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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.

Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева

Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.

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Подписано в печать: 29.08.2022
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Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.


How to fill the Dobenek barrel or application problems of the Liebig law in agricultural practice

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-1-001

The purpose of the research was to identify the main problems of applying Liebig's law as applied to its main model – the Dobenek barrel. Try to answer the question – do we take into account all crop factors correctly and correctly when planning the doses of fertilizer application, invite scientists involved in this research topic to discuss and solve problems. Preliminary conclusions indicate that the amount of yield obtained can be determined by an increase in the factor that is at its maximum with unchanged minimum values; it is desirable to interpret the degree of soil supply with nutrients for each crop and even variety; when assessing the provision of soils with nutrients and moisture, it is necessary to take into account not only the upper horizon, but, if possible, the entire root zone; it is desirable to rely not only on the analysis of a dried soil sample, but also take into account the analyzes of other methods; in addition to mobile and water-soluble forms, it is necessary to operate with data on the gross content of nutrients; it is desirable to take some crop factors, such as the reserves of productive moisture and the content of physical clay, outside the Dobenek barrel and consider them not factors, but a condition.

Keywords: Liebig law, Dobenek barrel, crop factors, nutrients, productivity, crop quality.

Effect of complex micro-fertilizers on the content of copper and zinc in soil and plants, yield and grain quality winter wheat on leached chernozem

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-002

The article presents materials on the influence of complex micro- and macrofertilizers on the content of copper and zinc in the soil and plants, on the yield and quality of winter wheat grain in the conditions of the Stavropol upland. As a result of the studies (2020-2021), it was found that in the variants with the introduction of the recommended and calculated doses of mineral fertilizers, compared with the control, there was a significant decrease in the content of mobile copper (0.03-0.07 mg/kg of soil) and zinc (0.02-0.07 mg/kg of soil) in the soil. The microfertilizers «All inclusive», WUXAL «Microplant» and POLIDON «Complex» used in the experiment did not significantly increase the average content of copper and zinc in winter wheat plants compared to the control. All the complex micro fertilizers studied in the experiment significantly increased the crop yield by 0.65-1.34 t/ha relative to the control, and the highest productivity of winter wheat on all food backgrounds was provided by the introduction of «All Inclusive». The planned yield level of winter wheat of the Alekseevich variety 7.5 t/ha was not achieved on any variant, and the maximum yield was obtained on the variant with the introduction of the calculated dose of mineral fertilizers N186P95K45 + «All inclusive» and amounted to 6.9 t/ha (92% of the planned yield level).

Keywords: leached chernozem, micro- and macrofertilizers, zinc and copper, winter wheat, yield, grain quality, the Stavropol region..

Agroecological assessment of fallow lands the modern delta of the Kuban river

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-003

Studies of water-physical properties, as well as agrochemical indicators of meadow and alluvial meadow soils were carried out on fallow land plots located in the modern delta of the Kuban River. The paper considers the relationship between the granulometric composition and agrophysical properties of soils that determine the features of the soil cover of floodplain and waterlogged terrain areas. The regularities of the interdependence of the density of the solid phase and the granulometric composition of the soil, which consist in the mineralogical composition of alluvial soils and soil-forming rocks, are revealed. A tendency of increasing soil density with an increase in the content of physical clay and silt, as well as an increase in the density of the solid phase of soils, has been established. The assessment of agrochemical indicators of meadow and alluvial meadow soils is given. The composition and amount of water-soluble salts of meadow soils exceeds the permissible limits, which prevents the cultivation of crops. The implementation of projects for carrying out cultural and technical measures ensuring the introduction of fallow areas into circulation will become the most important reserve for increasing agricultural use, but will require large expenditures on reclamation measures.

Keywords:fallow lands, water-physical properties, organic matter, soil salinization, soil reclamation.

Activity concentration of radionuclides and physico-chemical properties of soils in mountain and steppe region

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-004

The paper presents the results of studies on the establishment of a relationship between the physicochemical properties of the soil (humus, pHH2O, granulometric composition) of the mountainous and steppe regions of the North Caucasus and the activity concentration of natural (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) and artificial (137Cs) radionuclides. The data of expeditions in the Rostov region and the mountainous regions of the Republic of Adygea in 2010-2020 are presented. Activities concentrations of natural radionuclides average 20-30 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 232Th and 300–500 Bq/kg for 40K. The median activities concentrations of radiocesium in mountain and steppe soils vary within 10-50 Bq/kg. The soils of the steppe regions are distinguished by a neutral and slightly alkaline reaction of the environment and a predominantly heavy loamy granulometric composition. Mountain soils are slightly acidic, light and medium loamy. Positive relationships were established between the activity concentration of radiocesium in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer and the humus for the steppe regions. For natural radionuclides, there are no stable relationships between the humus content and the pH level. The concentration of natural radionuclides in soils depends on the granulometric composition. The presence of physical clay promotes the sorption of radionuclides by clay fractions. Since radiocesium is located in the upper layers of the soil. It was not possible to evaluate its relationship with the granulometric composition.

Keywords: natural radionuclides, 137Cs, activity concentration, humus, granulometric composition, pHH2O, correlation, the Rostov region, the Republic of Adygea.

Influence of spring wheat varieties of different geographic origin on health of rhisospheric soil

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-005

A study of the rhizosphere soil health was carried out in 2020-2021 on a collection of 9 spring wheat varieties with different geographical origin in the northern forest-steppe of the Ob region. In the study of soil samples, conventional and author's methods were used. A differentiated effect of varieties on the soil ecosystem was revealed, varietal differences in the level of the rhizosphere soil health reached 1.8 times as a result. The best indicators at the level of «relative health» (120-133 points out of 195 possible) were found in the rhizosphere soil under Siberian varieties. The variety Sibirskaya 17 was of a particular value, it increased the number of saprotrophic microorganisms and the suppressiveness of the soil to phytopathogens, and also stabilized the soil population number of grain crops common root rot causative agent – Bipolaris sorokiniana, restraining its reproduction.

Keywords:variety, soil health, factual criterion, soil suppressiveness, number of microorganisms, phytopathogen, the Novosibirsk region.

Influence of agricultural technologies on microbiological composition of soil

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-006

The results of a comparative assessment of the influence of tillage methods (plowing to a depth of 20-22 cm, shallow surface tillage by 6-8 cm with disk tools, as well as No-till technology) on the biological activity of various ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms, are presented. The studies were carried out in a stationary experiment on the basis of the Kurgan Research Institute of Agriculture – a branch of the Ural Federal Agrarian Scientific Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The soil was sampled from a depth of 0-10 cm in a grain-fallow crop rotation and on permanent crops of spring wheat. The No-till system contributed to an increase in the number of microorganisms up to 12.8 million CFU/g in crop rotation and 20.3 million CFU/g in permanent crops. Due to the fact that plant residues were on the soil surface, conditions were created to preserve moisture, which was deficient during the growing season (HTC 0.62, 0.32). Depending on the degree of mechanical impact on the soil, the quantitative indicators of microorganisms changed and - the more intense the impact, the less they are 8.6-8.5 million CFU/g in crop rotation and 10.4-9.1 million CFU/g in permanent crops. With the transition to minimal tillage and, especially, zero technologies, there was a significant increase in the number of fungi of the genus Fusarium spp., especially in permanent crops.

Keywords: number of microorganisms, ammonifiers, micromycetes, leached chernozem, grain fallow crop rotation, permanent wheat, soil tilling technology, the Kurgan region.

Assessment of soils of agricultural ecosystems by content of heavy metals in zone of influence of mining facilities

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-007

The results of the study of the content of heavy metals in the soils of agricultural lands of the Trans-Urals of the Republic of Bashkortostan are presented. It has been established that the soils of arable lands located outside the zone of influence of mining enterprises have a non-hazardous degree of contamination with heavy metals. The soils of agricultural lands adjacent to the objects of the mining enterprise are characterized by a high content of heavy metals, which raises concerns about the increased likelihood of obtaining crop products with a high concentration of heavy metals and dictates the need to monitor their content in soils and take measures to reduce the level and prevent further contamination of adjacent territories.

Keywords: soil pollution, heavy metals, gross and mobile forms, mining industry, the Republic of Bashkortostan.

Dynamics of aftereffect of different doses of hydrogel on yield of cultivated crops on chernozem ordinary of the Central Ciscaucasia

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-008

Nine-year results of studies of the effect of various doses of hydrogel (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg/ha) on the productivity of cultivated crops during plowing by 20-22 cm and fine treatment by 10-12 cm on a fertilized (N60P60K60) and inconvenient background are presented. It has been established that on ordinary chernozems of the Ciscaucasia trawl, the hydrogel dose of 100 kg/ha is not effective even in the first year after application. The hydrogel dose of 200 kg/ha provides an increase in the yield of cultured crops within three years after application. The effect of the hydrogel dose of 300 kg/ha is most effective also in the first three years with the subsequent attenuation of the positive effect on the productivity of cultivated crops. In the fourth, fifth and even my year, according to the fertilized background, from a hydrogel dose of 300 kg/ha, an increase in crop yield and crops of the crop rotation link was noted. Positive effect on yield of dose 400 kg/ha on fertilized background for 8 years with product growth for the fourth year 1.06-1.27 t/ha or 25.3-33.2%, the fifth year – 0.59-1.15 thousand grains. units/ha or 11.3-26.4%, the sixth – 1.26-1.88 t/ha or 18.2-22.7%, the seventh – 0.36 t/ha or 9.4-9.9%, the eighth - 1.46-1.55 thousand grains. units/ha or 29.9-38.9%. While in an inconvenient background in the fifth and seventh years from 400 kg/ha of hydrogel, no additional products were obtained.

Keywords: hydrogel, complete mineral fertilizer, ordinary chernozem, dump plowing, fine processing, winter wheat, oilseed radish, aftereffect, the Stavropol region.

Mechanisms for «maximizing» crop yields with lack of soil moisture in plant root system

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-009

In the work of Z.N. Bichele, H.А. Moldau, Y.K. Ross (1980), the phenomenon of «maximizing» crop yields with a lack of soil moisture in the plant root system was described, which made it possible to phenomenologically explain the phenomenon of regulating the absorption of water and solar energy by plants. The purpose of the work is to determine the mechanisms for absorption of water and FAR by crops depending on the level of mineral nutrition. For this, an electro-diffusion-convective model was used, including three mechanisms for transferring soil solution to the «suction» zone (root hairs): transfer of soil solution under the influence of the electrostatic field of roots and soil, diffusion and convection. It has been established that the stress of the electrostatic field of the root-soil system, being a force, directs the flow of soil solution to the negatively charged surface of the roots of the «suction» zone. The availability of soil moisture to the root system of plants, the absorption of FAR, the diffusion flow of moisture increases with its lack and convective with moisture, transpiration and yield. Increase of intensity values at lack of moisture makes it possible to maintain multiplicity of yield increase equal at moisture availability. This is the essence of the phenomenon of «maximizing» yield with a lack of moisture in the root system of plants.

Keywords: electric field intensity of the root-soil system, surface density of roots and soil charges, transpiration, PAR, Debaevsky radius, DPS, electro-diffusion-convective model.

Functional activity of tea plantation soils after removing load of fertilizers

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-0010

Have been studied the brown forest acid soils of the humid subtropical zone of Russia (Sochi Black Sea coast), which have been used for a long time for the cultivation of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze). At the stage of 10- year cancellation of the fertilizers load, an assessment of the functional state of soils that had previously received different degrees of agrogenic changes was carried out. The studies were carried out on a number of variants of multifactorial field experience, where NPK fertilizers were introduced in the period 1986-2011, and since 2012 their use has been completely discontinued. Soils previously fertilized with single, double or triple doses of NPK (111, 222, 333) were compared with native forest soil (standard) and control (000-without fertilizers), as well as fertilized plantation (N240P70K90), which is comparable to single doses). It was found that the removal of agrogenic pressure contributed to the improvement of the bioecological status of soils, normalization of their depressed functional state. Without reaching the standard level yet, the substrate-induced respiration and the total microbial biomass were on average 1.7-2.2 times higher here, and the microbial metabolic coefficient was 1.4-1.8 times lower, compared with a regularly fertilized plantation. At the same time, for soils in remission, the dosedependent effect was maintained, according to the previously produced load of NPK fertilizers.

Keywords: brown forest acidic soils, tea agrocoenosis, mineral fertilizers, agrogenic pressure, respiratory activity, microbial biomass, metabolic coefficient, the Black Sea coast (Sochi).

Analysis of reclaim effect from application parent rocks and phosphogypsum in time on leached chernozem for winter wheat cultivation

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-0011

The purpose of the research was to compare the content of nutrients and the yield of winter wheat from the use of rocks and to establish the degree of effectiveness in different periods of action and aftereffect. The object of research was rocks such as shell limestone, apatite and phosphogypsum, which is a waste product of the nitrogen fertilizer industry. Produced as a separate, and their joint introduction. The studies were carried out on leached thick lowhumus heavy loamy chernozem on loess-like loam of the experimental station of the Stavropol State Agrarian University. The experience was established in 2006. The yield of winter wheat and the content of the main macro- and microelements in 2008, 2012, 2018 and 2021 were compared. Studies have shown that the content of nutrients in the soil in 2008, i.e. in the third year of the aftereffect, increased with the introduction of rocks and phosphogypsum, which increased in 2012 and 2018. A similar pattern can be traced with the yield of winter wheat. In 2021, there is a significant decrease in the content of nutrients and an increase in the yield of winter wheat. It is possible to testify to the «fading» of the ameliorative effect for the 16th year of the aftereffect from the use of the studied rocks.

Keywords:apatite, shell limestone, phosphogypsum, winter wheat, macroelements, microelements, chernozem.

Potential possibilities for vermiremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum products

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-0012

Every year, the area of agricultural land withdrawn from agro-industrial circulation due to pollution with oil and oil products is increasing. To clean the soil, methods are used that are not only expensive and labor intensive, but also reduce the natural restoration of fertility. Vermiremediation methods have not yet been widely used, although they have proven their effectiveness in intensifying the processes of degradation of petroleum products to non-toxic compounds under experimental conditions. A study was carried out to study the influence of soil and climatic conditions on the effectiveness of vermiremediation of soils contaminated with oil products taken in the territory of the Stavropol Territory, based on a complex of earthworms and microbiological fertilizer «Baikal EM-1». The results of studying the vital activity of earthworms under conditions of oil pollution have been obtained, which indicate the prospects for intensifying the bioremediation potential of the symbiosis of earthworms and oil-oxidizing microflora. In the future, this will help to restore biocoenosis with a relatively stable species composition, prepared for the preventive elimination of oil pollution.

Keywords:polluted soils, oil products, vermiremediation, earthworms, microbiological preparations.

Application of Bionovatic biopreparation for winter wheat cultivation

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-0013

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Bionovatic biological preparations on the resistance of winter wheat plants to pathogens and its productivity in the conditions of unstable humidification zone of the Stavropol region. The work was carried out in 2020-2021 in the fields of the experimental station of the Stavropol State Agrarian University on leached chernozem. A significant decrease in the prevalence of septoriosis was noted in the variant with three-fold use of biologics. The decrease in the prevalence of septoriosis in the variant with a triple application of the Maximum program compared to the control was 46.7%, and the degree of development decreased by 54.1%. The use of biological preparations of the Maximum vegetative Plants program in the autumn and spring tillering phase, both separately and jointly, also contributed to a decrease in prevalence by 5.2-18.6%, and the degree of development of septoriosis by 5.1-19.6% compared to the variant where only etching was used and by 28.6-31.8% and 32.5-42.8% compared to the control, respectively. The use of three-time treatment with biological preparations of the Maximum program contributed to an increase in yield by 13.9% compared to the control, relative to other options, the yield increased by 5-10%.

Keywords: winter wheat, biological preparations, development and prevalence of the disease, yield, the Stavropol region.

Comparison of agrochemical indicators of modern and buried soil of the «Novozavedennoe 3» mound

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-0014

Conducted studies of modern and buried soils of the Scythian period in the territory of the Georgievsky district of the Stavropol Territory near the Novozavedennoe village. The age of the burial mound is 2300-2400 years, the height is about 2 m. In the immediate vicinity of the mound (80-100 m), modern virgin and arable soils were studied. The soils are classified as chestnut calcareous, formed on loess-like loams. On arable land, a grain-fallowrow crop rotation is cultivated with a predominance of winter wheat. On the virgin lands, the natural herbage is represented by forb-grass associations. It was established that for 2.4 thousand years the thickness of chestnut soils increased and horizon A appeared on the virgin lands and A subarable on arable land. There was a process of depletion of chestnut soils in mobile phosphorus and sulfur and accumulation of mobile potassium. As a result of mineralization, the content of organic matter in buried soils is 3-4 times lower than in modern soils, with a higher supply of humus in the upper horizons of virgin soil and lower horizons of arable land. Over the entire Holocene period under study, soil acidification occurred, which is more pronounced on arable land. The studied soils passed the solonchak stage and underwent desalinization.

Keywords:paleosoils, nitrate nitrogen, mobile phosphorus, potassium, humus, acidity, salt composition, the Stavropol region..

Influence of technologies of introducing polyfunctional biological preparations on the population of nitrogen-converting microbiota of common chernozem in the zone of unstable humidification of the central Pre-Caucasian region

DOI 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-4-0015

The purpose of the work was to study the effect of various elements of the technology for the use of polyfunctional microbial preparations on the abundance of soil microbiota in the production of corn for grain. The studies were carried out on ordinary, medium-thick, low-humus, heavy loamy chernozems on loess-like loam under the conditions of NPO «Kukuruza» of the Grachevsky municipal district of the Stavropol Territory in 2021 and 2022. The object of the study are polyfunctional preparations KBP standard – mobilizer of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil; KBP innovative – activator of biological processes; PCM – microbial polystrain complex with protective and growth-stimulating properties; KMP-92 is a stimulator of root formation, plant growth and the production of biologically active substances. Two technologies were used: 1. traditional – treatment of corn seeds before sowing, as well as vegetative plants in the phase of 3-4 leaves and flowering; 2. Proposed – tillage with subsequent incorporation of preparations, inoculation of corn seeds before sowing, as well as treatment of vegetative plants in the phase of 3-4 leaves and flowering. It was found that the amount of ammonifiers increased from the phase of 3-4 leaves to flowering and decreased to wax ripeness. The highest indicators with traditional technology in the flowering phase were in the variant with the use of KBP-S, and in the proposed technology with the use of the preparation KMP-92. The dynamics of the number of nitrifiers has a relative similarity with the dynamics of ammonifiers, since they are in a close metabiotic relationship. The dynamics of the number of nitrogen fixers is subject to the previously identified pattern, but there are significant differences between the technologies. On the traditional technology, the smallest amount was in the control (50 thousand CFU/1 g of soil) and increased with the use of preparations by 20-62 thousand CFU/1 g of soil, especially in the variant with the use of the KBP-S preparation on the traditional and KMP-92 on proposed technology.

Keywords: biological preparation, soil treatment systems, corn, ordinary chernozem, nitrogen fixers, ammonifiers, nitrifiers, the Stavropol region.