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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.

Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева, М.В. Царева, к.с.-х.н.

Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., И.И. Дмитревская, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., С.Ю. Зайцев, д.б.н., д.х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., М.Г. Мустафаев, д.с.-х.н. (Азербайджан), С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Р. Рыспеков (Казахстан), к.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н., О.Х. Эргашева, к.б.н. (Узбекистан)

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AGROCHEMICAL SERVICE

Assessment of agrochemical indicators of arable soil fertility in conditions of the north-west, west and south-west of the Novosibirsk

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-001

The soil fertility of arable land in various natural zones of the Novosibirsk region was assessed according to the main agrochemical indicators. It has been established that, regardless of the natural zone, the content of exchangeable potassium is characterized by significant variability over the years (V = 25.0-26.2%); the content of mobile phosphorus and humus is characterized by medium variability (V = 18.4-18.7; 14.7-15.5%); the degree of acidity varies slightly over the years (V = 3.6-4.9%). Based on the results of surveys in 2013-2020, it was revealed that in the forest zone, 81.5% of soils with low and medium phosphorus content account for; in the forest-steppe (72.9% of soils) and steppe (78.3% of soils) zones, an average and increased content of mobile phosphorus is observed. The share of arable land with an average and high content of exchangeable potassium in the forest zone is 86.6%; in the forest-steppe zone 82.7% and in the steppe zone 92.9% fall on soils with a high and very high content of exchangeable potassium. In the forest zone, the share of soils with very low and low humus content accounts for only 8.76% of the surveyed area, in the steppe zone – 57.5%, in general, for all zones, most of the soils (40.24%) are characterized by an average content of humus. The share of strongly and moderately acidic soils in the forest zone is 50.2%, in the forest-steppe zone 2.7%, in the steppe zone 1.2%.

Keywords: arable land, fertility, agrochemical indicators, natural area, the Novosibirsk region.


Dynamics of agrochemical parameters of chernozem fertility in forest-steppe zone of the Central chernozem region

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-002

An analysis of data from an agrochemical survey of arable soils in the forest-steppe zone of the Belgorod region from 2011 to 2020 is presented. During this period, in the study areas, the weighted average dose of organic fertilizers increased by 35.4%, mineral – by 5.2%. In soils, an increase in the weighted average content of organic matter by 0.40%, alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen – by 22 mg/kg, mobile forms of phosphorus – by 6 mg/kg, potassium – by 29 mg/kg, sulfur – by 2 mg/kg, copper and manganese – by 0.020 and 3.31 mg/kg, respectively. The amount of acidic soils decreased by 24.4%, the weighted average pHKCl value increased by 0.24 units, the weighted average value of hydrolytic acidity decreased by 0.75 mmol/100 g of soil. The yield of winter wheat increased by 29.0%, spring barley – by 29.4%, corn for grain – by 15.1%, sunflower for grain – by 25.5% and soybeans – by 29.6%.

Keywords: chernozem, fertilizers, melioration, phosphorous, potassium, nitrogen, organic matter, microelements, acidity, monitoring, yield, the Belgorod region.


FERTILIZER AND HARVEST

Efficiency of fertilizer systems and sources of nitrogen in cultivation of winter and spring grain crops n crop rotation at soddy-podzolic soil of the Central Non-chernozem region

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-003

According to research results of efficiency of fertilizer systems and sources of nitrogen in cultivation of winter and spring grain crops in two crop rotations with a saturation of perennial grasses of 25 and 50%, the best predecessor of winter wheat and oats was identified – the layer and turnover of the layer of perennial legumes of various species composition and their mixtures with meadow clover for 2-3 years of use and also the best fertilization systems (manure 36 t/ha + N150К300 and manure 36 t/ha + N90К60), providing up to 7.5 t/ha of winter wheat grain and 4.5 t/ha of oats with a protein content of 10.6% and 11.0% respectively for crops was determined. Increase in winter wheat yield from the combination of Nbiol. and N«tech.» the best predecessor was 2.83 t/ha (81%), oats – 2.23 t/ha (63%). In this case the proportion of Nbiol. decreased with distance from the plowing period from 58 to 26%, and the magnitude of the synergistic effect – from 13 to 6%.

Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, crop rotation, grain crops, fertilizer, biological nitrogen, productivity, Non-chernozem region.


Influence of phosphorous fertilizers with liming of soddy-podzolic soil on quality of winter wheat and spring barley grain

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-004

In long-term field experiments on soddy-podzolic loamy soil of the Central Experimental Station of the D.N. Pryanishnikov Institute of Agrochemistry (Moscow region) shows the effect of phosphate fertilizers on the supply of soil with mobile phosphates at different levels of liming on the quality indicators of winter wheat and spring barley varieties of intensive type. It was established that the maximum protein content in the grain of winter wheat of the Moskovskaya 56 variety (13.3%) and in the grain of spring barley of the variety NUR (10.6%) was provided with an increased content of mobile phosphorus on limed soil with a slightly acidic reaction of the soil medium (pHKCl 5.3-5.5) and a degree of saturation with bases of about 80%. At the same time, an increase in the collection of protein by winter wheat grain by 3.4 times, and by spring barley grain by 2.3 times was achieved compared to the variant without the use of fertilizers. With the achieved optimal parameters of the agrochemical properties of the soil in the grain of winter wheat and barley, the gluten content increased, as well as the weight of 1000 grains and the nature of the grain.

Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, winter wheat, spring barley, quality, liming, phosphorous fertilizers, the Moscow region.


Influence of fertilizers and plant growth regulator Albit on formation of millet yield under conditions of radioactive contamination of agrocoenosis

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-005

The efficiency of the complex application of mineral fertilizers and biopreparation Albit on the yields and quality of millet grain under conditions of radioactive contamination of soddy-podzolic sandy soil has been evaluated. It is shown that the maximum grain yields of 4.61 t/ha was obtained by using the mineral fertilizer N120Р60К120 in combination with the preparation Albit. Under the influence of fertilizer systems, the content of crude protein increased from 11.0 to 13.5% with a maximum protein harvest of 0.622 t/ha, the specific activity of 137Cs in grain decreased by 1.08-3.25 times. According to the level of 137Cs specific activity in it, obtained grain of millet can be used for food purposes without restrictions.

Keywords: soddy-podzolic sandy soil, mineral fertilizers, biopreparation Albit, millet, yields, quality, 137Cs.


Corn hybrids response to fertilizers’ application

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-006

Application of fertilizers Siliplant (1 l/ha), EcoFus (1 l/ha) and Siliplant + Zircon mixture (0.5 + 0.04 l/ha) for top dressing of Darina MV, Prokhladnensky 175 SV and Stella SV corn hybrids in phase of 3-5 leaves along with a reduced dose of herbicide Elyumis (1 l/ha) increased grain yield by 9-46%. In hybrids Prokhladnensky 175 and Stella SV, the maximum yield of 6.39 t/ha and 8.07 t/ha was obtained when spraying with EcoFus, in the Darina MV hybrid – 5.65 t/ha when treated with a mixture of Siliplant + Zircon. In other variants, the grain harvest was lower, but higher than in the reference variant, where fertilizers were not applied. The increase in yield occurred due to increase in the number of grains in the cob and their weight. Fertilizer top dressing didn’t influence the biochemical grain composition but increased fat (10-43%) and starch (18-48%) productivity per ha, due to total yield growth. No clear influence of the type of fertilizer on the content of mineral elements in the grain was found. The use of Siliplant, EcoFus and the Siliplant + Zircon mixture is economically profitable method, since the yield increase in the amount of 0.42-2.42 t/ha fully covers costs of preparations (290-500 rubles/ha) and provides a conditional net profit ranging 5 220-31 170 rub/ha.

Keywords: corn, hybrids, fertilizers, Siliplant, EcoFus, Siliplant + Zircon mixture, crop yield, biochemical and elemental grain composition, the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic.


Efficiency of mineral fertilizers in realization of productivity of radioactively contaminated natural fodder lands

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-007

Long-term (2008-2014) actions of mineral fertilizer on the productivity of radioactively contaminated flood meadows of the central floodplain of the Iput River in the Novozybkov District of the Bryansk Region were carried out in order to study the role of nutritional elements of mineral fertilizer in increasing the productivity of natural and sown grass. It was adopted that the natural-climatic potential of the south-west of the Bryansk region provides the productivity of the green mass of natural grass of flood meadows at a level of 7.0 t/ha, the use of agrotechnical and organizational measures to improve meadows increases the productivity of feed lands within 10%, and only agrochemical measures to improve meadows increase productivity up to 7 times. It was determined that in order to in- crease the productivity of the green mass to 45 t/ha in total for two ditches of natural and seeded grassy meadow, it is necessary to use N60 in full and nitrogen-potassium fertilizers at the ratio of nitrogen to potassium as 1:1, regardless of the measures of improvement of meadows, the same determines the highest payback of 96.2-120.0 kg per kg of active substance of the first and 77.5-105.8 kg per kg of active substance of the second bite.

Keywords: flood meadows, radioactive contamination, mineral fertilizers, productivity, payback, the Bryansk region.


Spring barley productivity in alternating crop rotation under conditions of the Pre-Baikal region

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-008

The results of studies on the impact of mineral fertilizers and lime aftereffect on yield structure components and the productivity of the barley cultivar Biom in the conditions of Pre-Baikal region in 2020-2021 in the alternating crop rotation: corn, barley + clover, clover, wheat have been given. The soil of the experimental plot is gray forest heavy loamy. The preceding crop is corn. On the average for two years, the yielding capacity of barley, depending on a trial option, on the lime-free background was 1.87-2.39 t/hа, on the limed one – 2.15-2.75 t/hа. Yield increments from mineral fertilizers application increased on the background without applying lime by 7-28%, on the limed background – by 12-28% and were the largest at using the integrated mineral fertilizer (N30P30K30). First year lime aftereffect raised the barley grain yield by 12-19%. The amount of yield, at the greatest extent, depended on spike length. On the average for two years, strong correlative dependence between these indicators has been found, the correlation coefficient was 0.925. Ear length grew by 17% when applying nitric-potassium and integrated fertilizers on the lime-free background and by 15% at using nitrogen-phosphorus and integrated fertilizers on the limed background. On the background without lime, the number of spikelets in a spike was larger than in the control variant by 16 and 18% in the case of applying phosphorus-potassium and full fertilizers, on the limed background the increase was 11% in the options N30P30 and N30P30K30. The greatest growth of grain number in a spike (19%) and 1000 seeds weight (20%) was observed in the variant N30P30K30 on the natural background.

Keywords: spring barley, alternating crop rotation, yielding capacity, liming, mineral fertilizers, the Irkutsk region.


SOIL PROPERTIES

To estimation of the accumulation of organic substances, enzymatic and microbiological activity of seeded and natural meadows soils

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-009

For the soils of various origins meadows, for the first time in the Non-Black Soil Zone of the Russian Federation, carbon-absorbing capacity, enzymatic activity for urease, catalase, cellulase, depending on grassing plants, and also in experiments with chemical reclamation with a synthetic silicon-containing preparation of the Kovelos trademark have been established. The dependence to the accumulation of SOC (soil organic carbon) and SOC reserves in soils under seeded and natural meadows has been established: the lowest content has been recorded for soils under natural meadows, the highest in the variants of the experiment with the dominance of legume plants as dominants; in the variant of meadow pea and oats. During chemical reclamation using the nanopreparation Kovelos, an increase in the values of all the studied indicators was revealed: the introduction of amorphous silicon dioxide finds a particularly good response in the natural herbage of meadows and soils. However, there is a relationship between the indicators of SOC and the biomass of the herbage roots, composed of species of the genus clover and perennial grasses, as well as the average monthly precipitation in summer. The results obtained are used to solve the problem of decarbonization, as they help to identify a number of external and internal factors that control the absorption and fixation of carbon compounds. To increase the carbon absorption capacity of soils, it is advisable to deposit agricultural soils under steam using annual grasses, including legume families. Seeded meadows are better designed with the use of perennial crops, especially cereals – loose and dense-grain, as well as legumes.

Keywords: soil organic carbon, soil enzymes, chemical reclamation, natural and seeded meadows, the Bryansk region.


Intensity of microbial respiration and denitrification in arable soddy-podzolic soil different degrees of washout

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-0010

The characteristics of agrochemical properties (humus, pH, basic nutrients) and the activity of basal and substrate-induced respiration, as well as denitrification (by the release of nitrous oxide) in arable soddy-podzolic soils different degrees of washout (the Solnechnogorsk district of the Moscow region) are given. The content of humus, potassium, phosphorus decreases in the series of unwashed, slightly washed and strongly washed and increases significantly in the washed soil and, accordingly, the provision of plants with them. An exception was phosphorus, the content of which is sufficient for plants already in heavily eroded soil. Microbiological activity (substrate-induced respiration and potential denitrification, and basal indicators of these processes) are different in soils of varying degrees of washout, they are lower in more eroded compared to less eroded soils of the same catena. However, the intensity of respiration in the washed soil is higher than in the unwashed and denitrification is similar. The response of the microbiota to the introduction of glucose was maximal in the washed-out, minimal in the strongly washed-out soil.

Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, erosion, microorganisms, microbial respiration, microbiological activity, denitrification, the Moscow region.


Influence of organic and mineral fertilizers on humus balance and it’s fractional-group composition of soddy-podzolic soil in the European North-East of Russia

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-0011

In a long-term stationary experiment on soddy-podzolic medium loamy soil, scientific studies were carried out on the effect of organic (40 and 80 t/ha of peat compost (TNK) and mineral fertilizers (1/3, 12, 1 NPK) calculated by the removal of NPK by the planned crop yield on the humus state and the quality of its labile forms. It was found that the most significant positive balance of humus was observed when using 80 t/ha and a full dose of NPK (1.68 t/ha annually). When using three doses of mineral fertilizers, a negative balance of humus was established (-0.74-0.82 t/ha), two doses of TNK and NPK – 0.57-1.68 t/ha. The joint use of TNK and NPK contributed to an increase in the amount of humic acids and a decrease in the amount of fulvic acids. The quality of the most valuable fraction of humic acids (GC-2) increased from 3.9 to 5.8% and the reduction of the aggressive fraction (1a) from 7.0 to 4.1%. In general, the combined use of organic and mineral fertilizers, especially in high doses, contributed to an increase in the quality of humus (from the humate-fulvate type, it switched to fulvate-humate). The ratio of Sha:Sfa was 0.93-1.33 (with the combined use of TNK and NPK), in variants with mineral fertilizers 0.94-0.98, in variants without fertilizers – 0.92.

Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, humus, humic acids, fulvic acids, organic and mineral fertilizers, humus bal- ance, the Komi Republic.


PLANT PROTECTION

Potato alternariosis under conditions of the Moscow region and measures for control it

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-0012

The analysis of the data of a three-year assessment of Alternariosis infestation of potato varieties of different ripeness groups is given. The results of the effectiveness of the use of fungicides Kagatnik, VRK (300 g/l) before planting, Beretta, MD (60 + 40 + 30 g/l), Metamil MC, VDG (640 + 80 g/kg), Shirma, KS ( 500 g/l), Tongara, BP (150 g/l) during the growing season. The study of preparations and evaluation of it’s efficiency against Alternariosis was carried out under the conditions of the soil-climatic zone of podzolic and soddy-podzolic soils of the taiga-forest region of the Russian Federation on the experimental field of the A.G. Lorkh Russian Potato Research Center (Kraskovo village, Lyuberetskiy district, Moscow region) in accordance with standard methods. The measures taken significantly reduced the damage to potato plants of the variety Sante Alternariosis in all phases of their development compared to the control. The biological effectiveness of the complex of protective equipment before planting and during the growing season in the fight against the disease at the date of the final count was 58.0%. The introduction of microelements against this background ensured the biological effectiveness of the protection system against alternariosis of 68.5%. The use of microelements against the background of a protectant in combination with seasonal pesticide treatments contributed to the improvement of the condition of plants and had a beneficial effect on their immune system, which contributed to obtaining a high quality crop.

Keywords: soddy-weakly-podzolic soil, potatoes, varieties, alternariosis, infectability, biological efficacy.


Competitive relationship in agrophytocenosis of mixed sowing of spring barley and perennial grasses in North-West of Russia

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-0013

Competitive relationships in the agrophytocenosis of mixed sowing of spring barley and perennial grasses were studied in the period from 2012 to 2017 at the agroecological station of the Menkovsky branch of the Agrophysical Research Institute (Leningrad Region, Gatchinskiy District) at three levels of mineral nutrition, with the absence and implementation of plant protection measures. The most complex structure of this agrophytocenosis was in the conditions of a long absence of applied mineral fertilizers. Within these conditions the high rates of the share of perennial grasses were due to red clover, and the high rates of the share of weeds – due to the species with a long-term development cycle. The most complex competitive interactions between the components of agrophytocenosis were also identified here. The influence of cultivated plants was weak and was expressed by a decrease in the phytomass of perennial grasses and weeds by 16.6 and 22.4%. At the same time, perennial grasses had a stronger effect on the formation of the aboveground biomass of weeds (13.1%) than weeds on the grasses (10.3%). With the introduction of mineral fertilizers, the competitiveness of cultivated plants increased significantly (2.1 times), while the competitiveness of perennial grasses and weeds decreased (4.5 and 2.7 times). In the variant with a high level of mineral nutrition, no negative interactions between perennial grasses and weeds were observed, while the effect of spring barley on their phytomass reached 41.7 and 54.6%, respectively. Against the background of an integrated protection system, due to the pronounced effect of herbicides on weeds and partially on perennial grasses, competitive interactions in agrophytocenosis dropped to such an extent that they were detected only in the variant with a low level of mineral nutrition.

Keywords: spring barley, perennial grasses, weeds, competitiveness, mineral nutrition, integrated plant protection, the Leningrad region.


EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

Application of photometric devices for express diagnostics of nitrogen nutrition of agricultural plants in the early phases of vegetation

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-0014

Photometric diagnostics of nitrogen nutrition of plants can become an alternative to previously used chemical methods for determining the nitrogen content in plants. Since this analysis is carried out directly in the field, it is non-invasive, quite simple and quick to perform. The purpose of the research is to substantiate the results of photometric diagnostics obtained in the early phases of plant development under different meteorological conditions. The studies were carried out in conditions of soddy-podzolic medium loamy soil, with a low humus content (1.7-1.9%) at the field experimental station of the Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University (Moscow city). In the studies, the correlation dependences of the results of readings obtained from an optical sensor of foreign production «Yara» (Konica Minolta, Japan) and a device of domestic production «Spectrolux» (NPO Spectrolux LLC, Russia) with yield data and the results of stem (tissue) diagnostics were studied. The conducted correlation analysis shows a close relationship of all the studied indicators with increasing doses of nitrogen fertilizers, yield and the results of stem diagnostics. The readings of the Yara N-tester taken in the initial phases of development, after applying nitrogen fertilizing, had a correlation coefficient with yield from r = 0.41 (potatoes, budding phase) to r = 0.95 (mustard, flowering phase). The highest correlations of the readings of the «Spectrolux» photometric device with the yield were r = 0.57 (mustard, the exit phase into the tube), r = 0.74 (mustard, the phase of the beginning of flowering). Thus, the results of photometric diagnostics carried out in the early phases of crop development reliably show the condition of plants and can be used to assess the nitrogen supply of plants, in combination with other visual observations.

Keywords: mineral fertilizers, nitrogen nutrition, photometric diagnostics, crop yield, fertilizing, ammonia nitrate, N-tester.


HISTORY OF SCIENCE

Creator of Doctrine of The absorption capacity of soil (on 150th anniversary of birth of K.K. Gedroiz)

DOI: 10.24412/1029-2551-2022-2-0015

The article is dedicated to the memory of the Russian-Soviet agrochemist-pedologist, founder of doctrine of the absorption capacity of soil, a leading scientist in the field of soil chemistry, academician Konstantin Kaetanovich Gedroiz. The formation of an outstanding scientist as a researcher and teacher is shown. The contribution of K.K. Gedroiz to the development of agrochemistry, soil science and agriculture of our country is described.

Keywords: scientist, science, practice, soil absorption capacity.