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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева, М.В. Царева, к.с.-х.н.
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., И.И. Дмитревская, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., С.Ю. Зайцев, д.б.н., д.х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., М.Г. Мустафаев, д.с.-х.н. (Азербайджан), С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Р. Рыспеков (Казахстан), к.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н., О.Х. Эргашева, к.б.н. (Узбекистан)
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2021 / Issue 6
TREATMENT TYPES AND SOIL FERTILITY
ВInfluence of fallow type and main soil treatment in crop rotation on biological properties of arable layer
In a stationary field experiment (2006-2020), in which the systems of autumn tillage (dump, combined, nonmoldboard) are studied, the biological properties of the arable soil layer (cellulosolytic, nitrifying) were studied in the crop rotation link: fallow (2014) –winter rye (2015). The use of green manure fallows by the introduction of readily hydrolyzable biomass of white mustard and clover 1st year of use contributed to the activation of the nitrifying capacity of the arable soil layer. The introduction of cattle manure 60 t/ha contributed to the entry into the arable layer of active strains of microorganisms that are not characteristic of the soil, therefore, it suppressed the nitrifying capacity of fallow (13.9 mg/kg), but increased the cellulosolytic activity of the soil to 33.3%, relatively pure (18.9 mg/kg, 24.4%) and green manure fallows (20.6, 19.2 mg/kg, 22.1, 22.0%), respectively. A long-term nonmoldboard tillage system under the plowland promoted an increase in the cellulose activity of the arable layer under winter rye by 6.1%, but a decrease in its nitrifying capacity by 1.2 mg/kg, relative to the dump tillage. An inverse correlation was established between them r = -0.588. The biological properties of the soil against the background of the combined tillage system had intermediate indicators relative to the dump and non-moldboard systems of the main tillage. The yield of winter rye had a negative correlation with the cellulosolytic (r = -0.352) and ammonifying (r = -0.333) capacities of the arable layer of soil. The use of green manure (clover) fallow contributes to the accumulation of the ammonium form of nitrogen and its fixation in the soil of relatively pure fallow.
Keywords: tillage, manure, green manure, clover, mustard, cellulosolytic and nitrifying capacity of soil, the Udmurt Republic.
Influence of environmentally friendly technologies of biopreparations use on buckwheat productivity
The article presents the results of studies on the conservation soil-protective technology of cultivation of buckwheat, the effectiveness of various methods of basic soil cultivation in field grain-fallow crop rotation and on the identification of the effectiveness of biological preparations of a new generation in the conditions of the Ural steppe of Bashkortostan. The medium-humus chernozem soils prevailing in this zone have a stable water-resistant structure, a relatively high moisture capacity and water permeability, and are characterized by low viscosity. Soil resistivity is not more than 1.1 kg/cm2. The task of cultivating such soils is to restore and maintain the arable layer in a structural state in combination with other agrotechnical measures of the advanced farming system to obtain a consistently high yield and high-quality grain. A more complete use of nitrate nitrogen during the growing season of buckwheat plants is noted against the background of non-moldboard cultivation during sowing after peas. The best indicators of the number of grains in the plant and the mass of 1000 grains in buckwheat on the option with no moldboard processing when placed after peas with the use of biological preparations and plant growth stimulants, contributing to an increase in yield by 20-25%. The indicators of the number of grains in the plant and the mass of 1000 grains in buckwheat in this variant were higher. When treating seeds before sowing with Fitosporin AS (1.0 l/t) + Gumi 20M Rich (0.4 l/t) + Borogum complex (0.5 l/t) and the use of biological preparations Fitosporin AS on buckwheat crops (1,0 l/ha) + Gumi 20M Rich (0.5 l/ha) + Borogum M (1.0 l/ha + Bionex Kemi Biopolimik (0.5 l/ha) in the flowering phase against the background of non-moldboard tillage after peas the highest yield of buckwheat was obtained. The use of biological products against the background of moldboard-free tillage contributed to an increase in yield up to 2.26 t/ha, which is 0.45 t/ha higher than the control. The output of cereals in this variant was 68.4%, and for plowing –62.7%, which is 5.7% higher, the protein content, respectively, 18.3 and 17.1% (1.2% higher).
Keywords: tillage, predecessor, biological products, buckwheat, the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Fodder efficiency of spring barley varieties in technologies of different intensity level under conditions of the Non-chernozem region
Article presents results of studying of summer barley varieties Vladimir, Moskovskiy 86, Yaromir and Nur in conditions of the Moscow region in 2015-2019 at experimental fields of the FRC «Nemchinovka». The varieties raised on soddy-podzolic soil with use of the base, intensive and high-intensity technologies differing by a level of intensity of application of mineral fertilizers and means of protection of plants. Among the tested grades varieties Yaromir and Nur with productivity were allocated at high-intensity technology on the average for years of researches 9,5 t/ha. The Vladimir and Moskovskiy 86 varieties conceded on productivity on 0.3-0.4 t/ha. Increases of a crop with increase of intensity of cultivation of varieties made 10-29%. The maintenance of a crude protein in a grain of varieties Vladimir and the Moskovskiy 86 was higher –12.0-14.7%, depending on used technology. At base technology fodder efficiency of varieties made 8-9 t/hа fodder units, at high-intensity technology has exceeded 10 t/hа and forage-protein units. In a grain yield of grades of summer barley on high-intensity technology on 1 fodder unit is necessary from 95 up to 98 g of a digested protein that approaches a grain on this parameter to a high-grade forage.
Keywords: spring barley, variety, cultivation technologies, productivity, crude protein, digested protein, efficiency, fodder units, the Moscow region.
Potassium content in spring wheat limbs under drought conditions of the Orenburg Pre-Urals
The article presents the results of studies on the potassium content in the organs of spring soft and durum wheat in contrasting favorable conditions of the growing season years against the background of various methods of basic tillage in the conditions of the Orenburg Urals. The correlation and regression relationships of the content of this element in the ear, stem, leaves of spring wheat plants in the earning phase with the water content of these organs, yield, as well as with the average daily and maximum air temperature, precipitation for May and June were studied. The potassium content in the organs of spring wheat, depending on the favorable conditions of vegetation, varies significantly (up to 1.5-2.5 times) with insignificant fluctuations from other factors (variety, tillage). The ratio of macronutrients (N:K, P:K) in the organs of plants, it was also largely determined by the weather conditions of the growing season.
Keywords: spring wheat, variety, soil treatment types, potassium, correlation relations, stem, ear, leaf, the Orenburg region.
Improvement of crop rotation and fertilizer system based on agroecological typization of lands in the Non-chernozem zone (the Perm region)
The results of a study on agroecological typification of lands in the Non-Black Earth Zone are presented. The purpose of the research is to develop systems of crop rotation and fertilization based on agroecological typification of lands. The object of the study is the territory of Selskoe LLC (429 hectares) located in the Solikamsk urban district of the Perm region. The factors limiting the agricultural use of lands are highlighted: lithology, light granulometric composition, low fertility, erosion, waterlogging of soils. The soil cover is represented by agrosoddy shallow podzolic, agropodzolic, soddy calcareous, soddy and alluvial soils. In terms of granulometric composition, light soils prevail, a small area is occupied by medium loamy soils. The grouping of soils into agroecological groups of lands was carried out using GIS analysis. The largest area falls on erosional lands (56%). The soils of the zonal agroecological group, which do not have limiting factors for use in agricultura l production, occupy only 31% of the land use area. The lands of the gully-ravine complex occupy 10% and the floodplain lands account for 3%. For each type of land, categories and opportunities for the use of land have been determined. A map of agro-ecological groups of land-use lands has been created. The lands of the zonal group are characterized by small contours of soil areas and their elongated forms. The lands of the erosion group in the structure of the soil cover of land use are background. Land typification determines the rational distribution of the main resources of the enterprise for obtaining stable yields of the main crop (potatoes) and the removal of land with restrictions in the cultivation of crops, which can be overcome by medium-cost agrotechnical and agrochemical reclamations. This will create a sustainable agricultural landscape on the land-use area. Removing land unsuitable for mechanized cultivation will reduce the cost of agricultural practices, reduce the area of arable land, which will reduce taxation of the land user. For a group of zonal lands, a grain-tilled crop rotation is recommended. In the erosional group of lands, it is advisable to use a grassgrain crop rotation with a saturation of perennial grasses of at least 60%. In the fertilization system, the main role is assigned to organic fertilizers and it is recommended to increase the phosphate level in the starting dose when applied when sowing field crops in crop rotation. Recommended crop rotations and minimum costs for the use of fertilizers will reduce the negative impact of anthropogenic load on agrocoenosis.
Keywords: agroecological group, soil, agricultural land, land use, crop rotation, fertilizers.
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Influence of foliar top-dressing of spring wheat by zinc sulphate on absorption of different forms of nitrogen at different supply of soil by available phosphorous
The presents the results of a small-plot field experiment, where studied the influence of foliar feeding with zinc sulfate on the yield of spring wheat variety Lyubava with using various forms of nitrogen fertilizers, depending on the availability of mobile phosphorus in the soddy-podzolic soil. It was found that using of all forms of nitrogen fertilizers provided, on average, for two years, obtaining grain yield increases at the level of 41-48% relative to the control Weather conditions influenced the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers. Moisture deficiency at the early stages of plant ontogenesis contributed to a more pronounced effect of calcium nitrate, which provided an increase in yield from 15% on soil with a low phosphorus content to 20-25% with an average and increased supply of mobile phosphates in 2019. Due to the abnormal amount of precipitation during the 2020 growing season, the use of ammonium sulfate contributed to the receipt of maximum yield increases, and the maximum yield was obtained on the option with a high supply of phosphorus, and the combined use of ammonium sulfate and zinc sulfate, reaching 384 g/m2, which is 79% above control. On average, according to the experience, foliar dressing with zinc sulfate additionally increased the yield by 5-10%. An increase of phosphorus content in the soil had a positive effect on the assimilation of nitrogen fertilizers, while the effect of the additional use of zinc decreased.
Keywords: spring wheat, urea, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, zinc sulfate, phosphorus, crop, soddypodzolic sol, the Moscow region.
Application of new slow-release ureaforms with micronutrients on spring wheat
Results of testing new forms of methylene urea containing micronutrient zinc with different slow-release characteristics are present in this paper. The aspects of the influence of these forms in various rates on the growth of the vegetative mass of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the efficiency and stability of photosynthetic apparatus, as well as the yield were studied. The data were obtained from a one-year microplot field experiment using zinc chelate as a reference. It was shown that the use of methylene urea with zinc has a positive effect on the growth and productivity of spring wheat, allows to increase the efficiency and stability of photosynthetic apparatus. Moreover, the most effective was the more soluble form.
Keywords: spring wheat, slow-release fertilizers, zinc, methylene urea.
Influence of selenium and silicon on nitrogen nutrition of barley and it’s resistance to drought and aluminum (experiments with 15N isotope))
The effect of using of selenium and silicon to the resistance of barley plants to drought and an increased content of aluminum in the environment was carried out in laboratory experiments (water culture) and in vegetative experiments (soil culture). Determination of the accumulation of malon dialdehyde (MDA) in barley plants and using of the isotope indication method (introduction of nitrogen isotope 15N) made it possible to establish that the presowing treatment of seeds of experimental plants with selenium and silicon, as well as their mixture, significantly increased the resistance of barley plants to drought and increased content in the environment aluminum. It was shown that the use of selenium and silicon under stress conditions markedly improved the absorption of labeled nitrate nitrogen by plants and significantly reduced the yield losses of barley grain during soil drought.
Keywords: barley, sodium selenate, sodium silicate, drought, aluminum.
Current state of natural resources of crop production in the Bryansk region
The article briefly describes the current state of natural resources of crop production as a system of natural and anthropogenic components that are the material basis for the production of plant food for people and feed for farm animals. The leading position among anthropogenic impacts on the natural resources of the Bryansk region is occupied by agricultural impacts. The sanitary and epidemiological service of the region for the 40-year period preceding the Chernobyl accident revealed a direct positive relationship between the area of fields treated with pesticides and the number of malignant neoplasms in rural areas. After contamination of the territory with radionuclides from global and the Chernobyl fallout, people living on it began to need protection from the combined effects of radiation and agrochemicals. Therefore, every year the relevance and industrial interest in the agroecological assessment of the current state of natural resources in crop production increases. Population growth and uneven provision of various parts of the territory with natural crop resources increasingly require not only effective, but also rational use of them.
Keywords: natural resources, crop production, efficient and rational use, the Bryansk region.
Agroecological monitoring of leached chernozem in the north-western and central areas of the Kurgan region
The research was carried out by specialists of the State Station of Agrochemical Service «Shadrinskaya»on the leached chernozem soils of the north-western and central agro-climatic zones of the Kurgan region. The results of monitoring arable soils for the main physicochemical and agrochemical indicators show that since 1996 to 2020, the development of negative processes associated with acidification was noted against the background of a decrease in the content of mobile phosphorus, sulfur and humus. Calcium predominates in the composition of exchangeabsorbed cations, its content steadily decreases over the years of observation, the content of exchange-absorbed magnesium varies over the years of observation and has no definite dynamics. The average content of heavy metals in the soils of reference sites did not exceed the permissible level. According to the results of an agrochemical survey, areas with local contamination with heavy metals were annually identified. Most of the contaminated soils were found in the Kargapolsky and Shatrovsky municipal districts. The dominant contribution to technogenic pollution is made by road and rail transport. The average exposure dose rate of gamma radiation did not exceed the standard values. The density of pollution of the main part of agricultural land (arable land, hayfields, pastures) for cesium-137 corresponds to the category of clean, for strontium-90 it corresponds to the category of low soil pollution.
Keywords: fertility, nutrients, agroecological monitoring, radionuclide, the Kurgan region.
Influence of agro-climatic conditions of the Pre-Baikal region on red clover yield
Under the conditions of the Baikal region on gray forest soil throughout a long-term stationary trial of the Irkutsk Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, the influence of the aftereffect of lime, mineral fertilizers and meteorological conditions on the yield of green mass of the red clover variety Rodnik Sibiri was studied. The observations were carried out in 2019 and 2020 in the crop rotation: corn, barley + clover, clover, wheat. Mineral fertilizers were applied at the rate N30P30K30 under pre-sown crop–barley. The green mass yield of meadow clover depending on a trial option in 2019 was 19.8-27.7 t/hа, in 2020 – 27.0-39.0 t/hа. The greatest yield of green mass was obtained after applying N30P30K30 под under the preceding crop on the background of lime aftereffect and amounted 27.7 t/hа in 2019, in 2020 – 39.0 t/hа. The meteorological conditions of 2020 were more favorable for the crop than in 2019, it contributed to getting the higher yield the value of which was more dependent on the average daily air temperature and precipitation amount during the starting period of plant growth (May – 1st and 2nd decades of June).
Keywords:red clover, mineral fertilizers, lime, meteorological conditions, yield, the Irkutsk region.
Dynamics of zinc and boron content on newly developed unproductive lands with long-term use of waste from pig breeding complexes
The article deals with the influence of high doses of organic fertilizers obtained in pig breeding complexes on the dynamics of mobile zinc and boron content in the arable layer of unproductive lands during its agricultural turnover. The experiments were carried out on the newly developed unproductive soils of «Ruchevskoe -1» LLC in the Rzhev district of the Tver region in 2012-2018 with a low supply of mobile zinc and boron. As a result of longterm (six years) use of liquid wastewater (100-120 m3/ha) and solid fraction of pig manure (60-80 t/ha), a significant increase in boron content in the studied soils is noted. The weighted average amount of mobile boron increased by 0.1 mg/kg of soil and amounted to 0.5 mg/kg, which is a significant increase. The content of mobile zinc in the soils of the farm remained at a low level and did not undergo significant changes. No excess of the MPC for these microelements was found in the soil.
Keywords:unproductive lands, organic fertilizers from pig-breeding complexes, boron fertilizers, zinc fertilizers, microelements, the Tver region.
Application of complex mineral fertilizers based on wastes of chemical industry at eroded grey-brown soils
The differentiated application of complex mineral fertilizers (NPS) obtained from chemical production wastes on eroded (unwashed, moderately washed, heavily washed and washed away) gray-brown soils of the dry subtropical zone of Azerbaijan has been studied. NPS was introduced taking into account the degree of erosion of the slopes periodically: before sowing and according to the vegetation phases of cotton and winter wheat. It was found that with an increase in the NPS application rate on unwashed, moderately washed, heavily washed and washed-out slopes, the yield of winter wheat and cotton increased, as well as the content of nutrients in the soil (P2O5, N-NO33 and S).
Keywords: complex mineral fertilizer (NPS), phosphates, differentiated doze, eroded grey-brown soil, winter wheat, cotton plant, the Azerbaijan Republic.
Magnesium role in plant nutrition system
The article is devoted to an overview of the main physiological functions of magnesium in the plant organism, as well as the role of this element in the nutrition of agricultural crops. The reasons for magnesium starvation of plants and the effect on the productivity of crops of various types of magnesium fertilizers produced from natural magnesium-containing parent rocks and minerals are considered.
Keywords:magnesium, yield, magnesium fertilizers, efficiency, natural magnesium-containing parent rocks and minerals, magnesite, brucite, serpentinite.
Efficiency of bacteria strains aborigenous for soils of the Tatarstan Republic and biopreparation Azolene in biotesting on spring wheat
We made a comparative assessment of influence of the industrial biological product Azolene which is based on the strain Azotobacter vinelandii IB-4 with individual autochthonous diazotrophic (Azotobacter chroococcum 5V, Pseudomonas brassicacearum 26W) and phosphate-mobilizing (Achromobacter xylosoxidans 5F, Sphingobacterium multivorum 6 F) bacteria, their binary associations and a consortium of all four strains on the spring wheat variety Kazanskaya 560 in a laboratory test experiment. The maximum germination energy was noted in variants with binary association of phosphate-mobilizing bacteria and with consortium of four strains and the length of the root – with consortium of microorganisms. The longest seedling length was noted in the variant with P. brassicacearum 26W, maximum length of the coleoptile is set in the version with S. multivorum 6F, root biomass is the highest in the variants with individual bacteria – A. chroococcum 5V and A. xylosoxidans 5F. The best indicator for seedling biomass was found in the variant with P. brassicacearum 26W. Inoculation of spring wheat with autochthonous strains of diazotrophic and phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms separately, as part of binary associations and a consortium of four strains, was more effective for improving the germination and growth of this agricultural crop than the biological product Azolene.
Keywords: microorganisms, consortium, test plant, inoculation.
Influence of boric acid in organic liquids on seedlings of leguminous crops
The article presents the results of studying the effect of boric acid solutions in organic liquids on the sowing qualities of seeds and the morphometric parameters of sprouted seeds (root length and sprout length) on seed peas of the Stabil variety, field peas of the Beautiful variety and white lupine of the Degas variety. Germination of seeds of experimental was carried out in the Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy and in the laboratory of the Nizhny Novgorod Research Institute of Agriculture –a branch of the Federal Agrarian Scientific Center North-East named after N.V. Rudnitsky. It is established that the most effective use of boric acid in water and in a solution of glycerol. The germination and germination energy of the seeds of the cultures studied in the experiment when using these solutions was more than 95% at 0.0100-0.0050% concentration. Glycerol borate increased the biomass of seedlings on field peas by 12.3% at 0.0050% concentration and on seed peas by 37.5% at 0.0100% dilution of the experimental solution. The morphometric parameters of the plants also exceeded the control variant. So, on the seeded peas, the root length at 0.0010% dilution was 11.5 cm. A further decrease in the concentration to 0.0005% provided a sprout length of up to 4.2 cm. On field peas, the root length increased by 67% and amounted to 7.7 cm with 0.0050% dilution. The dissolution of boric acid in water was also very significant. On field peas, it contributed to the elongation of the sprout to 6.7 cm, which is 1.5 times higher than the control version, and on lupine, it increased the root length by 55% to the control (5.8 cm).
Keywords: laboratory experience, lupine, peas, boric acid, chelates, seed quality, length of seedlings and their mass.
Eucalyptus (Folium Eucalypti) and celandine (Herba Chelidonii) as plant growth regulators
The paper investigates the effect of pre-sowing treatment with a small-leaved fraction of medicinal plants of eucalyptus (Folium Eucalypti) and celandine (Herba Chelidonii) on the germination of seeds of corn, beets and wheat by the roll culture method. The germination rate, morphometric parameters of seedlings and their weight on the 12th day of germination were determined. It was shown that only corn seedlings gave a high increase in weight, as well as in the length of roots and stems after treatment with eucalyptus (80-100%) and celandine (20-80%). There was a decrease in the length of the roots and stems of beet seedlings and the absence of wheat response to treatment with medicinal plants. It is recommended to use eucalyptus and celandine for encapsulating corn seeds, and not recommended for wheat and beet seeds.
Keywords: growth regulators, eucalyptus, celandine, seeds treatment, roll culture method.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Determination of reference plots on agricultural lands
The proposes an original method for determining the territorial location of regional soil standards, which consists in calculating the spatial integral index of fertility. The data on the state of the soils of the former state farm «Tikhiy Don» in the Kurkinsky district of the Tula region are presented. It is shown that local soil standards are confined to the floodplain of the Don River.
Keywords: soil standard, integral index of security, fertility.