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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 22.10.2021
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2021 / Issue 5
Change in soil fertility of the Non-chernozem zone over 50-year period
An analysis of the use of mineral fertilizers over a 50-year period showed that during the period of intensive chemicalization in agriculture (1970-1990), recorded a significant increase in soil fertility of the Non-Chernozem Zone. The number of acidic soils decreased from 83 to 52%. Areas with a very low phosphorus content decreased from 64 to 16%, with mobile potassium –from 37 to 22%. Thanks to this, the normative yield of grain crops increased without fertilization from 14.1 to 22.7 c/ha. Since 1991, the nutrient balance in the Non-Chernozem Zone began to develop with excess removal of food elements over their entry, which led to a decrease in the content of mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium in soils. To restore and increase the fertility of the soils of the zone, it is necessary to reduce the acidity by 64% of arable soils, increase the phosphate level by 46% and increase the potassium content by 59%.
Keywords: arable soils, fertility, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, yield, grain crops.
Experience in assessing the neutral balance of land degradation of the Volga federal district (example of the Penza region)
The studies was to test various options for the methodology of the neutral balance of land degradation (NBLD) for arable land of one of the regions of the Volga Federal District –the Penza Region. Based on the basic installations laid down in the «Trends.Earth»platform and recommended by the UNCCD for calculating the neutral balance of land degradation, it was found that the share of «improved land» in the Penza region in 2001-2010 was 70.7%, «degraded» –10.2%, NBLD –60.5%. Land degradation has been most affected by its productivity. The addition of indicators of changes in the content of organic matter, exchange potassium, mobile phosphorus and acidity in arable soils of the Penza region (the use of the so-called «modified method») increased the share of degraded land to 67.5%. In addition, to agro-depletion indicators, the NBLD base methodology adjustment system is proposed to amend the land cover transition matrix in such a way that the agricultural land overgrowth indicator is considered a negative factor. Various measures have been proposed to improve the quality of use of arable land in the Penza region, including the transition to adaptive landscape agriculture (with the creation of a forest belt system), which implies the preservation and extended reproduction of soil fertility. Taking into account the proposed adjustments, the NBLD methodology can be recommended as an integrated system for monitoring degradation processes of both the Penza region and other regions of the Volga Federal District.
Keywords:soil and land degradation, agro-depletion, productivity, arable land, sustainable agricultural development, the Penza region.
SOIL PROPERTIES AND FERTILITY
Microelements distribution in soils floodplain landscape of the Unecha river
The results of research in 2019 on the content and distribution of microelements in alluvial soils of various elements of the floodplain landscape, and their relationship with fertility indicators are presented. It has been established that the use of floodplain landscapes should be based on knowledge of microelements i n alluvial soils of subsystems to clearly differentiate the soil cover. The characteristics of the vertical and horizontal distribution of microelements in the soils of floodplain landscapes are due to the level of pH, the content of organic carbon and particle size distribution, which are involved in the redistribution of microelements contained in alluvial soils.When grouping by the Clark concentration indicator, it was revealed that the decreasing rows have a similar structure, which is explained by the same type of biogeochemical conditions of the floodplain regime in which alluvial soils are formed. Studies have confirmed the relatively low content of most microelements in the soils of natural floodplain forage. Based on this, the issue of microelement feeding of seeded meadow grasses to obtain stable crops of proper quality remains important.
Keywords: alluvial soils, floodplain, landscape, microelements, Clark concentration, fertility, correlation, the Bryansk region.
Changes of agricultural soils properties at Far East of Russia due to biochar application
The results of the biochar application in drainage and drainage-free plots of the Luvic Anthrosols are presented for the biochar applying doses of 1 and 3 kg/m2 in the conditions of the Primorsky territory. During the first growing season the applied biochars have been essentially physically grinded with significant increasing their specific active surface and water-holding capacity. There was observed the obvious positive effect of biochar application on the investigated Luvic Anthrosols’ hydrophysical properties and organic carbon content too after the growing season. As a principal result crops’ yield increased up to three times in the experiment versions with biochar dose of 3 kg/m2 at the plots without drainage. At the same time there wasn’t observed the significant increasing in the crops’ yield at the plots with drainage. The results obtained allow us to assess the prospects for the use of bio-coal in the Far East of the Russian Federation for the cultivation of vegetable crops.
Keywords: biochar, Luvic Anthrosols, soil agrogenic changes, land agroecological quality, porosity, waterretaining capacity, Russian Far East, agroecology.
Influence of hydrogel on improvement of water supply of winter wheat depending on period of aftermath in zone of unstable humidification of the Stavropol region
The results of a long-term (2012-2019) study of the effect of hydrogel on the moisture availability of winter wheat cultivated in conditions of the Stavropol region are discussed. The positive role of the polymer in the dose of 400 kg/ha was noted in the seventh year after the introduction: at the beginning of active vegetation of winter wheat, the reserves of productive moisture in the meter layer of soil were higher than at the control (without hydrogel) by 11.2-18.4 mm or 9.4-16.4% depending on the background (fertilized –uncomfortable), in the column – by 6.8-14.0 mm or 71.1-147.8. Hydrogel, like fertilizers, although to a lesser extent, helps reduce the amount of moisture per ton of product. Under the influence of hydrogel, the water consumption coefficient of winter wheat decreased on a fertilized background by 17.3 (2019 –the seventh year of the aftermath) –155 m3/t (2018). On an inconvenient background, a decrease in the water consumption coefficient in the first six years after introduction was observed, and more active in 2013, 2015 and 2016 –by 172-203.5 m3/t. If in the sixth year (2018) this indicator decreased by 92.4 m3/t, then in the seventh–on the contrary, it increased by 17.3 m3/t. Fertilizers compared to hydrogel had a more significant impact on the decrease in the coefficient of water consumption: without hydrogel by 102.6 (2019) –308.1 m3/t (2016), against the background of hydrogel –by 97.8 (2013) –267.1 m3/t (2016), depending on the period of its aftermath and weather conditions of the year.
Keywords: hydrogel, fertilizers, winter wheat, productive moisture, water consumption coefficient, the Stavropol region.
Influence of biological preparations on enzymatic activity of ordinary chernozem after fumigation by sawdust smoke
The paper presents data on restoration of biological activity of common chernozem after the influence of one of the pyrogenic factors (smoke). A model experiment on soil fumigation with combustion products of plant origin (linden sawdust) was performed, followed by treatment of the same soil with biopreparations (potassium humate, NAGRO, Baikal EM1) common in agriculture, designed to stimulate soil processes. In the course of experiments a reliable decrease in activity of soil enzymes (catalase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, invertase, and urease) of chernozem was revealed under the influence of gaseous substances formed during combustion of plant origin materials (up to 69-159%). After application of biological preparations a significant stimulation of biological activity of smoke-treated soils occurred (69-159%).
Keywords: ordinary chernozem, biological activity, soil enzymes, pyrogenic effect, fires, smoke, combustion products, fumigation, biopreparations.
Study of herbicidal efficiency of natural salt and its effect on properties of agrogray soil of the Krasnoyarsk forest steppe
The herbicidal activity of natural salt and its effect on the properties of agro-gray soil were studied in a smallplot field experiment. We used unrefined natural brines from the Troitsk deposit of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, containing in their composition in g/l: sodium – 77,07; magnesium – 0,49; iron – 36,79; calcium – 2,56; potassium – 2,36; chlorides – 131,00; sulfates – 1,51 to study the mechanism of action of natural salt with a concentration of 20, 30 and 40% on the «plant – soil» system. Studies have established that the biological efficiency of natural salt for weed biomass was 43-72%. Complete suppression of the middle star (Stellaria meidia) and field dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) was noted in the structure of the weed component. An increase in the moisture content of the agro-gray soil associated with the concentration of the salt solution (r = 0.71) indicated the migration of the chemical components of the natural herbicide into the 0-20 cm soil layer. The use of natural salt solutions of 30 and 40% concentration contributed to an increase of 5-6% soil moisture in comparison with a solution of 20% concentration. The use of a natural herbicide solution of the maximum concentration contributed to a 22% decrease in the content of the agronomically valuable fraction in the 0-20 cm soil layer. A single spraying of weeds with solutions of natural salt of various concentrations determined the alkalinization of the soil by 0.1-0.2 units. pH in all variants of the experiment (p = 0.005-0.156). The use of natural salt as a herbicide for weeds of phytocoenosis against the background of precipitation exceeding the average annual level, changed the composition of the water extract of the soil, contributing to the appearance of toxic NaCl salt in the soil solution up to 0,47-0,82%, a low degree of soil salinity and its potential alkalization.
Keywords: natural salt, herbicide, weeds, agro-gray soil, soil moisture, agrophysical properties, chemical properties, water extract.
Microelements concentration in soils of the CChR and it’s influence on agricultural crops yield
The article presents long-term data (1985-2017) on the microelements concentration (copper, zinc, manganese) in arable soils of the Kursk region. The studies were carried out on the experimental fields of the Kursk FASC (longterm multifactorial field experience) 1985-2017. The soil is typical heavy loamy chernozem, lying on the watershed plateau and adjacent slopes of northern and southern exposures. It is established that the studied chernozems have a low supply of such elements as copper, zinc and manganese. Deficiency of micronutrients in the soil leads to a decrease in revenues of microelements in crops, which in turn leads to lower yields and quality of crop production. The factors affecting the yield of the main agricultural crops cultivated in this territory are identified.
Keywords: chernozem soil, microelements, copper, zinc, manganese, content, soil fertility, crop yield, the Kursk region.
Change in acid-basic properties of agrogenic brown forest soils after removing offertilize r load
The results of a comparative assessment of agrogenic and postagrogenic changes in the acid-base state of brown forest acidic soils used for the tea cultivation (Camellia sinensis (L.)Kuntze) in the humid-subtropical zone of Russia (Sochi Black Sea coast) are presented. The studies were carried out on the basis of a multifactorial field experiment, where the application of mineral fertilizers in various combinations of NPK doses according to the experimental scheme was carried out in the period 1986-2011, and since 2012 it was completely discontinued. It was found that after removing the load with fertilizers, there was a significant decrease in acidity of previously intensively fertilized and, to varying degrees, agrogenic acidified soils (depending on the doses of nitrogen fertilizers). Relative to the pHKКСl indices achieved as a result of 25 years of operation with the use of single, double or triple doses of nitrogen fertilizers (respectively 3.50-3.26-3.12 units in the layer 0-20 cm), an average increase in pHКСl was by 0.18-0.21-0.24 in 8-9 years of withdrawal of fertilizers. The decrease in the total potential acidity (by 2.55-3.42-3.60 cmol(eq)/kg, respectively) was only due to the pH-dependent (non-exchangeable) acidity, the share of which in the total acidity decreased by 3.1-5.9-9.8%, multiple of the previously used doses of nitrogen. At the same time, the level of exchangeable acidity due to exchangeable aluminum remained unchanged. The revealed decrease is apparently associated with the elimination of the direct contribution of acid-determining components of physiologically acidic fertilizers to the formation of the total acidity of soils of tea plantations.
Keywords: brown forest acidic soils, tea culture, mineral fertilizers, agrogenic load, acidification, acid-base properties, the Krasnodar region.
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Reaction of soil and plants to application of nitrogen fertilizer under winter and spring grain crops in the Central non-chernozem region
Studies in two long-term field experiments on a well-phosphorus-rich sod-podzolic soil of medium cultivation revealed the reaction of soil and plants of winter wheat and oats in crop rotations to the application of nitrogen fertilizers, depending on the doses and composition of precursors. The normative values of the increase in N-NO3 reserves in the root-inhabited (0-60 cm) soil layer and the content of No3 have been established. In plants in the early phases of plant development and the inverse values of fertilizer nitrogen costs for the shift of N-NO3 and N2 reserves. per unit, which are proposed to be used in calculating the doses of nitrogen fertilizers for the planned harvest and for the first nitrogen fertilization of winter crops by the method of bringing to the optimum. The roposed diagnostic approach reduces the risk of errors in calculating the doses of nitrogen fertilizers, stabilizes the yield at a higher level with a significant reduction in the negative consequences for the ecology of the agrophytocoenosis and adjacent territories, will significantly reduce the diversity of the content of mobile nitrogen in the soil due to their differentiation depending on the actual supply of soil and plants with nitrogen.
Keywords: fertilizer, soil, crop rotation, Non-chernozem zone, grain crops, predecessor.
Influence of fertilizers on plant survival and structure of spring wheat yield
The paper presents the results of three-year (2017-2019) studies of the effect of zinc and copper chelated fertilizers on the survival rate and structure of the spring wheat yield in the conditions of the Omsk region. The effectiveness of different ways of using microfertilizers has been established. The best dose of zinc and copper for pre-sowing treatment is 20 g/100 kg of seeds. The best dose of zinc chelate for foliar feeding in the tillering phase is 20 g/ha. Experiments have revealed a positive effect of zinc chelate in the tubing phase on yield. Its application at a dose of 20 g/ha made it possible to form the largest yield increase of 0.14 t/ha (in the control, 2.20 t/ha). The use of copper fertilizers at a dose of 20 g/100 kg formed an increase in yield of 0.16 t/ha, and the treatment of plants with Cu10 and Cu30 –0.11 and 0.14 t/ha, respectively. Consideration of the indicators of the structure of the yield in the study of methods of using zinc chelate showed that they have a positive effect on the productive tillering, grain size and ear weight of spring wheat. Productive tillering in the best options for the yield of Zn20 was: with pre-sowing seed treatment –3.22 pcs., With foliar feeding in the tillering phase –3.77 pcs., With foliar feeding in the tube exit phase (Zn30) – 3.23 pcs. (in control –2.83); the number of grains in an ear was 44.38, 44.73 and 45.42 pcs.; spike weight – 1.77, 1.87 and 1.79 g, respectively. The grain weight of the main spike varied from 1.28 to 1.47 g.
Keywords:zinc, copper, fertilizers, chelate, spring wheat, yield, yield structure, productive bushiness, the Omsk region.
Economic prospects for precise fertilizer systems in vegetable growing
The spatial heterogeneity of soddy-podzolic soils is an important factor for the successful development of precise fertilization systems. However, their development is constrained by unfavourable economic conditions. The five-year study aimed to assess the economic efficiency of precise fertilization systems based on annual differential fertilization and precision cultivation in vegetable crop rotation. The methodological basis of the study was a model-field experiment on sod-podzolic soil with granulometric composition from sandy to medium loamy and with the level of cultivation from poor to good. As a result, we determined the parameters and cost structure for the implementation of various variants of the organic-mineral fertilization system, and we also identified decreasing rows of vegetable crops in terms of the cost and profitability of fertilizer use and indicators of their economic efficiency. According to the average level of profitability of fertilizer application, vegetable crop rotation crops formed a decreasing row: potatoes (598%) > white cabbage (291%) > table carrots (277%) > black radish (243%) > table beets (153%). The precise fertilization system based on precision soil cultivation is 2.1 times more expensive than a zonal fertilization system. However, it makes it possible to increase the conditional net income by 10%, raising its average annual level to 143 thousand rubles per hectare, and the profitability to 91%. Compensation for the cost of precision cultivation of the soil can increase the amount of conditional net income from the use of fertilizers by 29%. The annual precision dosing of fertilizers, taking into account the small-scale heterogeneity of the soil cover, increased the average annual conditional net income by 24% (up to 161 thousand rubles per hectare) with a return on investment of 393%.
Keywords:soddy-podzolic soil, vegetable crop rotation, precise fertilization system, economic efficiency, costs, conditional net income, profitability, the Pskov region.
Influence of endophytic bacteria Bacillus subtilis on crop, quality of tubes and post-harvest diseases of potato
The effect of pre-planting potato tubers inoculation with the Bacillus subtilis strain 10-4 separately and in composition with salicylic acid (SA) on productivity, quality and infestation with common scab in the foreststeppe conditions of the Republic of Bashkortostan was studied. On average, over 2 years, inoculation of tubers with strain 10-4 and its composition with SA increased both the number of forming tubers per plant by 9 and 19%, and their weight by 10 and 21%, respectively, compared with the control. The maximum increase both in weight (17%) and in the number of tubers per plant (33.8%) was found in the treatment with 10-4 + SA. Inoculation with B. subtilis strain 10-4 separately and in composition with SA promoted an increase in the content of ascorbic acid by 2.3 and 4.5 mg%, which is 16 and 31% higher than the control. Combined treatment with 10-4 + SA provided a higher efficacy against the pathogen of common scab compared to the autonomous action of the strain: there was a decrease in signs of infestation with common scab by 90 and 62%, respectively, compared to the control.
Keywords: potatoes, inoculation, endophytic bacteria, productivity, quality of tubers, common scab.
Phosphate raw materials of Yakutia and possibility of its use as fertilizers and ameliorants
Various mineral and organic sources of phosphates of natural origin, available in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), were studied for their possible use in agricultural production facilities to increase the yield and quality of crop production, as well as to preserve the fertility of permafrost soils. According to the results of the study, it is shown that the apatite ores of the Seligdar deposit and the fen peat of the Yakokit massif, located on the territory of Southern Yakutia, have the highest potential of mineral phosphate. Thus, the minerals of the Seligdar deposit, namely calcite with apatite and apatite, contained 1 094 and 11 115 mg P2O5/kg of mineral phosphates, respectively, among which calcium phosphates, easily accessible to plants, absolutely predominated (88.2-94.5%). The fen peat contained 1 760 mg P2O5/kg of mineral phosphates, with aluminum phosphates predominating (65.9%), and the most readily available loosely bound phosphates accounted for 12.4% of the total amount of all forms of mineral phosphates.
Keywords:Southern Yakutia, mineral and organic phosphate raw materials, fertilizers and ameliorants.
Phosphorous in air-dry aggregates of the Kursk chernozem in different types of anthropogenic landscapes
By the example of the analysis of air-dry aggregates of typical chernozem (Kursk region), the influence of the type of land use, as well as the size of aggregate fractions, on the content of phosphorus, including its various forms (mobile, organic, and mineral) was determined. Aggregates with sizes > 5 mm, 5-2, 2-1, < 1 mm were investigated. The objects were soils differing in the degree of anthropogenic load, increasing in the following order: mowing steppe < forest belt < no-till application < arable land (no-till winter wheat, conventional tillage); additionally, soil samples were taken in conditions of long-term bare fallow. Soil under no-till conditions was characterized by the highest reserves of organic carbon and relatively high content of mineral and mobile forms of phosphorus. The greatest amount of organic phosphorus was observed in mowed steppe. In the soils of agricultural lands (in arable and no-till variants), including bare fallow, the content of mineral and organic phosphorus, as well as organic carbon, is evenly distributed between aggregates of all the investigated size groups. The dependence of mobile phosphorus content on the size of aggregates was noted only for the variant of mowing steppe: its amount decreases as aggregate size decrease.
Keywords: aggregates, typical chernozem, forms of phosphorus in soils, the Kursk region.
To the 200th anniversary from date of P.A. Iljenkov’s birth
The article is dedicated to the memory of Pavel Antonovich Iljenkov, a Russian professor of chemistry, one of the founders of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University, the author of the original method of preparing phosphorus fertilizer. The authors show the formation of an outstanding Russian scientist as a researcher and teacher. The contribution of P.A. Iljenkov to the development of technology and agriculture in our country is described.
Keywords: scientist, science, practice, memorial data.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Influence of fertilizer systems on productivity of narrow-leaved lupine and its aftereffect as a precursor of winter wheat
In a stationary field experiment on soddy-podzolic radioactively contaminated soil, the effect of mineral fertilizers and the biopreparation Epin-Extra on the yield of narrow-leaved lupine variety Kristall have been studied. As a result of four-year researches (2017-2020) carried out on the experimental field of the Novozybkov branch of the Bryansk State Agrarian University, it was found that the highest grain yield (2.27 t/ha) on average was formed when the full mineral fertilizer N60P90K120was applied in the complex with treatment of plants with the biopreparation Epin-Extra. The content of crude protein in lupine grain, depending on the fertilizer system, varied within the range of 31.61-40.56%, and its highest collection (0.921 t/ha) per unit area when using N60P90K120in combination with the biopreparation Epin-Extra. The greatest decrease in the specific activity of 137Сs in the grain of lupine (by 1.57-1.63 times) was provided by the use of potassium fertilizer (K120) and phosphorus-potassium (P90K120) in combination with the biopreparation Epin-Extra. Narrow-leaved lupine cultivated for grain, depending on the fertilizer system, leaves behind organic matter in the form of stubble-root residues and straw from 8.72 to 16.58 t/ha containing nitrogen from 138.9-316.5 kg/ha, phosphorus 12.3-40.1 kg/ha, potassium 118.5-302.7 kg/ha. Narrow-leaved lupine cultivated for grain as a precursor provides the yields of winter wheat grain at the level of 1.55-2.59 t/ha.
Keywords: narrow-leaved lupine, yield and grain quality, mineral fertilizers, biopreparation Epin-Extra, precursor, winter wheat, Bryansk region.
ВInfluence of agrobiological practices on soil fertility and agricultural crops yield
The influence of green manure and their combinations with stubble degrader and non-marketable part of crop rotation harvest on the fertility of meadow-chernozem soil and the productivity of agricultural crops during 2017-2020 has been studied. The studies have stated that manure, green manure and their complex application with stubble degrader and non-marketable part of crop rotation harvest had a positive effect on the humus content, the amount of exchange bases, hydrolytic acidity, the yield of winter wheat, corn and annual grasses. The most significant influence on the change in a number of factors of soil fertility and productivity of the studied crops was exerted by the application of manure and leguminous green manures in combination with a stubble degrader and non-marketable part of the crop of crop rotation harvest. Against their background, the humus content increased by 0.26-0.28% in relation to the control, the amount of exchange bases increased by 2.2-2.3 meq/100 g of soil, the value of hydrolytic acidity decreased by 0.22-0.23 meq/100 g of soil. The yield of winter wheat on these experiment variants exceeded the control by 10.9-11.3%, the yield of corn grain by 17.4-17.3%, the yield of hay of annual grasses by 14.2-14.4%.
Keywords: meadow-chernozem soil, manure, green manure, stubble degrader, humus, amount of exchange bases, hydrolytic acidity, of winter wheat, corn, annual grasses, the Penza region.