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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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2021 / Issue 4
Agrochemical characteristics of soddy-podzolic soil under crops of grain crop rotation
The Center for Precision Agriculture was founded at the Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University (RSAU-MTAA) in 2007. The basement of it – field experience in studying the comparative effectiveness of precise and traditional technology of cultivation of agricultural crops. A study carried out in 2018-2019 shows the effect of processing techniques on agrochemical and individual biological parameters of the soil, as well as on the yield of potatoes and barley. The main statistical characteristics of the soil properties of the studied plots occupied by potato and barley crops are presented. The analysis of the possibility of forecasting the productivity of agricultural crops is given, having preliminary data on the average content of humus and mineral nutrition elements for the vegetation period with a sufficient degree of validity. And vice versa, having information on the productivity of agrocoenosis with a high degree of probability, we can assume patterns in changes in the nutrient regime of the soil. The average potato yield for the variants in 2018 ranged from 23 to 27 t/ha. The barley yield in 2019 ranged from 2.3-2.9 t/ha.
Keywords:Precision Agriculture Center, soddy-podzolic soil, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, soil biological activity and toxicity, soil treatment, precision and traditional technology, potato, barley, yield.
Role of crop rotation and fertilizers in reproduction of fertility and productivity of soddy-podzolic soils in the Komi Republic
In a long-term stationary experiment on soddy-podzolic light loamy soil, studies were conducted to study the effect of organic (40 and 80 t/ha of peat-manure compost (PMC) and mineral fertilizers (1/3, 1/2, 1 NPK), calculated from the removal of NPK by the planned crop yield in the feed six-field crop rotation. The article presents the materials of the sixth field (potatoes) of the fifth, sixth and seventh rotation of the fodder crop rotation (1978, 2007, 2013 and 2019). In 2007, when using three doses of NPK, the humus content remained at the level of the experimental bookmark (2.3-3.0%). The combined use of 80 t/ha of PMC with three doses of NPP was the most effective and contributed to an increase in the humus content by 0.2-0.7%. In the control, the amount of humus remained the same – 2.1%. The exchange acidity was 5.4-5.5 pHKCl, the hydrolytic acidity – 3.5-3.8 mmol/100 g of soil, the content of mobile phosphorus was 385-464 mg/kg and the exchange potassium – 202-234 mg/kg. Due to the high removal and leaching of plant bases and nutrients from the soil, by 2013, the humus content decreased by 0.2-0.3%, the exchange and hydrolytic acidity increased (4.6-4.8 pHKCl and 4.6-4.8 mmol/100 g of soil), the amount of mobile phosphorus (256-289 mg/kg) and exchangeable potassium (82-98 mg/kg) decreased. In this regard, in 2018, we carried out liming on the full hydrolytic acidity of the soil. This agrotechnical technique made it possible to improve the agrochemical parameters of soddy-podzolic soil. The humus content increased (3.1-3.6%), the exchange acidity (5.8-6.8 pHKCl) and hydrolytic acidity (0.6-1.9 mmol/100 g of soil), the amount of mobile phosphorus (313-371 mg/kg) and the exchange potassium (105-136 mg/kg) decreased. The result of this method was a significant increase in the yield of potatoes (6.9-8.1 t/ha of dry matter) with high quality. Thus, our studies have shown that the use of PMC at a dose of 80 t/ha and a full dose of NPK is the most effective in forage crop rotation. With this method of fertilization, the agrochemical parameters of the soil were significantly improved and the maximum yield of potatoes was obtained (8.1 t/ha).
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, humus, acidity, phosphorus, potassium, fertilizers, potato, yield, product quality, the Komi Republic.
Zinc concentration monitoring in agrocoenosis of the Belgorod region
Materials of a continuous agrochemical survey of arable soils, data of local agroecological monitoring, as well as the results of chemical analysis of agricultural crops cultivated in the Belgorod region are presented. The soil cover is mainly represented by the typical, leached and ordinary chernozems. A decrease in the weighted average content of mobile zinc in the arable soils from 1.40 to 0.66 mg/kg during 1990-1999 was established, and stabilization at the level of 0.50-0.52 mg/kg during 2000-2018. Organic fertilizers are the main source of the microelement in agrocoenosis. Among the legumes cultivated in the region, the largest amount of the element was accumulated in the grain of white lupine (43.5 mg/kg) and soybeans (35.6 mg/kg), and the smallest – in the grain of peas (26.5 mg/kg). zinc concentration in herbals of natural reserve was twice less than in legumes of arable lands.
Keywords: chernozem, steppe, forest-steppe, agrocoenosis, natural reserve, zinc, white lupin, soybeans, peas.
Estimation of long-fallow lands of the north-western and central agroclimatic zones of the Kurgan region
Studies of agrochemical indicators of fallow lands in the northwestern and central agroclimatic zones of the Kurgan region were carried out at the State Station of Agrochemical Service «Shadrinskaya» for more than 30 years. Currently, the area of fallow lands is 24,1% of the total land area. The largest areas of fallow lands are concentrated in the Belozersky and Kataysky municipal districts. Fallow lands are covered with trees and shrubs 63,8%, waterlogged and flooded – 7%. Erosion processes are developing on 800 hectares in the Belozersk region. Analysis of the qualitative state of fallow lands in the northwestern and central agroclimatic zones of the Kurgan region shows that 82,9 thousand hectares can be successfully introduced into agricultural use in the coming years. Based on the analysis of the fertility indicators of fallow lands it is advisable to introduce into agricultural use up to 35,9% of fallow lands, which is 87,2 thousand hectares. The largest areas of fallow lands suitable for putting into use are concentrated in the Kataysky, Belozersky and Shumikhinsky districts. The implementation of projects for carrying out cultural and technical measures that ensure the introduction of fallow lands into agricultural use is the most important reserve for increasing grain production, but it requires large investments from the state.
Keywords: arable land, fallow land, soil acidity, mobile phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, humus.
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers for cultivation of spring triticale on sandy soils
Experimental data on the effectiveness of increasing doses of nitrogen fertilizers in the cultivation of spring triticale of the Grebeshok variety on soddy-podzolic sandy soils of the Leningrad region are presented. As a result of the research, the optimal doses of nitrogen fertilizers (N30 and N60) were determined for obtaining grain for the intended purpose: seeds (maximum multiplication coefficient, germination and payback of a unit of nitrogen by grain yield) and feed use (grain with a high protein content). Using the method of instrumental diagnostics, the dependences of the grain yield of spring triticale on the readings of the N-testerTM (Jara company) and GreenSeekerTM devices for the phases of vegetation were established. In the tillering phase, the yield of spring triticale grain is more closely related (at largest R2) to the readings of the GreenSeekerTM device, in the shooting phase – both devices showed almost the same accuracy, and in the flowering phase – the advantage was for the contact action device-the N-testerTM.
Keywords: spring triticale, sandy soils, nitrogen fertilizers, technological qualities of grain, N-testerТМ, GreenSeekerТМ.
Optimization of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers application for planned potato yield in the Sredneakhtubinsky area of the Volgograd region
The doses of mineral fertilizers for the planned potato crop in the soil and climatic conditions of the Sredneakhtubinsky area of the Volgograd region were calculated by the balance method during 2018-2020. Calculations showed that to obtain the planned yield of 30 t/ha of potato tubers, it was necessary to apply N160P10 kg/ha of fertilizers in physical weight, for 40 t/ha – N240P60 and 50 t/ha – N320P120K40. However, the planned yield of 50 t/ha was not achieved due to the biological and varietal characteristics of the studied potatoes. In this version of the experiment with the application of N320P120K40 fertilizers, the yield averaged 45,6 t/ha. The efficiency and economy of the use of mineral fertilizers in drip irrigation has been established. The saving of mineral fertilizers during fertigation was more than 60%. The cost of fertilizers for the production of 1 ton of potatoes with a planned yield of 30 t/ha was 178 rubles, with 40 t/ha – 270 rubles and 50 t/ha – 433 rubles.
Keywords: potatoes, agrochemical parameters of soil, mineral fertilizers, drop irrigation, yield, the Volgograd region.
Formation of planned potato yield depending on etching of seed material and planting dates
In 2018-2020 under the conditions of a field experiment, the influence of balanced fertilizer rates, dressing of seed tubers and planting dates on the yield of new potato varieties was studied. It has been proved that the productivity of potatoes in the forest-steppe of the Southern Urals is determined by the use of balanced fertilization (the contribution of the factor is from 61 to 76%, depending on the variety), dressing of the planting material (18-32%) and planting dates (2.5-5.0%). Adaptive varieties of potatoes of local selection Zakhar and Kashtak, when dressing seed material, guarantee a programmed yield of tubers of 30 and 40 t/ha at all planting dates. At the same time, in the Zakhar variety, the yield of tubers averaged 35.2 and 43.4 t/ha over 3 years, and in the Kashtak variety – 34.1 and 40.5 t/ha, respectively. While the productivity of the Rosara variety did not exceed 35.8 t/ha (when planted on May 15 with treated tubers against the background of fertilizers, calculated for a yield of 40 t/ha). The optimal time for planting potatoes is the second decade of May, which provides the best conditions for the formation of planned yields when planting pickled tubers. The use of the fungicide Maxim for the treatment of seed material when planting potatoes provided a decrease in the harmfulness of rhizoctonia during the growing season (1.6-2.0 times), increased field germination (by 3.3-5.0%) and the final yield of the Zakhar variety on average by 5.1 t/ha, Rosara – by 5.2 t/ha, Kashtak – by 3.8 t/ha compared to the control.
Keywords: potatoes, planned yield, variety, planting time, level of mineral nutrition, pickling, the Chelyabinsk region.
Influence of fertilizers and plant protection products on weediness, yield and quality of winter wheat grain
Materials on the influence of fertilizers and plant protection products on the quantitative composition of the weed component of agrophytocoenosis, productive moisture reserves, the food regime of the soil, the development of major diseases, the yield and quality of winter wheat grain are presented. As a result of research in 2012-2016. it was found that the reserves of productive moisture before sowing winter wheat and before leaving it for winter were sufficient for germination and the development of a good stem, in the arable layer they were 44.2-54.2 mm in the meter layer 140.8-151.2 mm. The use of herbicides in winter wheat crops, the infestation of juvenile weeds decreased by 45.2-51.4%, long-term weeds – 36.9-41.3%, and the treatment of crops with fungicides reduced the level of powdery mildew damage by 74.5-76.1, brown rust – 80.1-83.7, and septoria – 62.8-68.2%. The availability of nitrate nitrogen in the arable layer before sowing winter wheat showed an increased content of 61.0 mg/kg of soil. In the deeper layers, the nitrogen content by gradation was low at 35 mg/kg of soil. In the spring, the tillering phase in the 0-30 cm layer was very low in the range of 22-30 mg/kg of soil, and in the deeper layers from medium to high 46-67 mg/kg of soil. The highest yield of winter wheat in the experiments was obtained against the background of N16P16K16 when sowing with top dressing in tillering at a dose of N34 and against the background of N16P16K16 when sowing + top dressing in tillering at a dose of N34 + foliar top dressing N30 with the full use of plant protection products against weeds and diseases, the increase in these variants was 0.56 and 0.54 t/ha, respectively.
Keywords: fertilizers, plant protection, infestation, soil nutrition regime, yield.
Environmental aspects of application of synthetic silicon-containing preparation at natural meadows of the Podesen’ye in the Non-Chernozem zone
The results of researches of ecological efficiency of using of synthetic silicon-containing preparation Kovelos in meadows of various origins for reclamation, restoration and ecological-production processes in the middle Podesen’ye in the conditions of the Bryansk region are presented. The intermediate data on the good reclamation properties of amorphous silicon dioxide (brand name Kovelos) under the conditions of the communities of associations Phalaridetum arundinaceae Libbert 1931 were obtained. Heracleo sibirici – Alopecuretum pratensis Bulokhov 1990, Deschampsio – Agrostietum tenuis Sill. 1933 em. Jurko 1969, differing in the ecological regimes of soils established by the phytoindication method of G. Ellenberg. The main quality of the preparation was revealed – a decrease in the rate of migration processes of radionuclides and elements of the heavy metals group into the biomass (aboveground and underground): Kovelos's introduction reduced the values of the calculated coefficients. The use of amorphous silicon dioxide in nanostructures is also promising for improving the agrochemical parameters of soils, and therefore increasing the productivity of meadows, stimulating the development of microbial coenosis of soils, and the yields of cereals. The use of synthetic amorphous silica, introduced in smaller amounts, before natural components with silicon is economically justified. The preparation also stimulates stress resistance of the grass cover in case of combined pollution. In the conditions of combined pollution and the necessary rehabilitation of the soil cover and meadow communities of the Bryansk region, there are promising researches: reactions to the introduction of silicon by individual economic groups of plants in meadows under conditions of active changes in natural coenosis; the balance of silicon in the soil horizons; identification of the optimal doses of the preparation in case of significant contamination with pollutants of a chemical and physico-chemical nature.
Keywords: synthetic silicon-containing preparation, ameliorant, soil rehabilitation, meadows, the Bryansk region.
Technological aspects of obtaining bio-organic fertilizer based on peat in the Republic of Karelia
A technology has been developed for obtaining a new peat based bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) in the conditions of the Republic of Karelia, based on the use of a phytomeliorant from a vetch-oat mixture as an additional substrate. The use of the vetch-oat mixture provided not only an improvement in the agrochemical parameters of BOF, in particular, a decrease in acidity to 4,9 units, an increase in the content of organic matter to 70,6%, total nitrogen to 2,5%, mobile forms of phosphorus to 1305 mg/kg dry matter and potassium to 305 mg/kg dry matter, but also contributed to the production of an organic substrate suitable for further use. It is shown that in the Republic of Karelia the use of the BOF generally has a positive effect on the productivity of potatoes. It was found that the introduction of BOF locally into the hole at the rate of 4 t/ha and scattered at a dose of 20 t/ha provided a 19% increase in the number of tubers per plant and an increase in the productivity of its average weight per plant, by 10 and 22%, respectively. The greatest payback of BOF is observed when it is scattered at a dose of 20 t/ha and the payback is ensured by obtaining an additional potato yield of up to 0,2 t per 1 t of applied bioorganic fertilizer, 232 kg per 1 kg of applied NPK, or 975 kg of grain units per 1 kg of applied NPK.
Keywords: technology, peat, phytomeliorants, potatoes, yield, payback, the Republic of Karelia.
Aftereffect of sewage sludge reclamation dozes in the Penza city and it’s combination with zeolite-containing agronomical ore on fertility of meadow-chernozem soil and yield of agricultural crops
The aftereffect of city sewage sludge (CSS) land-reclamation rate in the city of Penza and their combination with zeolite-containing agronomical ore on the content of humus, nutrients and yield of oats Konkur, peas Jackpot and winter wheat Moskovskaya 56 has been studied. It was found that on a chernozem-like meadow low-humus soil, the aftereffect of increased sewage sediment land-reclamation rates (160-180 t/ha) in combination with zeolite-containing agronomical ore had most significant effect on the content of humus, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium. The content of humus against their aftereffect in 2020 exceeded the initial values by 0.27-0.29%, content of alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen increased by 57.8-66.7 mg/kg of soil, content of mobile phosphorus increased by 18.6-20.3 mg/kg of soil and content of mobile potassium increased by 19.5-22.2 mg/kg of soil. The yield of oats against the background of the one-sided aftereffect of sewage sediment land-reclamation rates exceeded the control by 13.0 (CSS, 100 t/ha) – 27.2% (CSS, 180 t/ha), the yield of peas exceeded the control by 17.5-34.9%, the yield of winter wheat exceeded the control by 7.2-26.8%, on the background of their combined aftereffect with zeolite-containing agronomical ore by 27.5 (CSS, 100 t/ha + zeolite-containing agronomical ore) – 44.2% (CSS, 180 t/ha + zeolite-containing agronomical ore); 26.6-49.8% and 14.4-34.4% respectively.
Keywords: chernozem-like meadow soil, city sewage sediment, zeolite-containing agronomical ore, agrochemical parameters, yield, oats, peas, winter wheat.
Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the chemical analysis of arugula seeds
This paper presents the chemical composition of seeds of Dikovina variety of arugula (Eruca Sativa Mill.) and of Rocket variety of perennial wall-rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia L. DC) which are included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements. The chemical composition of the seed material was studied using the method of near-infrared spectroscopy using the SpectraStar XT BIC analyzer, model 1400XT-3 with a full scanning range of 1400-2600 nm. It was found that the seed material of the Dikovina variety of arugula favourably differed in terms of the amount of protein (the content in an absolutely dry matter was 12.76%), phosphorus, and calcium (the contents of which were 0.38 and 0.39%, respectively). The seed material of the Rocket variety of perennial wall-rocket surpassed the seeds of the Dikovina variety of arugula in the amount of fibre and ash elements. There, the contents of fibre and ash elements in the studied seeds of this variety were 15.09 and 3.24%, respectively. No significant differences have been discovered in terms of fat content. The use of the near-infrared spectroscopy method, which is characterized by ease of use and sufficiently high accuracy, for the analysis of seed material allowed us to quickly assess the chemical composition and quality in order to predict the future crop.
Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy, arugula, chemical composition.
Kinetics of content changes of water-soluble forms of NO3, K, Fe, Mn and Ca in soils during formation of crystallization and sedimentation centers
The kinetics of changes in the content of water-soluble forms of NO3, K, Fe, Mn, and Ca in soils during the creation of crystallization and sedimentation centers due to the introduction of CaCO3, MnO2, and KNO3 is estimated. It is shown that the rate of change differs for different types of soils and is greater in sod-podzolic soil, compared with chernozem, and does not fully correlate with the pH and Eh of the medium. The rate of change in the concentration of ions from the zone of their introduction in time and space is less for soils with a larger absorption capacity, more humus-rich, with a predominance in the mineralogical composition of montmorillonite. The change in the rate of movement of cations in soils from the zone of their introduction is more pronounced for water-soluble forms than for mobile and exchange forms. The kinetics of the movement of ions in soils should be taken into account when assessing the balance of their water-soluble forms and when assessing the availability of plants with biophilic elements at different distances from the zones of their application.
Keywords: soil, kinetics of processes, sedimentation centers, fertilizers.
Soil’s characteristics of the Izhevsk city and it’s ecological state
The results of the soil-ecological survey of the Izhevsk city, carried out in 2014-2019, are presented in the article. 24 key sites were selected in areas affected by various degrees of anthropogenic impact. At these key sites, soil profiles were laid and soil samples were taken for chemical analysis. It was found that the soil cover of the Izhevsk city is represented by the following soils and technogenic surface formations: urbiquasizems (occupy 50-60% of the territory), stratified types of zonal soils and regraded abrazems (occupy 20-30%) and zonal types of soils of varying degrees of disturbance (occupy 20-30%). Urban conditions have had the greatest anthropogenic impact on urbiquasizems. Unlike zonal soddy-podzolic soils, they were characterized by an increased content of organic matter in the upper layer (on average 2.9-4.0%) and an indicator of the cation exchange capacity (12.4-18.9 mmol/100 g), the presence neutral or slightly alkaline reaction, a very high content of exchangeable potassium and the obligatory presence of inclusions of municipal waste (household and construction waste) in an amount of at least 3-15%. The ecological state of urban soils was determined, first of all, by their location and the nature of their use. In general, the content of heavy metals in urban soils was in 1.2-3.3 times higher than the background values for the Udmurtia Republic. The exception was zinc, its amount was in 7.4-12.5 times higher than the republican background. The total index of soil pollution in the Izhevsk city (Zc) was 13.4 with fluctuations from 6.2 to 33.1. The share of soils with an acceptable level of pollution (Zc < 16) was 76% of the samples, with a moderately hazardous level of pollution (16 < Zc < 32) – 21% and with a dangerous level of pollution (32 < Zc < 128) – 3%.
Keywords: urban soils, urbiquasizems, morphological parameters, chemical properties, ecological state, heavy metals, the Izhevsk city.
Productivity of heterogeneous sowings when cultivation of forage crops in conditions of radioactive contamination of farmland
The results of a research (2017-2019) on the study of the potassium fertilizers influence on the yields and quality of mixed sowings of annual lupine-cereal grass mixtures when cultivated on green mass on sod-podzolic radioactively contaminated soil have been presented. It was found that among the heterogeneous sowings of yellow lupine in annual cereals, the highest yields of green mass were distinguished to lupine-millet grass mixture. The maximum yields of lupine-cereal grass mixtures were formed against the background of the application of potassium fertilizer at a dose of 210 kg/ha. Obtained green feed of heterogeneous sowings by content of main macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium) and ratios between them corresponds to zootechnical standard. The content and collection of crude protein in the feed increased with an increase in the level of mineral nutrition, regardless of the composition of the grass mixture. The highest values of 137CS specific activity in feed were obtained in the control variant. Potassium fertilizers in sequentially increasing doses (K180, K210) reduced the 137CS intake into the harvest of green mass of lupin-cereal grass mixtures. The lowest specific activity of 137CS in the green feed of lupine-cereal herbage mixtures was observed against the background of the application of potassium fertilizer at a dose of K210. The obtained fodder by specific activity in it 137CS corresponds to the sanitary and hygienic standard (VP 13.5.13/06-01). The highest energy efficiency of lupine-cereal herbage mixtures was obtained against the background of the application of potassium fertilizer at a dose of K210.
Keywords: yields, mixed sowings, lupine-cereal herbage mixtures, crude protein, elemental composition, 137CS, energy efficiency, the Bryansk region.