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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 28.10.2022
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2022 / Issue 5
Dynamics of agrochemical indicators of arable soil horizon in the Lipetsk region according to results of local monitoring
Results of regular observations of state of soil fertility of agricultural lands by agrochemical indicators are presented on example of 2 reference plots in 2 districts of the Lipetsk region (2008-2021). In general, state of soil fertility is stable, there is no sharp change in the decrease in the total amount of nutrients, however, there is a decrease of mobile sulfur content. For observation period content of trace elements in most reference sites remained within the previous degrees of security. It was found that content of gross and mobile forms of heavy metals in soils of 2 reference sites is within limits of sanitary and hygienic standards (MPC and APC) and there was no increase in their number during observation period. Ecological and radiological assessment of soils and plants for radionuclides content (90Sr, 137Cs, 40K, 232Th, 226Ra) did not reveal negative processes, on contrary, there is a significant decrease in degree of radioactive strontium activity (90Sr) in arable soil horizon. Residual amount of pesticides in soil and plant products at reference sites is below maximum permissible concentrations.
Keywords: local monitoring, reference plot, arable layer, fertility, agrochemical indicators, trace elements, heavy metals, radionuclides.
Application of Gumiton preparation and NPK fertilizer for reduction of 137Cs accumu- lation for maize cultivation
Data on study of efficiency of use of Gumiton preparation and NPK fertilizer (brand N8P20K30) on reduction of 137Cs from soil into crop products is presented. Accumulation coefficients and proportionality of radiocesium, change of soil fertility state, effect of Gumiton on yield and nutritional value of corn were calculated. Studies were carried out in 2021 on production field of the Zarechye SPK (the Novozybkovsky district, the Bryansk region). It has been established that foliar treatment of vegetative corn plants with Gumiton increases yield and quality of products and reduces transfer of 137Cs from soil to vegetative mass of corn.
Keywords: production experience, fertilizers, Humiton, fertility, corn, radioactive contamination of soil, the Bryansk region.
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Research of efficiency of magnesium fertilizers based on milled brucite for soybean cultivation
The results of research on efficiency of new forms of magnesium fertilizers obtained on the basis of ground natural mineral brucite in various soil and climatic conditions of Russia (the Amur and Belgorod regions) in soybean cultivation are presented. It has been established that the inclusion of magnesium in the crop fertilizer system provides a stable increase in grain yield up to 28% and an increase in the protein content in it. The positive effect of magnesium fertilizers of the AgroMag brand in reducing the negative impact of adverse environmental conditions has been established.
Keywords: soybean, yield, harvest structure, grain quality, magnesium, magnesium, fertilizers, leaf top-dressing, the Amur region, the Belgorod region.
Effect of potassium iodide on yield and quality of table beets and potato
Results of studies of the effect of potassium iodine (KI) foliar treatments on the yield and quality of table beet and potato grown on soddy-podzolic well cultivated soils were presented. It was found that three-fold foliar treatment with 0.02% solution of KI for table beets and two-fold treatment for potatoes had the greatest efficiency. The maximum yield increased from the application of potassium iodide to the control were obtained for table beet by 127%, and for potatoes on the variant without mineral fertilizers by 29%. The use of KI provided an increase in the marketability of beet root crops by 22%, nitrogen content by 37%, potassium by 20% and magnesium by 8%, as well as a decrease in the content of nitrates by 40% and sugars by 27%. The use of foliar treatment increased the iodine content in root and tubers. Three-fold KI treatment in potatoes tubers contributed to an increase in iodine content by 3 times, on table beet roots by 4 times. In addition, four-fold treatment of KI on table beet roots provided an increase in the iodine content in root crops by 7 times.
Keywords: table beet, potato, yield, quality, potassium iodine (KI), foliar top dressing, the Leningrad region.
Effect of fertilizers on yield and quality of sickle alfalfa in Yakutia
Results of research in the field experiment, laid down at the scientific plot of the M.G. Safronov Yakut Scientific-Research Institute for Agriculture on the effect of mineral fertilizers and a preparation based on local strains of nodule bacteria of the genus Rhizobium on the yield and chemical composition of alfalfa sickle hay of the Yakut yellow variety are presented. It was found that in the conditions of Central Yakutia on permafrost pale yellow soil, the maximum yield of Yakut yellow alfalfa hay is 8.4 t/ha, or 33% higher than the control, is achieved when mineral fertilizers are applied in doses of N60P60K30. At the same time, hay is highly nutritious, contains 15.8% crude protein, 0.32% phosphorus, 1.7% calcium, which corresponds to the zootechnical norms of animal feeding. It has also been shown that inoculation of alfalfa seeds with local strains of nodule bacteria of the genus Rhizobium in combination with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers P60K60 can increase the yield of hay to 7.6 t/ha, or 20.7% higher than the control, with high availability of crude protein (17.2%), phosphorus (33%) and calcium (1.8%).
Keywords: sickle-shaped alfalfa varieties Yakut yellow, permafrost pale yellow soil, mineral fertilizers, strains of nodule bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, yield, hay quality, the Republic of Sakha – Yakutia.
Effect of long-term use of fertilizer systems on soil properties and crop rotation productivity in conditions of the Russian European North
In a long-term stationary field experiment on soddy-podzolic light-loamy soil with medium phosphorus and po- tassium, the influence of various fertilizer systems – mineral, organic-mineral and organic – on changes in agrochemical soil parameters, yield and quality of crops of forage six-field crop rotation was studied. Long-term scientific studies have shown that fertilizer systems have affected the properties of soddy-podzolic soil to varying degrees. Organic-mineral and organic fertilizer systems significantly influenced the agrochemical parameters of the soil. The content of humus increased by 0.2-0.7%, mobile phosphorus by 80-120 mg/kg due to the transformation of root crop residues, organic and mineral fertilizers and due to the incomplete use of phosphorus in cold soils of the North. The exchange and hydrolytic acidity, as well as the amount of exchangeable potassium decreased due to its high removal by plants and leaching along the soil profile. The use of a mineral fertilizer system had a less significant effect on the soil. It was found that the highest average yield of potato tubers was obtained using three doses of NPK against the background of peat-manure compost (PMC) 80 t/ha and amounted to 33.3- 37.9 t/ha, which was 79.0-103.7% higher than the option without fertilizers (potato tuber yield in the control was 18.6 t/ha). With increasing doses of fertilizers, the dry matter content in potato tubers decreased by 1.0-3.0% compared to the control. It is established that similar phenomena are also noted by the amount of starch in the products. Thus, in potatoes grown using three doses of NPK and PMC 80 t/ha, its average amount decreased to 11.6-11.8%, whereas in the version without fertilizers it was 14.3%. According to the variants of the experiment, the content of vitamin C in the products of complex application of fertilizers was high (20.4-24.6 mg%). The amount of nitrate nitrogen in potato tubers of all variants of the experiment did not exceed the MPC.
Keywords: crop rotation, organic and mineral fertilizers, yield, agrochemical indicators, acidity, potatoes, perennial herbs, the Komi Republic.
Influence of combined use of fertilizers and herbicide on weed infestation and productivity of winter wheat on soddy-podzolic soil
The article presents the results of research in 2019-2020 on the study of weed infestation of winter wheat crops, depending on the fertilizer system and the use of herbicide, obtained in a long-term stationary experiment on soddy-podzolic sandy loamy soil of the Vladimir region. It was found that for all fertilizer systems, a non-perennial type of weediness prevailed: 86-96% by quantity, 70-90% by weight of the total weediness. Before the application of the herbicide, the degree of infestation of winter wheat crops was characterized as strong in the control variant and in the variant with manure and as medium in the variant with mineral fertilizers. The maximum specific weight of weeds in the total biomass of the agrocoenosis was noted in the variants with manure litter – 25-22%, the minimum – in the variants with the use of mineral fertilizers only – 13-19%. When using the herbicide, the reduction in the number of weeds was 33% in the control variant, 26-45% in variants with organic and organic-mineral fertilizer systems, 15-17% in variants with a mineral fertilizer system. The maximum efficiency from the use of the herbicide was obtained in the variant with litter manure in doses of 10 and 20 t/ha. On average, over 2 years, due to the herbicide, the increase in the yield of winter wheat in the variants with manure amounted to 3.6-4.6 c/ha, the relative increase was 13-18%. The combined use of fertilizers and herbicides contributed to the formation of winter wheat yields at the level of 30-35 c/ha. The use of herbicide increased the efficiency of the use of litter manure: the increase in the yield of winter wheat due to fertilizer was 54-68% against the background of herbicide, and 42-62% without the use of herbicide. Payment for 1 kg of manure nutrients when using the herbicide increased from 4.1-5.5 to 4.9-7.7 kg of grain units. In the variants with mineral fertilizers, applied both separately and in combination with manure, the increase in winter wheat yield (10.6-17.2 c/ha) was due to the positive effect of fertilizers, the effectiveness of the herbicide was insignificant.
Keywords: fertilizers, winter wheat, herbicide, weed infestation, yield.
Influence of biologized crop rotations on agrochemical indicators of soil, determining food regime and grain productivity of arable lands in draught steppe
Research of impact of biologized crop rotation on the agrochemical indicators of the soil, which determine the food regime of cultivated crops and the productivity of arable land is presented. Field experiments were carried out in the Baymak scientific unit of the Bashkir Scientific-Research Institute for Agriculture. The relief of the experimental field is flat, represented by the foothill steppe of the Southern Urals. Soil - common chernozem medium-grained. The amount of precipitation during the research years for the growing season ranged from 58 mm (35% of the average norm) to 124 mm (75%), which characterizes weather conditions as strongly and medium dry. In the experience, they studied biologized field crop rotation with fields of grain crops and perennial grasses in comparison with cereal traditional crop rotation. In crop rotation fields, food backgrounds were laid including options without fertilizers, with fertilizers N30P20, and their combinations with straw of grain crops. It was revealed that regardless of fertilizer backgrounds, after three years of crop rotation, a stable reaction of the soil medium was observed in all crop rotations, pHKCl 5.76-5.86. The food regime is better in biological crop rotations: a greater content of available phosphorus (139-159 mg/kg), potassium (190-191 mg/kg), with lower values in grain crop rotation, respectively, 133 and 178 mg/kg. According to the average annual grain productivity, biological crop rotations are significant – by 0.06-0.10 thousands of grain units (by 5-11%), ahead of grain-steam crop rotation.
Keywords: biological crop rotation, arid steppe, common chernozem, agrochemical indicators, grain productivity, the Southern Urals.
Agricultural reclaim as a method of increasing productivity and sustainability of agricultural production
Research of land reclamation as a method on yield increase and agriculture sustainability providing is presented. Energy status of the agroecosystem as well as production potential under land reclamation were estimated in the paper. The following parameters are proposed as the main criteria determining the energy status of the agroecosystem: radiation balance, hydrothermal mode in the soil, agrochemical parameters, content and composition of humus. The above parameters are required to provide yield under reclamation and agrotechnical measures application. The object of the study was the Volgograd region, which belongs to the zone of risky agriculture due to instable agro-climatic conditions and low soil fertility. According to analysis of agro-climatic and soil conditions the current status of agroecosystem soil productivity and sustainability of agriculture are rather low in rainfed areas of the region. Soil moisture availability increasing as well as soil basic agrochemical properties improvement, using reclamation and agrotechnical measures are required. The methodology research in- cludes agroecosystem energy status estimation as well as soil productive potential determining; calculated values comparison to the actual data. The results of the research show, that land reclamation application provides an increase in the agroecosystem energy status by 20-35 GJ/ha, which contributes to an increase in biological productivity (yield) in more than 3 times corresponding to the world level. At the same time, the dependence of agricultural production on climate risks is reduced, which is confirmed by the previously performed field studies.
Keywords: agroecosystem, fertility, sustainability of agriculture, parameters’ regulation, soil energy status, ir- rigation, agrotechnical measures, the Volgograd region.
Interaction of meliorants with the absorbing complex of acidic soils
In model laboratory experiments (in columns), the mechanisms of interaction of lime-containing fertilizers, gypsum and their combination with the absorbing complex of soddy-podzolic soils of varying degrees of acidity and aggregation were established. It is shown that the decrease in soil acidity when using dolomite powder (DP) occurs due to the neutralization of its agents (Н+ and Аl3+ ions) by hydroxyl (OH-) ions formed during alkaline hydrolysis of carbonate ions of dissolving ameliorant. Instead of neutralized Н+ and Аl3+ ions, Са2+ and Mg2+ ions become exchange cations. On strongly and very strongly acidic weakly aggregated soils, in which the bulk of Н+ and Аl3+ ions are located on the outer surface of the absorbing complex, the binding of acidity agents with hydroxyl ions occurs at a low concentration of Са2+ and Mg2+ ions in the liquid phase (several mg-eq/l). The coefficient of use of the full dose of DP (equivalent to hydrolytic acidity) was 0.75-0.80, the hydrolysis of carbonate ions proceeded along both stages, the effect of the ameliorant was observed in the layer of its application. On more aggregated strongly, medium and slightly acidic soils, the exchange ions Н+ and Аl3+ located on the outer surface of soil aggregates also are neutralized by OH- ions at a low concentration of the liquid phase. Hydrolysis of carbonate ions proceeded mainly at the 1st stage, and the utilization factor of DP decreased to 0.5-0.6. Intraaggregate Н+ and Аl3+ ions were displaced from the SAC by high concentrations of divalent cations (several tens of mg-eq/l) formed during dissolution of gypsum. When DP and gypsum were used together, the displaced ions (Н+, Аl3+) were also bound by hydroxyl ions due to an increase in the degree of hydrolysis of carbonate ions of DP. The combined use of lime-containing ameliorants and gypsum on more aggregated soils allows improving the acidic properties deeper than the layer of their application and increasing the utilization rate of lime ameliorant.
Keywords: illuvial horizons of acidic soddy-podzolic soils, columns, dolomite powder, gypsum, hydrolytic acidity, hydrolysis of carbonate ions, coefficient of use of ameliorant.
Evaluation of efficiency of leonardite humic substances as agents for priming radish seeds in laboratory and field conditions
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of humic substances (HS) as agents for priming radish (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus L. Domin) in laboratory and field conditions. To reach this goal, leonardite HS was used in concentrations of 0.1-2.0 g/l. In laboratory conditions, the beneficial effect of HS on the length of shoots and roots of seedlings and on the vigorous index of radish seeds was noted in the concentration range of 0.25-1.0 g/l. Under the conditions of a field experiment conducted in dry hot weather, the treatment of radish seeds in a concentration of 0.5 g/l accelerated the emergence of seedlings in the first days after sowing, but did not affect the final field germination. The yield of radishes obtained from HS-treated seeds did not differ from the control. Nevertheless, plants from primed seeds showed partial adaptation to stressful conditions. This was expressed in a higher water content and a lower vitamin C content in root crops from primed seeds. The conclusion is made about the ineffectiveness of HS as priming agents in the case of using priming as the only method of stress mitigation. Future studies may be aimed at assessing the possibility of enhancing the effect of priming of HS by combining it with foliar treatments.
Keywords: humic substances, priming, radish, vitamin C, stress.
Influence of biopreparations on ammonia emission from liquid pig manure
The results of three model laboratory experiments on possibility of reducing nitrogen losses in ammonia formed during the decomposition of organic matter of manure using biopreparations – destructors (BD) are presented. The experiment was conducted on two fractions of manure obtained at a large pig farm in the Nizhniy Novgorod region – fresh (native) pig manure (NPM) and liquid pig manure (LPM), formed after separation of NPM. Microbiological BD S-Bio, Organic and Odor, as well as the preparation of complex action Biotic were used. All experiments were conducted in triplicate, in 500 ml flasks with a narrowed neck, closed with a stopper to prevent gaseous losses. We studied effect of BD on NPM in test No 1, on LPM – In test No 2 for 26 days, controlling ammonia release after 7, 14 and 26 days. In experiment No 3 ammonia emission from the manure was counted once, after two weeks of its incubation with BD without additional air supply to the flasks. Air sampling and determination of gas concentration was carried out using a hand bellows aspirator AM-5M and a set of indicator tubes. Effectiveness of biopreparations on pig manure was evaluated by ammonia release per 1 kg of manure. It was found that the use of all BDs on LPM led to a decrease in ammonia emission by 40-50 mg/kg of manure, but on NPM two BDs (Biotic and C-Bio) contributed to an increase in ammonia emission. Ammonia emissions from manure without BD reached 62-79% of the theoretically possible presence of ammonia in manure, or 9-11% of Ntotal. Application of BD results in a reduction of ammonia losses to 14-32% of the sum of ammonia nitrogen in LPM, reducing the proportion of NH3 to 2-6% of Ntotal. Storage of pig waste with limited air access leads to the accumulation of larger amounts of NH3 than under conditions with periodic renewal. That is, the application of LPM to the soil will be accompanied by less odor than the use of NPM in the agroecosystem.
Keywords: native and liquid pig manure, ammonia emission, biopreparations of microbial and enzyme origin, the Nizhniy Novgorod region.
Evaluation of action of new generation fertilizers on microbial coenosis of spring rape
Complex fertilizers based on a consortium of autochthonous bacteria, native minerals (lime, zeolite, phosphorite) and their nanostructured analogs (nanostructured lime suspension, nanostructured water-phosphorite suspension, nanostructured water-zeolite suspension) have been created. The consortium is represented by four strains – Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas brassicacearum, Sphingobacterium multivorum, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, bacterial suspension density 2.0-8.0 x 109 CFU/cm3. The dose of native minerals is 1.0 t/ha, nanostructured analogues – 0.1 t/ha. When growing an oilseed crop (spring rape) under the conditions of a vegetation experiment on gray medium loamy soil, it was found that of the native minerals, zeolite (70.1%) has the most pronounced positive effect on seed weight. The maximum result of all the studied nanominerals was obtained in the variant with a nanostructured water-phosphorite suspension (72.4%). The use of biofertilizers contributes to an increase in the number of agronomically significant microorganisms, such as ammonifying, diazotrophic and phosphate mobilizing, while reducing denitrifying ones. No phytopathogenic micromycetes were found in the rhizosphere of spring rape. The use of new generation complex fertilizers can lead to a significant reduction in the cost of purchasing fertilizers, restoration of soil fertility, an increase in crop yields and, ultimately, greening of agriculture.
Keywords: spring rape, microbial coenosis, autochthonous bacteria, natural minerals, complex fertilizers.
Influence of ameliorants on the biological activity of burozem after thermal exposure in model experiments
The results of a study of the influence of ameliorants (zeolite, lime, potassium humate) in model experiments to assess the ecological state of burozem after thermal exposure are presented. The activity of enzymes from the class of oxidases (catalase, peroxidase) and hydrolases (urease, invertase), the content of organic carbon, acidity and phytotoxicity of soils were studied. It was found that the introduction of lime after 90 days leads to the greatest positive effect of peroxidase activity by an average of 23-24% due to a decrease in exchangeable acidity with an increase in soil pHKCl to slightly acidic and neutral values in all studied variants. Also, after the introduction of lime, the growth of the roots of the test culture is stimulated by 14-18%. The introduction of ameliorants into the post-pyrogenic soil did not lead to significant changes in the content of organic carbon. The greatest positive effect on the activity of catalase is caused by the introduction of lime by 8.5 times compared with post-pyrogenic burozem without ameliorants and zeolite by 3.6 times. Stimulation of urease activity is observed with the introduction of zeolite, lime in the soil without thermal exposure by almost 105 and 91% and potassium humate in burozem after thermal exposure by 12%. In addition, the introduction of humate into burozem after thermal exposure had a stimulating effect on root growth by 26% higher relative to control values.
Keywords: soil enzymes, soil acidity, thermal exposure, Cambisol, melioration.
Forecast of vertical migration of 137Cs of the Chernobyl origin in soils of plain and accumulative agrolandscapes of the Plavsk radioactive spot
The paper gives the results of the prognostication of the 137Cs distribution throughout the soil profile of meadow ecosystems based on vertical migration models of 137Cs of the Chernobyl origin. The models were parameterized based on experimental data obtained on the territory of the Plavsk radioactive spot in the Tula region. A substantial difference in dynamics of 137Cs vertical distribution in the soil of plain and accumulative agrolandscapes has been demonstrated. The peculiarity of the latter is the transfer of layers with a maximum content of 137Cs downwards along with the soil profile with time. A comparative assessment of the intensity of purification of the root layer of soil for the considered types of agrolandscapes has been made. It is shown that for accumulative agrolandscapes the 137Cs content in pasture vegetation will decrease 8 times in 30 years (from 2020 to 2050), while for plain terrain vegetation the decrease will be only 2 times.
Keywords: the Chernobyl accident, the Plavsk radioactive spot, plain and accumulative agrolandscapes, 137Cs migration within the soil profile, mathematical models, prognostic assessment, root layer of soil, pasture vegetation, the Tula region.
Productive possibilities of broad-shouldered breadbasket variety samples at typical chernozem in conditions of southern forest-steppe zone of the Republic of Bashkortostan
With frequent droughts in Bashkortostan, the issue of expanding the types of perennial grasses with high drought resistance and creating their varieties with productive longevity and resistance to environmental stress factors in the conditions of the Urals zone has become urgent. All these qualities are possessed by the broad-shouldered breadbasket, which is able to give stable yields of green mass and seeds under all weather conditions. The article presents the results of studies of cultivars of broad-shouldered breadbasket for 2019-2021 in nurseries of competitive variety testing, laid down in the scientific division «Ufa» of the Bashkir Scientific-Research Institute for Agriculture of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the RAS, located in the southern forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The soil cover is a typical chernozem with a humus content of 8.5%. Weather conditions during the years of the research were diverse, which made it possible to give a comprehensive assessment of breadbasket varieties in competitive variety testing. In the nursery of the competitive variety testing four varieties of the broad-shouldered breadbasket were evaluated. Over the years of research on the complex of economically valuable traits, the following varietals have been distinguished: Brodsky broad-shouldered (29811), Batyr (47346), Parkway (36266) and Donetsk broad-shouldered (38873). These cultivars were distinguished by a high leafiness from 38.8 to 40.0%. The collection of dry matter exceeded the standard from 41.8 to 61.3%.
Keywords: broad-shouldered breadbasket, variety type, yield, chernozem, the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Efficiency of protein content prediction of wheat kernels
An equation of multiple nonlinear regression is presented, reflecting the dependence of the protein content in wheat kernels (Y = Ntotal х 5,7) on the raw gluten content (X1,%) and 1000-kernels weight (X2, g): Y = 16,0570 + 0,6768X1 – 0,0032X12 – 0,7891X2 + 0,0083X22. In the developed equation, the protein content is reduced to dry matter (d.m.), and the content of raw gluten and 1000-kernels weight – by 12% humidity or air-dry matter (a.d.m.). An algorithm and results of checking the accuracy of predicting the protein content of wheat kernels using independent experimental data are presented. That is, data on the content of protein, gluten and 1000-kernels weight obtained by other authors. A summarized of data from 141 literary sources of domestic and foreign authors with a total number of observations n = 2286 on more than two hundred varieties wheat showed that the number of values outside the permissible deviations regulated by GOST 10846-91 «Method for determining protein» accounted for 374 or 16,4% of the total number of observations. At the same time, the accuracy of predicting the protein content in kernels of various wheat varieties reached 83,6%. The developed equation with a relatively high degree of probability can be used to predict the protein content in kernels of various varieties of winter and spring soft and durum wheat.
Keywords: wheat, protein, 1000-kernels weight, raw gluten, multiple regression analysis, predication of protein content.
Approbation of conception of land degradation economics (on the example of the Penza region)
The article presents the results of the approbation of the methodology of Y. von Braun for the territory of the Penza region of lands at three levels of the administrative-territorial structure of the Penza region (agricultural enterprise «Labor Way» – the Kuznetsk municipal district – the Penza region in total). For all three levels, the Y method was used. based on the comparison of economic indicators of agricultural production under sustainable land management and under «traditional» land use – the methodology of «action/inaction assessment». At the same time, the cost of «action» was the cost of returning the most productive vegetation cover, and the cost of «inaction» was the cost of passive waiting, when the productivity of the ecosystem annually falls by some amount. The decrease in the value of land during the estimated period was regarded as their degradation. The application of the «action/inaction» methodology for three levels of the administrative and economic structure of the Penza region showed the heterogeneity of degradation processes at different levels, as a result of which investments in land restoration are justified for the Kuznetsk municipal district and agricultural enterprise «Labor Way» for a period of 20 years. The obtained results revealed the uneven development of agricultural production in the Penza region, including those areas that lead to the minimization of land degradation processes.
Keywords: land degradation, ecosystem services, land use, crop production, assessment of «action» and «inaction».