation fields. The object of the study is drained and irrigated soils, occupying 3393.4 hectares on the farm. The study area is represented by alluvial bog, alluvial meadow-bog, alluvial meadow, bog lowland soils. The standard crop yield (YC) was determined for all soil varieties in crop rotation fields. The data on crop yields correspond to the conditions of extensive farming, designed mainly to use the natural fertility of the soil. An agronomic survey of the territory of the massif made it possible to identify areas located near the highway, where soil pollution from vehicles occurs, therefore, these land massifs should be removed from crop rotations, since it is not recommended to grow fodder, grain and vegetable crops on them. The calculation of the normative yield of cultivated crops for different agricultural technologies for soil differences in all fields of the land mass was carried out. A list of crops for cultivation has been established: cereals (barley, wheat, oats), potatoes, cabbage (early, late), root crops (beets, carrots), annual grasses (vetch with oats), perennial grasses (clover, timothy grass) in recommended crop rotations: 8-field vegetable-fodder, 7-field vegetable-potato, 4-field and 6-field vegetable, 5-field vegetable rotation with high cabbage saturation and 6-field vegetable-green manure crop rotation. The adaptive agricultural potential of reclaimed soils can be increased through an appropriate set of crops, the introduction of recommended crop rotations, and the application of organic and mineral fertilizers in accordance with agricultural technologies. This will increase the stability of agricultural landscapes on drained and irrigated soils.

Keywords: agricultural technologies, agricultural crops, crop rotation, bog soils, alluvial soils, hydromelioration, the Perm region.


FERTILIZER AND HARVEST

Yield and nutrition consumption of spring wheat when applying microfertilizers

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-006

The effectiveness of using different methods and combinations of doses of trace elements were studied during the cultivation of spring wheat in the meadow-chernozem soil of the Omsk region. Chelated zinc and copper fertilizers were used. The combined use of zinc and copper chelates is effective in the cultivation of spring wheat in the forest-steppe conditions of the Omsk region. With pre-sowing seed treatment, the Zn0,2Cu0,2 variant was the best, the grain yield was 2.58 t/ha, the increase was 0.38 t/ha. With non-root fertilizing both in the tillering phase and in the tube release phase, the best combination of zinc and copper fertilizers according to research results is the Zn0,2Cu0,2 variant, in which the maximum grain yield of 2.57 and 2.39 t/ha, respectively, was obtained. To create 1 ton of harvest in the best variant, Zn0,2Cu0,2 spring wheat required during seed treatment: N 26.3 kg, P2О5 24.3 kg, K2О 24.8 kg, Zn 49.17 g, Cu 6.72 g; when carrying out foliar fertilizing in the tillering phase, N 39.6 kg, P2O5 28.9 kg, K2O 30.6 kg, Zn 60.16 g, Cu 3.29 g; in the exit phase into the tube: N 41.2 kg, P2О5 29.9 kg, K2О 33.7 kg, treatment with Cu20 copper chelates: N 41.2 kg, P2О5 29.9 kg, K2О 33.7 kg, Zn 57.73 g, Cu 4.03. The coefficients of use of the element from the soil were: nitrogen 87%, phosphorus 8.0, potassium 6.0, zinc 7.0, and copper 3.5%.

Keywords: micro fertilizers spring wheat, yield, removal of trace elements, element utilization factor, nitrogen of current nitrification, the Omsk region.


Efficiency of spring nitrogen top-dressing of winter rye in dependence of hydrothermal conditions

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-007

The article presents the results of a study of the effectiveness of spring nitrogen fertilization of winter rye depending on the hydrothermal conditions of the spring vegetation period. It has been established that on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan with a continental climate, the effectiveness of spring nitrogen fertilization of winter rye largely depends on the hydrothermal conditions of the spring vegetation. In years with high rainfall and relatively moderate temperatures in the spring growing season (April and May), spring fertilization is highly efficient. In years with dry conditions (HTC of May below 1), the effectiveness of spring fertilization decreases sharply. In such years, nitrogen fertilization with the onset of physical ripeness of the soil by the surface method is ineffective or has a low payback on the cost of fertilizing.

Keywords: winter rye, nitrogen fertilization, hydrothermal conditions, yield, investment recovery, the Republic of Bashkortostan.


Use of shungite when growing potatoes

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-008

Studies of the influence of the method of shungite introduction during cultivation of Nevsky potatoes under the conditions of Karelia were carried out in 2020-2021. Field small-grain experience was based on poorly cultivated soddy-podzolic heavy loamy soil. The experimental scheme included the following options: control, uniform pre-sowing, local application and mulching. It has been shown that the studied shungite does not have a negative effect on plants. Local and uniform introduction of shungite led to an increase in the yield by 15-19% and a change in the crop structure. The uniform pre-sowing application of shungite contributed to the earlier emergence of potato seedlings. Local introduction of shungite contributed to a decrease in the proportion of rotten tubers, and tubers affected by common scab. Mulching had no significant effect on yields. The introduction of shungite into the soil leads to an increase in the content of organic carbon, phosphorus and potassium, but does not significantly affect the level of soil acidity and the content of total nitrogen and calcium. The greatest influence of shungite on soil properties is observed with uniform application and mulching.

Keywords: shungite, field experience, soddy-podzolic soil, agrochemical properties.


Use of plant growth regulators for decrease of pesticide pressure for potato planting

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-009

The effect of plant growth regulators in the cultivation of the early-ripening potato variety Arosa in the climatic conditions of the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region has been studied. The experiments were carried out against the background of mineral fertilizers, counting on obtaining a crop of tubers of 30 t/ha, on the gray forest medium loamy soil of the farm «Zemlyaki» of the Nizhnekamsk district of the Republic of Tatarstan in 2019-2021. It was found that the joint treatment of the growth regulator Zircon + 50% fungicides in the recommended dose ensures the planned yield and high quality of tubers. The joint treatment of tubers and plants in the budding phase with the growth regulator Zircon ensured the formation of the largest leaf area – 48.2 thousand m2/ha, the highest yield of 36.12 t/ha and the yield of commercial tubers 87.5%.

Keywords: potato, Arosa variety, mineral fertilizers, growth regulators, tubers, crop structure, Zircon, Epin-Extra, Melafen.


Influence of doses and ways of application of thermal dried poultry manure on yield and quality of potato

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-010

Efficiency of thermal dried poultry manure at soddy-podzolic high treated light-loamy soil depended on weather-climatic conditions during 2021-2022. Local application during vegetation period of 2021, which characterize as normally wet (HTC = 1.3), average yield of potato was 581 c/ha, scattered application – 653 c/ha, starch content 11.4 and 10.5%, profitability 41.2 and 42.2%. Average yield in arid conditions of vegetation period of 2022 (HTC = 0.8) was 821 and 738 c/ha, starch content 13.8 and 13.6%, profitability 70 and 60% respectively. Economically viable dose of thermal dried poultry manure in 2021 was 4 t/ha as local as scattered, profitability 43.7 and 43.5% respectively; in 2022 was N70Р60К120 + 1 t/ha (local) and N70Р70К120 scattered – profitability 95 and 101% respectively.

Keywords: poultry manure, doses, ways of application, fertilizer system, potato yield, quality, efficiency, the Republic of Belarus.


Influence of organomineral complex Gumiton on productivity, accumulation of trace elements and cadmium in barley on soddy-podzolic sandy loam soils

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-011

In a series of vegetation and field experiments on soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil, the effect of processing vegetative plants of barley of the Vladimir variety with a new organomineral complex based on Gumiton peat on productivity and the content of trace elements, including in conditions of technogenic contamination with cadmium, was studied. Based on the analysis of data from a two-year growing experience with barley, it is shown that the double treatment of vegetative plants by Gumiton on the background of azofoska increased the grain yield by 12% (2020). At the same time, the content of Mo in grain increased by 1,45 times, Mn - by 1.1 times. When soil was contaminated with Cd (at a dose of 12 UEC for acidic sandy loam soils), Gumiton treatment reduced the accumulation of toxicant in grain by 1,15-1,65 times, and also reduced the negative impact on plants - the mass of grain and straw increased by 1,14-1,22 and 1,44 times, respectively. The accumulation of Mo in the grain increased by 1.3 times compared with the option without the use of the drug. According to the results of two years of field experience on soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil, a single treatment of crops with Gumiton increased the yield of barley grain by 21-39%, the content in grain B and Mn by 1,1, Mo – by 1,6 times. Gumiton has shown high efficiency when used in barley cultivation technologies on turf-podzolic sandy loam soils, providing an increase in yield and microelement content, including with soil contamination with cadmium.

Keywords: barley, soddy-podzolic soil, trace elements (B, Mo, Mn), Gumiton, yield, pollution, Cd.


EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

Research of exogenic influence of biopreparations on polymorphism of morphological features and productivity of calendula

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-012

The influence of plant growth regulators Zircon and Epin-Extra, retardant Hardy and microfertilizer Siliplant on morphological characteristics and productivity of common marigold varieties (Golden Sea and Paradise Garden) was studied. It is shown that the yield of medicinal raw materials from both varieties exceeds the control in all variants, with the exception of the Epin-Extra variant. Applying of Hardy contributes to an increase in the yield of inflorescences of the Golden Sea and Paradise Garden varieties compared to the control by 20 and 23%. The use of Siliplant also contributed to an increase in the yield of inflorescences – the increase of yield for the Golden Sea variety was 0.35 t/ha, and for the Paradise Garden variety – 0.27 t/ha. Foliar treatment by PGR Zircon turned out to be more effective on Golden Sea variety. The effect PGR of Epin-Extra on both varieties was not revealed. The greatest increase in seed yield was observed in the Paradise Garden variety on the Hardy and Zircon variants (23 and 24%, respectively), while on the Golden Sea variety it was only 10%. Variants with Siliplant and Epin-Extra treatment showed the lowest efficiency – the excess was from 2 to 8%. The sowing qualities of common marigold seeds of all studied variants have high quality (corresponded to GOST 34221-2017).

Keywords: common marigold, Calendula officinalis, variety, plant growth regulators, microfertilizers, yield of inflorescences and seeds, bioactive substances.


Study of the resistance of spring barley varieties to chloride salination at the early stages of ontogenesis

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-013

The diagnosis of resistance to chloride salinization of barley varieties, variety nudum, was carried out by seed germination and the initial stages of seedling formation. It has been established that at a concentration of NaCl solution of 14.5 g/l (12.5 atm.), the variety k-16535 (the Stavropol region) had the highest seed germination – 60%, the smallest deviation from the control variant in terms of morphological parameters of the seedling (roots – 40.4%, sprout – 64.4%), as well as the highest root indices – 0.60 and sprout – 0.36, which indicates the ability to adapt to a higher level of salinity. Germination of naked barley variety k-27658 (84469/70, Czechoslovakia) in experimental variants with osmotic pressure from 2.5 atm. (2.9 g/l) up to 10.0 atm. (11.6 g/l) varied slightly and amounted to 73.0-78.0%. This variety was distinguished by the number of germinal roots formed. With NaCl salinity of 2.5 atm. (2.9 g/l); 5.0 atm. (5.8 g/l); 7.5 atm. (8.7 g/l) indices of root length index (1.04-1.28) and shoot length indices (0.79-1.30) in this variety significantly exceeded other varieties. Thus, variety k-27658 (84469/70, Czechoslovakia) is the least sensitive to the negative effects of NaCl (2.5-7.5 atm.) at the early stages of plant development. High laboratory germination on backgrounds 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10 atmospheres were provided by barley variety k-21514 (Nudum 855 No 415, Tajikistan) 65.0-81.0%. This variety turned out to be the most sensitive to chloride salinity, already at low NaCl concentrations of 2.9 g/l (2.5 atm.), the variety experienced a decrease in the growth of roots and sprouts, which is also indicated by the root index – 1.09 and the sprout index – 0.85.

Keywords: spring barley (Hordeum nudum), salt tolerance, germination, seedlings, chloride salinity.


Ways to improve protection of cucumber when growing using low-volume technology

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-014

The article touches upon the issues of obtaining environmentally safe cucumber products using biologically active substances (BAS) under various regulations for their use. It is proved that the complex processing of cucumber plants of the F1 Courage hybrid contributed to the acceleration of the onset of phenophases of development, an increase in biometric indicators, yield, net income, profitability, which in general led to a reduction in the cost of cucumber production.

Keywords: cucumber, substrate, ecologization, phenology, yield, leaf apparatus, protected soil.


ECOLOGY PROBLEMS

Scientific basis of remediation of soils contaminated with chromium

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-015

Results of long-term research for elaboration of technologies for remediation of soil contaminated by one of the most distributed and dangerous heavy metal – chromium. On the basis of field experiment, laid on chromium-contaminated agro-soddy-podzolic loamy soil (Albic Retisols), the influence and duration of the aftereffect of various ameliorative additives on the content of mobile forms of chromium in the soil, the productivity of agricultural crops and their ecological state were established. The introduction of all studied remediants contributed to a significant increase in the yield of crops growing on contaminated soil and a decrease in the chromium content in crop products. The following ameliorants showed the highest remediation efficiency and aftereffect duration: limestone flour at a dose of 12 t/ha, peat at a dose of 100 t/ha, and zeolite at a dose of 100 t/ha. The research results were used to develop technological methods for the remediation of soils contaminated with this heavy metal.

Keywords: agro-soddy-podzolic soils, pollution, chromium, remediation, ameliorative additives, the Udmurt Republic.


Influence of common chernozem pollution with Ag, Bi, Te, Tl on germination and initial growth of winter wheat

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-016

The impact of pollution of soils of Ag, Bi, Te, Tl on growth and development of plants is a little investigated. In work results of a model experiment on assessment of the impact of pollution of the chernozem ordinary by oxides and nitrates Ag, Bi, Te, Tl in concentration 1.5, 3, 9, 30, 90 backgrounds on germination indicators (viability, energy of germination, a germination friendliness, germination speed) and indicators of intensity of initial growth (length of roots, length of green sprouts) of a winter wheat in 10 days from the pollution moment are presented. Negative impact of Ag, Bi, Te, Tl was shown in inhibition of growth processes of a winter wheat at early stages of ontogenesis, at the same time wasn't recorded the stimulating action (hormesis). Extent of influence depended by nature an element, concentration of an element in the soil and forms of chemical compound. In most cases the toxicity of the studied elements submitted to the following regularity: Tl > Te > Ag > Bi. Silver and bismuth exhibited greater phytotoxicity in the form of oxides, Te and Tl in the form of nitrates. There was a direct dependence of the deterioration of phytotoxicity parameters on the dose of the contaminant.

Keywords: heavy metals, ecotoxicity, phytotoxicity, biotesting, environmental modeling, pollution, ordinary chernozem.


Biogeochemical recultivation technologies of pyrogenic soils and soils contaminated by hydrocarbons, neutralization of hydrocarbon slimes

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-6-017

Research results of biocompost «PIKSA» in situ application in the Stavropol region for degraded soil recultivation are presented. Efficiency of biocompost application for the pyrogenic soils recultivation at gas industry object (ambar) is shown. During 42 days of experiment catalase activity in dependence of biocompost dose increased by 1.4 and 1.6 times; dehydrogenase – 2.5 and 3.0 times, wherein biomass of perennial cereal grasses increased respectively by 1.8 and 2.3 times. Application of biocompost for recultivation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at booster compressor station (purge candle) during 42 days activity of catalase in dependence of dose increased by 1.9 and 2.4 times; dehydrogenase – by 5.8 and 8.9 times, wherein biomass of perennial cereal grasses increased respectively by 8.6 and 16.9 times. Addition of biocompost to slime of gas condensate, storing at accumulation pond, allowed detect sustainable activity of catalase (3.3 ml О2/(min∙g)) and dehydrogenase (11 mg С19Н16N4)/(g∙day)) at 42 day in compare with null values at start. Tests of biocompost as «Bioros» biopreparation at gas condensate and oil hydrocarbons in vitro in the Moscow region also confirmed it’s efficiency by enzymes activity.

Keywords: soil contamination, soil recultivation, biopreparations, catalase, dehydrogenase, the Moscow regon, the Stavropol region.