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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 25.02.2022
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2022 / Issue 1
Technology of spring wheat cultivation at leached chernozem in the Middle Volga region
The results of 5 years of research presented in this paper show the possibility of increasing the productivity of leached chernozem of the Middle Volga region by more than 2 times on the basis of the integrated use of agrochemicals (liming + phosphorization + the estimated rate of NPK for the planned yield of spring wheat grain 4 t/ha). At the same time, the payback of mineral fertilizers ranges from 5.68 to 6.23 kg of grain per 1 kg of NPK. The index of crop stability of the object of research increases against the background of liming by 63% and against the background of the complex use of 3 agrochemicals –by 67 percent. Such positive results from the integrated use of agrochemicals were achieved on the basis of the formation of a dense stem (412-431 pcs/m2), an increase in productive bushiness (1.28-1.30), the formation of productive ears (436-560 pcs/m2) with a content of 23.2-23.4 grains in each ear with a mass of 1000 seeds 36.8-39.7 g versus 350; 1.2; 392; 16.2 and 35.4 in the control variant.
Keywords: leached chernozem, soil acidity, fertilizers, liming, phosphorization, spring wheat, yield and its stability.
Soil in the Magadan region: cryogenic features, ways of fertility increase
This article discusses the issues of studying the current fertility of permafrost soils inthe Magadan region and suggests ways toincrease their productivity \ Analyzed the results ofagrochemical analysis ofthe soils ofthe territory, performed by the State Station of Agrochemical Service «Magadanskaya»and established the characteristic features of the content ofmacroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) inthem. A decrease inthe agrochemical parameters ofsoils over the past decades, as well as totheir antiphase dynamics, for example, the content ofphosphorus and potassium, was established. The negative role of the cryogenic factor inthe redistribution of plant nutrients inpermafrost soils of arable lands during the cultivation of annual grasses (oats) on them was revealed. The features of the formation of meadows from local perennial grasses, as a rule, wheatgrass orLangsdorf (Calamagrostis langsdorffii (Link.) Trin.) reed grass, are traced and a decrease inthe negative effect of cryogenesis on the actual soil fertility isrevealed. Onthe basis of the conducted studies ofthe agrochemical properties ofsoils and the productivity ofmeadows, the authors propose, inthe process offurther research, todevelop a technology for increasing the actual fertility ofsoils for the creation oflong-term highly productive meadow lands.
Keywords:permafrost soils, actual fertility, content of macronutrients, arable lands, cryogenic factors, redistribution of macronutrients, self-overgrowing of arable land, local perennial grasses, meadow productivity, productivity ofmeadow lands.
Influence of grain crops growing technologies on fertility of typical chernozem in forest-steppe zone of the Chechen Republic
The influence of mineral and organic fertilizers and the biological preparation Bacillus subtilis (strain V417) on the agrochemical parameters of chernozem soil in the forest-steppe zone of the Chechen Republic and the yield of winter grain crops is given. The aftereffect of manure on agrochemical indicators was studied for various methods of tillage: plowing, disking and chiseling. According to the variant with disking, the aftereffect of manure contributed to an increase in the accumulation of nitrate nitrogen, phosphorus and exchangeable potassium in the upper soil layer.
Keywords:typical chernozem, fertility, fertilizers, grain crops, harvest.
Agroecological assessment of soddy-podzolic soils by agrochemical and agrophysical properties under conditions of the Pskov region
This paper presents generalized studies of the Velikie Luki State Agricultural Academyon the influence of various fertilizer systems on changes in the structure of the profile of soddy-podzolic light loamy and sandy loam soil, as well as the dynamics of humus content of soddy-podzolic soil of different granulometric composition. Initially, soddy-podzolic soils by the thickness of the A1 horizon belong to a weakly humified type. Its characteristic feature is the presence of a continuous podzolic horizon. As a result of anthropogenic impact on the soil, significant changes occur not only in the chemical composition, but also in the mineralization character of humus substances. It has been established that under the influence of various fertilizer systems, not only the agrobiological properties of the soil change, but also its physical properties, which in turn depend on the granulometric composition. When studying the physical properties of soddy-podzolic soils, a close statistical relationship was established between the values of Bcc and the humus content, and the equation has the form: y = -2.7168 + 2.2015x –0.0116x2, at r = 0.9998.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, profile structure, humus, structurity, water resistance, fertilizer systems.
Biological activity of com- mon chernozem 5 years after termination of agrogenic treatment
The article presents the results of studies on biological activity of soils in the botanical garden of Southern Federal University in 2021. The research was carried out to determine the impact of the development of secondary regenerative succession occurring after the cessation of agricultural cultivation of the arable plot. The experimental sites were the territory of a young 5-year-old fallow field and an arable plot with annual plowing and cultivation. A number of laboratory and field analyses were carried out: evaluation of the activity of enzymes from the classes of hydrolases and oxidoreductases, humus content, and trophic activity of soil microorganisms by the bait lamina test. In the course of the work, it was revealed that the enzymatic activity of the studied soils due to the development of vegetation on the fallow land is higher than the control values on the arable land. The content of humus in the surface horizon also increases, but on both plots the degree of humus content is still low. The trophic activity of soil saprophages is higher in the soils of the arable plot and decreases with increasing soil depth.
Keywords:bioindication, succession, herpetobionts, soil enzymes, trophic activity.
GLC-MS analysis of volatile components of radish root crops
The composition of volatile components isolated by steamdistillation from the root crops of three subspecies of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).Cyanides was explored with the GLC-MS method. Cyanides, isothiocyanates, thiols and other compounds were detected, the content of which differed significantly in different subspecies. It was found that the root crops of the Winter Round Black variety of the European subspecies of radish were characterised by a relatively high content of phenethyl isothiocyanate (14.14%) and methylpropyl sulphide (10.14%), as well as by the absence of cyanides. In the root crops of the Margelanskaya variety of the Chinese subspecies of radish the presence of metallyl cyanide in the amount of 10.97% of the total amount of volatile components, the highest among the studied varieties amount of phenethyl isothiocyanate (24.29%) and an insignificant amount of thiol –methylpropy l sulphide (0.40%) were discovered. The root crops of the Dubinushka variety of the Japanese subspecies of radish contained o-tolyl cyanide (11.93%) and a large amount of benzyl isothiocyanate (34.95%).
Keywords: GLC-MS, radish (Raphanus sativus L.), volatile components, cyanides, isothiocyanates, thiols.
Assessment of ethanedinitrile impact on microbiological activity of soddy-podzolic soil
One of the main tasks of plant protection and ecology is control of the soil-borne fungal disease. Traditional methods of controlling fungal diseases are effective, but beneficial microorganisms are sensitive to them too. The use of fumigants allows effective disinfection of heterogeneous substrates without a negative impact on the environment. Ethanedinitrile (EDN) does not influence the negative effect on the ozone layer and does not accumulate in the soil. In this study we investigated the effect of the fumigant EDN on the microbial communities of soddy-podzolic soil in model experience. By measuring the emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, C2H4 on the gas chromatography we examined the impact of different concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 g/m2 EDN on the intensity of microbiological processes. Also were observed changing of microorganisms’ respiratory activity at different time exposures: 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after fumigation. It was shown that the fumigant has no negative effect on the rate of substrate-induced respiration and microbial biomass. Among studied microorganisms methanogenic bacteria showed more sensitivity to relatively low concentrations of EDN (5, 10 g/m2), while denitrifying and diazotrophic activity had minimum values in the variants of 25 and 50 g/m2. Study in dynamic showed that the activity of soil microbial communities is gradually recovered after 120 hours.
Keywords: fumigant, EDN, gas chromatography, substrate induced soil respiration, basal respiration, microbial metabolic coefficient, microbial biomass, methanogenic activity, denitrification activity, diazotrophic activity, exposition.
ВInfluence of long-term use of grain straw and cellulosolitic micromycetes on soil microbial community and content of exchangeable zinc compounds in leached chernozem
The studied since 2011 leached chernozem in the Voronezh region have favorable chemical and physicochemical characteristics, despite the fact that in the process of intensive agricultural use, there is a loss of organic matter due to the intensification of its mineralization processes. Acidification of the soil solution is noted, as well as the appearance of exchangeable hydrogen in the composition of the soil absorbing complex. It has been established that as a result of the combined use of cellulolytic micromycete and additional components with the plowing of straw, the microorganism is fixed on the substrate, as well as the degradation processes are enhanced. At the same time, there is an increase in the number of microorganisms involved in the nitrogen cycle, and a significant increase in the amount of exchangeable zinc in the soil. As a result, the provision of microorganisms and plants with zinc improves.
Keywords: leached chernozem, grain straw, micromycete, zinc, trace elements, heavy metals.
Modern chelate preparations for cultivation of fiber flax and oilseed flax
The article presents the results of field experiments (2018-2020 years) with fiber flax (Pamyat Krepkova variety, Dobrynya variety) and oilseed flax (Severny variety). During the growing season, flax plants (herringbone stage) were sprayed with Chelaton Extra and Chelate Zn. Both preparations had an effective on crop yields. In oilseed flax, Chelaton Extra influenced the increase in fiber yield by 0.7-1.0 c/ha, Chelate Zn by 0.2-0.5 c/ha relative to the control. The Chelate Zn preparation increased the seed yield by 2.4-2.5 c/ha, Chelaton Extra by 0.8-1.8 c/ha relative to the control. Chelaton Extra increased the fiber yield of fiber flax by 1.5-2.4 c/ha, and Chelate Zn by 0.6-1.4 c/ha relative to the control. The seed yield was influenced more by Chelate Zn by 0.9-2.0 c/ha, Chelaton Extra by 0.5-1.7 c/ha relative to the control. In oilseed flax seeds, against the background of the use of chelate preparations on plants, it increased: by 0.6-1.6% of proteins, by 1.1-1.4% of lipids in the variant with Chelaton Extra, by 4.5-5.2% of proteins, by 4.8-5.3% of lipids in the variant with Chelate Zn relative to the control. In the seeds of fiber flax, Chelate Zn increased the content of proteins by 3.4-5.3%, Chelaton Extra by 0.8-2.0%, lipids increased when using Chelate Zn by 6.4-7.7%, Chelaton Extra by 2.3-4.1% relative to the control on average over three years of research on the two studied varieties of fiber flax. In the chemical composition of flaxseed oil, a decrease in the total amount of saturated fatty acids and an increase in unsaturated fatty acids was noted, the content of α-linolenic acid was 60-62% in the variants with preparations.
Keywords: Fiber flax, oilseed flax, yield, fiber, seeds, flaxseed oil, chelate preparations, Chelaton Extra, Chelate Zn.
Efficiency of plant growth regulators and prolonged action fertilizer Osmocote for growing of virus-free clonal apple rootstocks in sheltered ground
The results of studying the effect of the combined use of long-acting mineral fertilizer Osmocote PRO 3-4 months (17-11-10 + 2MgO + TE) and plant growth regulators IMC and GK 3 on plant growth and pigment content in the leaves of virus-free clonal apple rootstocks 54-118 when growing rooted green cuttings in container culture under protected ground conditions are presented. It has been established that the use of a mineral fertilizer stimulates linear growth of apple rootstocks 54-118. The maximum values of plant height are achieved at a dose of agrochemical 6 g/l of the substrate. With an increase in fertilizer consumption to 8 g/l, there is no further significant increase in plant growth rates. The introduction of mineral fertilizer helps to increase the content of pigments in the leaves of plants. The ratio of chlorophylls a and b in the variants with fertilizer, compared with the control, decreases. The maximum ratio of chlorophylls and carotenoids was noted with the combined use of fertilizer at a dose of 6 g/l of soil and plant growth regulators IMC and GK 3. Plant growth regulators IMC and GK 3 had a minimal effect on plant height and pigment content in leaves.
Keywords: virus-free clonal apple rootstocks, fertilizer, plant growth regulators, protected ground, green cuttings.
Estimation of artificial soil-ground based on waste of phosphorous fertilizers manufacturing (phosphogypsum) influence on soil microorganisms’ vitality
The assessment of safe doses of the impact of artificial soil based on neutralized phosphogypsum (waste from the production of phosphorus fertilizers) on the growth and functioning of the soil microbial community was carried out. Evaluation of the values of substrate-induced respiration using a macrokinetic model of biological growth revealed doses of phosphogypsum in the soil that stimulate the development of microorganisms in artificial soil and cause depression. Artificial soil with established safe doses of phosphogypsum can be used for recultivation of disturbed lands.
Keywords:phosphogypsum, macrokinetic model of biological growth, recultivation, soil microorganisms.
Plant protection agents in sowings of a new spring wheat variety Marsianka
The research was carried out for the purpose of studying the influence of seed dressers and herbicides on productivity of a new spring wheat variety Marsianka created in the Irkutsk Scientific-Research Institute of Agriculture. Of the studied biological and chemical protectants, the chemical preparations proved to be more effective. When using them, a decline in disease incidence and more intensive growth of plants, their better safety to the harvest were observed. The highest yield of good-quality grain 3.14 was obtained after seed treatment with Maxim Plus, VSК at the rate 1.5 l/t. However, this agent costs much greater in comparison to the others. The highest net profit 17 710 rub/ha, profitability 131.3% and the lowest prime cost 4 323.7 rub/t of grain were provided by using Vial ТrasТ, VSК at a dose of 0.4 l/t. Herbicidal treatment of wheat crops caused the destruction of most weeds within 20-22 days. Field sow and corn thistles were less suppressed by the preparations. The tank mixture of herbicides Lastic TOP, OCE and Magnum, WDG contributed to getting the higher increment of grain 0.51 t/ha, or 17.1%. Positive effect of herbicides on grain quality resulted in increasing the values of its natural weight and hardness, the content of fluid gluten and protein in grain. The effect of herbicides Lancelot 450, WDG – 0.033 kg/ha and the tank mixture Lastic TOP, OCE – 0.4 l/ha + Magnum, WDG – 0.008 kg/ha ensured the highest pure income 21 160 and 21 120 rub/ha, respectively. The preparation Greneri, WDG – 0.025 kg/ha formed the lowest prime cost of 1 ton of grain – 3 708.3 rub.
Keywords:spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cultivar, dressing agent, herbicide, yielding capacity, grain quality, net profit, economic efficiency.
Influence of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha Halys, synthetic pheromone preparation’s doses on its capture using traps under ampelocenosis conditions
The article presents results of a 2-year study of the first Russian-produced pheromone preparation of the brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys, Stål, 1855) that was developed and synthesized at the All-Russian Plant Quarantine Center. An increase in the frequency of catching nymphs and adults of the brown marmorated stinks bug in traps is shown along with an increase in the dose of the synthesized preparation from 12 to 24-48 mg, the efficiency of traps increases. The use of pheromone traps for mass trapping and pest control should be carried out from mid-summer, when the pest actively flies and feeds on host plants until the end of autumn, when the mass aggregation of the brown marmorated stink bug, searching for shelters and wintering occurs.
Keywords: brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, pheromone, trap, monitoring, plant protection.
Seeding rate of alfalfa seeds in the Western Caspian region
Three seeding rates of alfalfa seeds were investigated on the light-chestnut soil of «Vympel-2002» LLC in the Khasavyurt District of the Republic of Dagestan: 7.5; 9.0 and 10.5 million viable seeds per hectare in order to determine the optimal one for the conditions of the Western Caspian Sea. The surveys, observations, analyzes of soil and plants were carried out in accordance with the existing methodological guidelines. Under the conditions under consideration, the optimal blue-hybrid seed rate for alfalfa is 7.5 million/ha. The main condition for achieving high yields at this rate is sowing in well-cut and moistened soil with a crumbling degree of 95-96% and a layer moisture of 0-10 cm 70-80% of the lowest moisture capacity, which ensure the achievement of 54,9-55.3% of field germination of seeds. The seeding rate in the range of 7.5-10.5 million seeds per 1 ha, in this case, does not play a significant role in the dynamics of its yield. If there are on average 370 plants per year of sowing and 270-280 plants in the second year, respectively 530 and 870 productive shoots and a mass of 168 and 209 g of one shoot, you can achieve the same level of alfalfa yield as when sowing 9.0 and 10.5 million/ha. A further increase in the number of plants and shoots of alfalfa due to an increase in the seeding rate of seeds increases the competition between plants for edaphic and cosmic factors of life, which leads to a decrease in the mass of shoots and a leveling of the yield of alfalfa at the same level at all three rates of seeding.
Keywords:light-chestnut soil, alfalfa, seeding rate, field germination, number of plants, number of shoots,
mass of shoots, yield, the Republic of Dagestan.
Personnel (stuffing) support for operation of digital technologies in agrochemistry
The results of current research on evaluating the effectiveness of digitalization of agrochemical technologies, which have a high level of potential for increasing the productivity of agrocenoses and reducing resource and labor costs, are presented. The factors hindering the development of digitalization of agribusiness are identified and the priority risks of successful use of automated control systems by commodity producers are shown, which include the risk of staffing creative innovations in production. The purpose of the work is to increase the level of personnel security of the digital technologies used in agrochemistry, which is a necessary condition for ensuring the effectiveness of their application. The methodological basis of the performed research is the search, analysis and systematization of information on the subject under study, which is in the public domain. The classification of personnel risks of digitalization by the level of occurrence in the agrarian sector of the economy is carried out and the issue of research interest of the work is determined, represented by the level of personnel risk of using digital technologies in enterprises of the reclamation sector of the economy. The need for a leader in the digitalization process in agribusiness organizations is shown and the requirements for his professionalism, organizational and cultural qualities are formulated. The basic structure of the enterprise specialists involved in the operation of the ACS of agricultural production has been established. The tasks of the functional duties of the personnel of the sector of digitalization of technological processes of the enterprise, the implementation of which is delegated to the direct executors of the operation service, are characterized. The priority measures for solving the problem of the shortage of specialists in digitalization in the conditions of modern realities of the development of the domestic system of training personnel for the agricultural sector of the economy have been identified. The application of the developed recommendations will help increase the efficiency of using digital technologies for regulating agrochemical processes in the cultivation of crops.
Keywords: staffing, classification, digital technologies inagrochemistry, operation, functional tasks, efficiency.