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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.

Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева

Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.

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Подписано в печать: 24.06.2022
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Свидетельство № 011095.


Optimization of nitrogen nutrition of winter wheat in the center of the Non-Chernozem zone of the Russian Federation using soil and plant diagnostics

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-001

At the soddy-podzolic medium loamy soil of the Central Non-Chernozem region of medium cultivation with increased and high availability of the arable layer with mobile phosphorus, low and medium – potassium in two stationary field experiments, a clear correlation was established between the yield and quality of winter wheat grain with the provision of soil and plants with nitrogen at the early stages of productivity formation. The obtained regression equations can be used to predict the level of yield and grain quality in similar hydrothermal conditions for 1.5-2.0 months before harvesting, and the established optima of the content (stocks) nitrogen in the soil and in plants – when adjusting the dose of spring nitrogen fertilization to create and maintain the optimal supply of winter wheat with this element.

Keywords: Non-chernozem zone, winter wheat, nitrogen nutrition, diagnostics, yield, grain quality.

Yield of spring barley varieties at different levels of mineral nutrition in combination with growth stimulants

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-002

In the conditions of the Voronezh region, the effectiveness of various doses of mineral fertilizers in combination with plant growth stimulators on the yield and quality of promising and most common varieties of spring barley in the Voronezh Region was studied at four levels of crop rotation fertilization formed in a stationary experiment: Priazovsky 9, Ikorets, Talovsky 9, Tamlyk, Medicum and Oskolets. It has been established that doses of mineral fertilizers, as well as the effect of previously applied fertilizers in crop rotation, have a dominant effect on increasing the yield of all varieties. Compared to the background against the background of N30P30K30, grain harvest increased by 17.7%, against the background of N60P60K60 – by 31.8% and against the background of N90P90K90 – by 46.0%. The inclusion in the technology of barley cultivation of agricultural products of various spectrum of action with non-root top dressing had a less significant effect on increasing the productivity of barley. The effectiveness of their use ranged from 12.8% on a non-mildewed background, to 9.6% on the background of N90P90K90. The maximum yield of barley was obtained from the Tamlyk variety against the background of N90P90K90 in combination with the agricultural preparation Asphert C. Progen Grouse – 3.25 t/ha and Aquadon-Micro – 3.22 t/ha, as well as in the Medicum variety in combination with the agricultural product Lignohumate – 3.22 t/ha.

Keywords: mineral fertilizers, growth stimulants, spring barley, chernozem, effective fertility, yield, the Voronezh region.

Productivity and quality of spring wheat in dependence of mineral nutrition level for growing at soddy-podzolic soil

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-003

In vegetative experiments at soddy-podzolic soil with low and high content of mobile phosphorus, the influence of increasing doses of nitrogen fertilizers on the yield, and grain quality of spring wheat varieties Lyubava and Moskovskaya 35 were studied for two years. In grain samples by IR spectroscopy determined the content of starch, fiber, sugars, fats, ash; sequential extraction according to Ermakov-Durynina with spectrophotometric completion of analysis according to Lowry determined the content of water-, salt-, alcohol- and alkali-soluble proteins and non-extractable residue. It was found that the optimization of phosphorus nutrition in the variants using the optimal and increased nitrogen doses, the wheat yield was higher on average for two varieties by 34- 95% than on soils with insufficient phosphorus supply. An increase supply of soil with mobile phosphates did not significantly affect the protein content of the grain, but noticeably increased the gross protein harvest, and also changed the protein compound, contributing to a greater accumulation of storage gluten proteins gliadins and glutenins. Regardless of the availability soils with phosphorus, the spring wheat variety of the modern selection Lyubava consistently provided a higher (by 6-22%) and better yield compared to the Moskovskaya 35 variety.

Keywords: spring wheat, yield, grain quality, protein fractional composition, available phosphorus, nitrogen fertilizers, soddy-podzolic soil.

Productivity of fiber flax depending on weather, fertilizers and varieties

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-004

Analysis of changes in the climatic factor in the conditions of the Tver region over the past decades has shown that in the period from May to September, the average daily temperature increased by 1.77 degrees, precipitation by 0.39 mm. Assessment of hydrothermal conditions (over 72 years) by the coefficient of HTC for the growing season for flax (May – August) it develops favorably (HTC from 1 to 2) in May 44%, in June – 50%, in July – 37%, in August – 32% years. The logarithmic relationship between the yield of flax fiber and the HTC of June shows that when the value of this coefficient passes through 1.0, the yield of flax fiber approaches the value of 10.0 c/ha. The decrease in the yield of flax straw from unfavorable meteorological conditions (a decrease in precipitation by 82-155 mm and an increase in the average daily temperature by 1.7-3.4 degrees) in comparison with favorable weather conditions ranged from 11.2 (in the early-maturing variety Zaryanka), 13.2 c/ha (in the latematuring variety Diplomat) to 14.5 c/ha (in the middle-maturing variety Universal).The modern Universal variety surpassed the early-maturing variety Zaryanka by 11.1 and 14.4 c/ha in yield of flax straw, both in an unfavorable year according to meteorological conditions and in a favorable one. The technological method is the use of complex fertilizers with trace elements (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium with boron 1.7 c/ha and OMU Linen 3.0 c/ha in equalized doses of nitrogen) and the cultivation of a modern high-yielding Universal variety allows, regardless of weather conditions, to obtain high yields of flax straw 73.0 and 75.0 c/ha and flax seeds 7.1 and 7.6 c/ha, respectively, fertilizers. he use of these fertilizers for row application in doses of 0.6 and 1.0 c/ha reduced the yield of flax straw to the main method of fertilization by 7.8 and 8.2 c/ha without reducing the yield of flax seeds. The use of a complex of trace elements for seed treatment and sowing as part of the organic mineral fertilizer Sivid-Boron (B) and Sivid-Zink (Zn) against the background of a reduction in the dose of the traditional fertilizer azofoska (from 1.5 to 1 c/ha) resulted in an increase in the yield of flax straw to 70.8 c/ha, seeds – 7.4 c/ha.

Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, fiber flax, hydrothermal coefficient, mineral and organomineral fertilizers, vegetation period, varieties, productivity, the Tver region.

Quality of potato and potato products depending on mineral nutrition

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-005

The studies were carried in the Bryansk region out on soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil on absolute control, average N90Р120К180 and elevated N120Р180К240 fertilizer backgrounds. The plots are 4-row, the repetition is 4-fold, the arrangement of plots is systematic. The planting scheme is 70 x 30 cm, the total area of the plot is 50 m2, the accounting area is 25 m2. With an increase in mineral nutrition to N90Р120К180, the yield of potato varieties increased by 3.7-6.3 t/ha, to N120Р180К240 – by 6.2-10.7 t/ha compared to the control. The most productive varieties were Slava of the Bryansk region, Bryanskaya novinka and Bryansky nadezhnuy 24.9, 24.7 and 22.9 t/ha. The yield and quality of tubers were influenced by weather conditions. In arid 2002, the yield of varieties at N90Р120К180 varied between 15.7-19.6 t/ha and at N120Р180К240 – 17.4-23.0 t/ha. In 2001, respectively – 14.1-20.1 t/ha and 19.8-27.9 t/ha, in 2003 – 17.6-23.2 t/ha and 19.3-28.4 t/ha. On average, over 3 years, the starch content compared with the control at N90Р120К180 decreased by 0.7-0.9%, dry matter – by 0.7-1.3%, and at N120Р180К240 – starch by 1.0-1.6%, dry matter – by 1.4-2.9%. In dry 2002 the starch and dry matter content in all grades was higher than in moistened 2001 and 2003 by 0.4-3.6% and 0.3-5.1%. With mineral nutrition N90Р120К180, the collection of starch varieties Bryanskaya novinka, Bryansky nadezhnuy, Slava of the Bryansk region was 3.6, 3.5 and 3.2 t/ha, at N120Р180К240 – 4,3, 4,0 and 3,7 t/ha, collection of dry substances, respectively 4.7, 4,6 and 4.3 and 5.4, 5.2 and 5.1 t/ha. The increase in mineral nutrition to the level of N120Р180К240 worsened the consumer properties of processed tubers.

Keywords: potatoes, variety, fertilizer background yield, dry substance, starch, taste, darkening, crispy pota- toes, dry mashed potatoes, the Bryansk region.

Efficiency of pig manure use in forage crop rotation link

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-006

Article presents the results of a 3-year experiment (2019-2021) on the study of the effect of pig manure obtained on a large pig farm in the Nizhny Novgorod region – liquid (LSN) and solid (TSN) fractions. The studies were carried out using the vegetative method in vessels per 5 kg of soil, in 3-fold repetition. The alternation of crops in the crop rotation «corn – sunflower – white mustard». Fertilizers were applied one-time, under the first crop of the crop rotation, before sowing subsequent crops, the soil in the vessels was interrupted. Fertilizers were applied in doses of nitrogen 0.05-0.16 g/kg, phosphorus – 0.04-0.16 g/kg and potassium – 0.06-0.20 g/kg, which is similar to the introduction of LSN into doses of 60-180 t/ha and TSN in doses of 30-60 t/ha. It has been established that in the direct action the maximum effect is exerted by the LSN at doses equivalent to 60 and 120 t/ha, and in the aftereffect – at doses of 120 and 180 t/ha; TSN is effective at both doses studied. The average annual payback of a unit of NPK of liquid pig manure by the average annual increase in the yield of crops of the crop rotation link ranges from 8.8-11.1 fodder units, and the unit of NPK of solid manure is 6.5-7.1 fodder units, and the total for 3 years – according to LSN within 26.1-33.3 feed units, according to TSN 19.6-21.4 fodder units. 3 years after the introduction of LSN and TSN in the soil, the content of mobile phosphorus compounds increases by 15-56% and potassium – by 10-38% to the content of these compounds in the soil of unfertilized control; the content of mineral nitrogen increases mainly due to its nitrate form; the reaction of the medium shifts towards neutral. The share of fixation of phosphorus in pig manure in the composition of mobile phosphorus compounds in the soil varies within 35-40%, and potassium – 17-21% of the applied amount.

Keywords: liquid and solid pig manure, application doze, light-gray forest soil, nutrients, corn, sunflower, mustard, yield.

Influence of glauconite sands application on main biochemical parameters of onion (Allium cepa L.)

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-007

The results of studies of the effect of the use of glauconite sands on the main biochemical parameters of onions are presented. The research was carried out in 2020-2021 at the Federal Research Center for Vegetable Growing (the Moscow Region) in the open ground and laboratory conditions. The object of research is the variety of onion Myachkovsky. The following concentrations of glauconite sand were used: 150 g/m2, 300 g/m2, 450 g/m2, 600 g/m2 and a control sample without the addition of glauconite sands. The maximum dry matter content is observed in the samples Myachkovsky 300, Myachkovsky control, Myachkovsky 450 (17.44; 17.41; 17.31, respectively). The highest vitamin C content was observed in the Myachkovsky control and Myachkovsky 450 samples (8.8 mg%). The highest indicator is the sum of sugars in the Myachkovsky control sample, Myachkovsky 300 and Myachkovsky 450 (11.68; 12.24 and 11.68%, respectively). It was found out that when applying glauconite sands, the biochemical parameters of the onion variety Myachkovsky significantly improve, the content (%) of dry matter increases. The most suitable application concentrations are 300 and 450 g/m2. It also has a positive effect on the weight of the bulb.

Keywords: onion, variety, glauconite sands, biochemical parameters.


Season dynamics of meadow-chernozem calcareous soil at fertigation of fruit-bearing apple trees

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-008

The features of the seasonal variability of the properties of meadow-chernozem calcareous soils in the conditions of the Zakubanskaya Plain of the Krasnodar region during the fertigation of fruit-bearing apple plantations of the Golden Rangers and Granny Smith varieties on the rootstock M9 (clone T337), 2015 planting (autumn), cultivated according to intensive technologies, were established. The main fertilization was carried out by a broadcast method in the near-trunk strips at a dose of N25K51 and fractional fertigation during the growing season at a dose of N9P16K34, as well as a single application in the middle of the growing season of the microbiological preparation BSka-3. Soil sampling was carried out regularly during the growing season directly under the droppers, at a distance of 20 and 40 cm from the point where the nutrient solution fell and in the center of the row spacing. There was no significant difference in the availability of nitrate nitrogen in the phases of development of apple plants, which is most likely due to low doses of nitrogen fertilizers. The non-use of phosphate fertilizers in the first half of the growing season led to a decrease in the content of mobile forms of phosphorus in the zone of local application of mineral fertilizers. The introduction of potash fertilizers during fertigation contributed to an increase in the supply of soil under droppers with exchangeable potassium during the period of active fruit growth in June-August. However, during the period of apple fruit ripening, a decrease in the content of mobile forms of potassium in the soil directly under the droppers was noted, which is probably due to the leaching of potassium into the deeper layers of the soil with intensive use of drip irrigation in the dry summer period. The use of microbiological preparation did not have a lasting effect on the preservation of Trichoderma fungi in the soil directly under the droppers. Based on the analysis of the seasonal variability of the properties of meadow-chernozem calcareous soils, adjustments are proposed to optimize the system of applying mineral and microbiological fertilizers in industrial plantations of intensive-type apple trees.

Keywords: fruit orchards, drop irrigation, fertigation, mineral fertilizers, agrochemical properties, nutrient distribution, the Krasnodar region.

Sulphur in soils in the Kursk region

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-009

The content and distribution of mobile sulfur available for feeding agricultural plants in the zonal soils of the Kursk region are presented. An analysis of the dynamics of changes in the sulfur content in arable soils over the past 25 years has been made. During this period, there is a clear pattern of decreasing sulfur content in the arable soil horizon in the soils of agricultural lands. Practical data on the availability of sulfur of the main types and subtypes of soils of the Kursk region are summarized and presented. By now, in almost all districts of the region and in all agricultural enterprises, both gray forest and chernozem soils have a low content of mobile sulfur. Only in some soil massifs and plots there is an average availability of mobile sulfur. Very low sulfur content in the soil is one of the main reasons for the low efficiency of applied mineral fertilizers, which affect the level of productivity of cultivated crops. In modern technologies of cultivation of field crops on the soils of the Forest-steppe zone with a low content of mobile sulfur, it is mandatory to introduce calculated norms of mineral sulfur-containing fertilizers.

Keywords: chernozems, gray forest soils, mobile sulfur, sulfur content, sulfur balance in soils.

Influence of legumes on soil fertility and crop rotation productivity

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-0010

The influence of alfalfa, peas, soybeans and chickpeas on the balance of soil organic matter and the productivity of crop rotations, depending on their saturation with legumes, is shown. Researches were carried out in stationary experiments in Voronezh and Saratov State Agrarian Universities. An increase in the share of legumes from 14 to 42% contributed to an increase in protein harvest per 1 ha from 298.2 to 560.3 kg/ha. The yield of fodder units increased from 27.4 to 38 kg/ha. Plant residues of leguminous crops with a narrow C:N (< 20) ratio are intensively decomposed, involving difficultly mineralizable straw residues in this process, while soil toxicity decreases from 136 conventional coumarin units to 11.5. Combined tillage contributed to an increase in the yield of chickpea to 0.94 t/ha on average over five years, in surface tillage it reduced to 0.74 t/ha. The yield of chickpea was 30% determined by the precipitation of the growing season and 16% depended on the content of available moisture in the soil in the spring and 33% on its content in the middle of the growing season of the crop. The effect of tillage on the yield of chickpea was minimal and amounted to 1.1%. In crop rotations with a saturation of legumes of 14-28%, the balance of organic matter was negative, and crop rotations with an increase in the proportion of legumes to 42% formed a positive balance of organic matter.

Keywords: legumes, crop rotation, tillage, balance of organic matter, productivity of crop rotation, protein collection, the Voronezh region, the Saratov region.


Development of storage method of Trichodermin biopreparation

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-0011

The study is aimed at developing a new storage method for the biofungicide Trichodermin based on Trichoderma viride, manufactured at the Rosselkhozcenter branch in the Republic of Tatarstan. The drug is intended for seed treatment of a wide range of crops and soil application. The prolonging effect of natural minerals (diatomite, glauconite, zeolite) and sapropel has been studied. As a substrate, high-moor peat was used, manufactured at JSC «Paranginskoe peat enterprise» of the Republic of Mari El. The presence of T. viride in peat was determined on days 21, 42, 63, and 84. The obtained data on the content of T. viride indicate its good preservation on a peat substrate, which indicates a rapid adaptation of the micromycete and good survival. On day 84, in the variant with glauconite, a minimal effect on the growth of T. viride was noted (25%). The amount of T. viride in the variant with the addition of sapropel is 45%. The maximum prolonging effect on the growth of T. viride is exerted by zeolite and diatomite, when they are introduced, the highest content of micromycete is observed – 65 and 95%, respectively. New evidence has been obtained that the use of natural minerals contributes to the maintenance of the viability of T. viride for three months on high-moor peat. Three of the studied minerals are promising for further research, the row of effectiveness of which on T. viride is as follows: diatomite > zeolite > sapropel.

Keywords: Trichodermin, biofungicide, natural minerals, diatomite, glauconite, sapropel, zeolite, storage.

Efficiency of application of sheet nutrition with amino acid preparations to increasestress resistance of tomato plants under salin soil conditions

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-0012

In a model laboratory experiment, the effect of amino acid preparations of monosodium glutamate and Aminosol on the biometric parameters of seedlings and the content of free amino acids in tomato plants grown in the absence of salinity and soil salinization with sodium chloride at concentrations of 50 and 100 mmol/kg NaCl was studied. In the absence of salt stress, a stimulating effect of amino acid preparations on an increase in the degree (increase by 14.8-19.4%), an increase in concentration (by 25.5-32.7%), dry biomass (by 6.8-15.3%) and the amount of amino acids (by 27.5-68.0%). In this case, the most effective use of the drug Aminozol. A decrease in the intensity of growth processes under the influence of salt stress was shown: stem length decreased by 14.8-20.3%, root length – by 7.3-12.7%, dry weight – by 35.6-40.7%. In response to salt stress, the amount of free amino acids increased by 1.6-2.2 times. Foliar feeding with amino acid preparations partially reduced the toxic effect of chloride salinization, increasing the biometric parameters of seedlings by 16.7-53.4% and the total amino acid content by 1.3-2.2 times in tomato plants compared to the corresponding salinization options. The highest efficiency was found with foliar feeding with monosodium glutamate, which confirms its protective effect.

Keywords: soil salinity, tomatoes, biometric indicators, monosodium glutamate, Aminosol, free amino acids.

Exogenous regulation of bioproductivity of essential oil crops in conditions of the Western Caucasus

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-0013

Essential oil plants are sources of valuable essential oils that are widely used in medical practice and various industrial sectors. Russia buys most essential oils in other countries. It is possible to ensure an increase in the level of import substitution only with an increase in the production of high-quality essential oil raw materials. For four years, in the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory, in the rotation of medicinal herb of the North Caucasian branch of VILAR on oregano (Oríganum vulgare L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), studies were conducted to study the ways of hormonal regulation of the formation of two components of bioproductivity – yield and essential oil content (EM). For this purpose, we was used regulator Zircon, which was introduced into the phase of mass growth of plants with a consumption rate of 0.04 l/ha and into the budding phase – 0.1 l/ha. Harvest of essential oil raw materials (grass) was carried out 10 days after the last treatment with a bioregulator, since it was determined that it was during this period that the highest content of essential oil was observed. As a result of the tests, it was found that Zircon, used in the start phases of the vegetation of essential oil herbs, provided increased plant growth and increased the yield of raw materials by 11-12%. When we are used Zircon in the generative phase, its effect on growth processes was not noted, the yield was almost at the control level, however, an increase in the EM content by 21-25% was observed. Based on the results obtained, it can be said that Zircon exhibits its growth-regulating properties at low flow rates, and with their increase, EM accumulation processes are activated. Such a systematic approach to the use of Zircon provides an increase in the two components of bioproductivity, contributing to an increase in the collection of essential oil per hectare compared to the control by 36-37% and by 10-14% compared to single Zircon application.

Keywords: oregano, yarrow, bioregulator Zircon, yield, essential oil, the Krasnodar region.

Methodology of laying experiments with moisture-loving crops (moss, reed, cattail) in urban ecosystems.

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-0014

The article presents the results of research on the development of methods for growing moisture-loving crops (common reed (Phragmites australis), narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia), cypress Hypnum moss (Hypnum cupressiforme)) to determine the effective ratio of lowland peat and a mixture of chips of coniferous and larch trees in the resulting substrate at the experimental sites of the Ecological experimental station of the Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, which will favorably affect the future growth of biomass of moistureloving crops and its further targeted use. The agrochemical and agrophysical parameters of the soil were evaluated. To solve the main problem of maintaining the sustainable functioning of urban ecosystems, we set a goal: to develop a methodology for restoring urbanized territories by artificially moistening the object under study and creating conditions for the growth of moisture-loving crops typical in this area and their economic use without damage to the restored ecosystem. The introduction of the technology of growing moisture-loving crops will significantly increase the efficiency of the use of worked-out areas, and annually obtain reed, moss and cattail biomass for subsequent intended use. Possibility in the conditions of a metropolis to study the problem of water-logged territories, to solve this problem in an ecological way through the cultivation of moisture-loving crops.

Keywords: moisture-loving crops, waterlogging, channel, narrow-leaved cattail, common reed, cypress Hypnum moss, experimental site, reclamation channel.


Antioxidant status of Tussilago farfara L. in conditions of urban environment anthropogenic pollution

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-0015

This study is devoted to the impact of heavy metal accumulation on biochemical parameters of coltsfoot plants in different districts of Tyumen town. Coltsfoot samples were collected from control site, highway engine-building, oil refinery, battery manufacturing, and metallurgical plants. Heavy metal content in plants was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. Coltsfoot from the industrial areas accumulated heavy metals by 1.1-19.0 times compared to the control. Heavy metal accumulation decreased in the order: Fe > Cr > Pb > Zn > Co > Cu > Mn > Cd > Ni. Accumulation of most elements was greatest at battery manufacturing and metallurgical plants. Colts-foot successfully adapted to the urban environment pollution, reducing lipid peroxidation products concentration. The content of plant phenolics and flavonoids, as well as peroxidase activity, decreased in the urban area. The concentration of photosynthetic pigments and catalase activity increased at some studied sites. The registered biochemical changes, as well as heavy metal accumulation in coltsfoot from urban area, limit its medicinal use.

Keywords: heavy metals, coltsfoot, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, urban environment, Tyumen town.


Soil treatment systems and fertility

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-3-0016

The article reviews the literature devoted to research on the influence of the tillage system on crop yields and agrochemical properties of the soil. The results of the experiments are divided on the basis of the positive and negative effects of replacing plowing with different types of minimal tillage on the physico-chemical properties and the productivity of agrocoenosis. The positive effect of minimizing tillage more often refers to the first field after steam, as well as to arid zones and years, the negative – to crops removed from steam and row crops. The reasons for the decrease in yield from the minimization of tillage: increased contamination of crops, deterioration of the nutritional regime of plants and soil compaction.

Keywords: types of steam treatment, minimal tillage, crop yield, humus content, water-physical properties of soil.