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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 18.06.2021
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Свидетельство № 011095.
2021 / Issue 3
Fertilizers application volumes and grain crop yields in the Republic of Tatarstan
The results of long-term (1991-2020) data on the volume of application of mineral and organic fertilizers, soil liming and grain crop yield in the Republic of Tatarstan are presented. In 2020, there was an increase in yield to 3.35 t/ha compared to the initial period of research, but there was a decrease in the application of organic and mineral fertilizers in the regions of the republic, as well as a decrease in the area of liming. Increasing the productivity of grain on the background of reducing fertilizer can be attributed to weather conditions, improvement of ongoing agricultural activities, local use of fertilizers in rows, wide application of plant protection products, the introduction of soil conservation crop rotation, plowing excess straw, etc.
Keywords: mineral fertilizers, organic fertilizers, liming, grain crops, productivity.
Efficiency of liquid fertilizers application in arid conditions of the Republic of Kalmykia
Results of testing liquid and solid fertilizers for soft winter wheat of Khasyr variety yield and quality in 2018-2020 in the central zone of the Republic of Kalmykia are presented. In control, on average for 3 years, yield was 2.49 t/ha, production costs – 9 800 rubles/ha, cost of 1 kg of grain averaged 12 rubles, thus, profit was made in amount of 20 080 rubles. The highest yield (3.51 t/ha) was obtained in option 6 (Vostok EM-1 soil treatment 5 l/ha +seed treatment 0.3 l/t + foliar treatment at tillering phase 1 l/ha) – 29 307 rubles. This is more than by 9 227 rubles, or 45.95% compared to control. At fertilized background, average yield of 3,53 t/ha was obtained, subtract production costs of 9 800 rubles, minus costs of mineral fertilizers ammophos and nitre (26 790 rubles), we get profit of 5 769.3 rubles, which is less than control by 14 310.7 rubles. Therefore, use of liquid fertilizers in arid conditions makes it possible to obtain grain yields higher than at natural background and slightly lower at fertilized background, but in terms of costs use of liquid fertilizers is economically profitable and allows to maintain soil fertility.
Keywords:winter wheat, yield, mineral, liquid fertilizers, the Republic of Kalmykia.
SCIENCE TO PRODUCTION
Economical rules for efficient use of mineral fertilizers and technologies of wheat cultivation
The article provides examples of the use of three economic rules in the search for optimal methods of application fertilizers and other technological operations. The analysis was based on experimental data, where fertilizer doses were studied, the costs of which were compared with the course of profit growth. Comparison of the sum of costs per step of sequential increase in the dose of nitrogen with a profit is favorable when they are equal or the profit exceeds the costs. In the experiment on the Shadrinsky experimental field (north-west of the Kurgan region), the doses of nitrogen N40-80-120 against the background of P30 were studied in grain-fallow crop rotation and on permanent wheat. Doses of nitrogen of the 1st level were optimal in some fields, in others – the 2nd, the 3rd level is not effective everywhere. The cost of high increases in wheat yield from fertilizers in conditions of sufficient plant moisture in the northwest zone in most crop rotation fields and on permanent wheat compensated for the cost of fertilizers and provided profit. Along with the technologies shown in the Shadrinsky experiment, less costly wheat cultivation (without autumn tillage and crop rotation) spread in the region, which was tested in an experiment on the Central experimental field. With a reduced productivity of repeated sowing on stubble and less additions from fertilizers in comparison with data in the Shadrinsky experiment, the profitability of technologies is lower.
Keywords: economic rules, mineral fertilizers, efficiency, spring soft wheat, technology of growth, leached chernozem, the Kurgan region.
Economic efficiency and ranking of the protective agrochemical measures at contaminated by 137Cs arable land
Based on the materials of stationary field experiments, a comprehensive assessment of the economic efficiency and ranking of protective agrochemical measures on 137Cs contaminated arable land was carried out. The assessment was carried out according to the following criteria: prevented economic and radiological damage; net discounted income; yield index; adjusted total costs; cost per unit of prevented radiation dose. Found that on soddypodzolic soils of light granulometric composition contaminated with 137Cs from 870,7 to 2516,4 kBq/m2, with limited financial environments-benefits and the amounts of ameliorants (lime, rock phosphate and dolomite powder), suitable agrochemical the following protective measures: in 5-field crop rotation on the sandy soil contaminated 870,7 kBq/m2 – application of lime at a dose of 2.1 t/ha + NPK; in 5-field crop rotation on the sandy loam soil contaminated 2516,4 kBq/m2 the introduction of phosphate in 0.288 kg/ha + NPK; in 7-field crop rotation on light loamy soil, contaminated 900,6 kBq/m2 the introduction of single doses of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in combination with one dose of nitrogen mineral fertilizers (NP1.5K1.5); in 6-field crop rotation on light loamy soil, contaminated 1223,7 kBq/m2 – introduction of dolomite 3 t/ha + manure 120 t/ha + K600.
Keywords: arable land, radioactive pollution, 137Cs, agrochemical measures, prevented damage, economic efficiency, ranking, the Bryansk region.
Photosynthetic activity and productivity of winter triticale in dependence of mineral nutrition level and sowing dates
The influence of the main technological methods (sowing dates and mineral nutrition standards) on the photosynthetic activity and productivity of winter triticale in the South-Western part of the Central region of Russia was studied. The research object is winter triticale of the Mikhas variety (Originator – «Institute of Agriculture and Selection of the Belarus National Academy of Sciences»). The research was carried out on a long-term experimental plot of the Bryansk State Agrarian University in the conditions of grey forest medium-loamy soil formed on loesslike carbonate loam. A reliable influence of mineral nutrition and sowing dates on the photosynthetic potential (PhP) and the yield of winter triticale has been established. On average, over the three years of the research, the largest PhP of winter triticale of the Mikhas variety (3 217.4 thsd m2/ha x days) was recorded at the sowing date of August 25 on the variant with N60P60K60 + N30 + N30, providing the highest grain yield of 5.6 t/ha.
Keywords: winter triticale, grain yield, photosynthetic crops activity, sowing date, mineral nutrition.
Productivity and energy efficiency of different potato varieties depending on fertilizer system
Results of research of productivity and energy efficiency of potato varieties depending on fertilizers application at the Bryansk experimental potato station in 2001-2004 are presented. Studies have shown that the yield of dry matter from 1 ha was the most productive rapeseed – 8,5 t/ha against 5,8 t/ha in Lupin. The supply of basic nutrients to the soil when plowing green mass of lupine was 281 kg/ha, which is equivalent to the sum of NPK 36 t/ha of manure, rape-320 kg/ha and 40 t/ha of manure, respectively. Plowing green mass of lupine in combination with mineral fertilizers N90P90K120 provided an additional yield of tubers 5,0-6,2 t/ha, or 47,6-54,9% depending on the variety. The combined action of rapeseed with mineral fertilizers increased the yield by 4,4-5,1 t/ha or by 41,9-45,1%. The use of lupine and rapeseed contributed to an increase in the coefficient of energy efficiency of potato varieties to 1,38-2,25 against 1,34-1,87 when applying manure.
Keywords: potatoes, varieties, fertilizers, yield, quality, energy efficiency, soddy-podzolic soil, the Bryansk region.
Influence of soil fertility on the unfolding of the potential of varieties of alfalfa changeable
The results of the study of the responsiveness to a higher level of soil fertility of varieties of alfalfa changeable Emerald, Oriole, created in the Povolzhsky Scientific-Research Institute of Breeding and Seed Production (PSRIBSP) and Chishminskaya 131, in Memory of Enikeev – in the Bashkir Scientific-Research Institute of Agriculture (BSRIA) are presented. The experiments were carried out in similar weather conditions in the Samara region and the Republic of Bashkortostan, but with a difference in soil fertility. The potential of productivity of varieties of variable alfalfa on different composition and fertility of soils was studied. A comparative analysis of the yield of green mass, on average for 3 years of life and 2 years of use of the grass stand, separately by mowing, as well as by their sum, is presented. The productivity of the green mass of the four studied varieties during the growing season decreased on a lower fertile background of the PSRIBSP than in the BSRIA. The highest increase in yield was observed in the variety of Memory of Enikeev – 1.27 kg/m2, with an average total yield of 5.45 kg/m2, in second place was the variety of Emerald with a difference of 0.93 kg/m2 with a yield of 4.91 kg/m2. This characterizes these varieties as more responsive to soil fertility. The height of the plants of the first mowing was higher than the second and ranged from 81.4 to 93.9 cm in the PSRIBSP area and 90.5-95.6 cm in the BSRIA, i.e. the difference was 2-7 cm and was higher in more fertile soils. In terms of leafiness, the most responsive to the increase in soil fertility were the varieties Ivolga and Chishminskaya 131, their leafiness increased in the main mowing by 4.06 and 3.21%, respectively. The same varieties were characterized by the greatest reaction to the conditions of cultivation in the second mowing.
Keywords: variable alfalfa, yield, cutting, green mass, soil fertility, climate, the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Samara region.
Influence of sorbent-modified urea glauconite based on agrochemical properties of gray forest soil
The paper presents the data of a model experiment to assess the effect of urea modified with a sorbent based on glauconite on the agrochemical parameters of light gray forest soil during its two-month composting. The experiments were carried out at the Department of Agrochemistry of the Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy in 2020, in 2 terms, 4-fold repetition. It was found that 60 days after the introduction of urea in nitrogen doses of 0.2 g/kg, 0.4 and 0.6 g/kg, the pH of the aqueous extract, the content of exchange bases and humus in the soil did not change. It is noted that modified urea (MM) promotes a decrease in exchangeable acidity with a slight increase in hydrolytic acidity, as well as an increase in the content of mobile phosphorus compounds (by 11-12 mg/kg, or 16-17% to control) and potassium (by 11-13 mg/kg, or 13-15% to control). The composting of soil fertilized with MM at a dose of 0.2 g/kg led to a decrease in the content of ammonium nitrogen in the soil by 0.9 mg/kg, i.e. by 11% to the variant with the introduction of standard urea in the same dose. Composting the soil with standard urea in a thermostat led to a 3-fold increase in the content of ammonium nitrogen in the soil, and with MM in the same dose – to a decrease in its content by 2.4 times. The positive effect of the sorbent, expressed in the suppression of the ammonification process, is manifested stably at all studied doses of nitrogen application in the form of urea. The content of nitrate nitrogen in the soil did not change with increasing doses of MM, which indicates a positive effect of the sorbent on the course of organic nitrogen mineralization not only at the stage of ammonification, but also at the stage of nitrification.
Keywords: urea, glauconite sorbent, gray forest soil, pH, mobile phosphorus and potassium, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen.
Influence of Zn content on mobility of Cd at soddy-podzolic soil and its accumulation in barley.
ДTo identify the patterns of distribution and estimate the parameters of Zn and Cd migration in «soil – soil solution – plant» system, a plant growing experiment was carried out on soddy-podzolic soil using a test culture of barley. The experiment included 5 scenarios with different combinations of Cd and Zn doses: Cd10Zn0, Cd10Zn0, Cd10Zn50, Cd10Zn100, Cd10Zn150. The physical and chemical characteristics of the soil, the content of mobile (F1) and sum of mobile and OMC-bound (F1 + F2) forms of heavy metals, morphometric parameters and concentrations of Zn and Cd in barley during ontogenesis were determined. Parameterization of the equations of vegetative mass growth, plant tissues accumulation of Zn and Cd and the metals content in the soil solution over time is performed. It was found that the ratio between F1 and (F1 + F2) forms of Zn and Cd does not depend on the amount of Zn and Cd introduced into soil and is 0.8 and 0.79, respectively, for all scenarios. The change in the barley biomass is well approximated by logistic curves. Contamination of the studied soil with Cd (10 mg/kg – subcritical concentration) leads to a minor phytotoxic effect. The introduction of additional doses of Zn leads to an increase in its mass fraction in the aerial parts of plants in accordance with the linear dependence: [Zn]plant (mg/kg) = 4.88 x [Zn]soil – 192.95, while the translocation ratio TRCd = (Cdarial parts/Cdroots) is also increased, and the TRZn is not changed. However, TRZn decreases as the plants develop. The Zn and Cd concentrations in the soil solutiondecrease over time in accordance with the inverse exponential dependence.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, heavy metals, forms, migration, Cd, Zn, barley, phytotoxicity, soil solutions, the Kaluga region.
Substrate composition as the most important factor increasing efficiency of growing in plant pot
The study of the influence of the composition of the substrate on vegetative growth and the quality of annual seedlings of apricot, plum and pear when grown in pot plant was carried out in 2018-2020 at the South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato Growing – branch of the FSBSI Ural FASRC, Ural branch of the RAS. The following indicators were assessed: vegetative growth and diameter of the base of the stem of seedlings, survival rate of seedlings, the proportion of seedlings of the first and second commercial classes in accordance with the current regulatory documents. In the statistical analysis of the experimental data obtained, we used the Pearson chi-square test, the Monte-Carlo method, consistent standardized residuals, and the Kruskal-Wallis test with post hoc comparisons by the Dunn method. It has been established that expanded clay can be used as a component of substrates in which the basic components have an acidic reaction of the medium. No significant differences in the survival rate and vegetative growth of plants when grown in soil-peat and peat-expanded clay substrates were not revealed. No significant differences were found during one season in the effect of controlled release fertilizer Basacote with a prolongation period of three and six months. Expanded clay is an inert moisture-retaining component and allows to reduce the cost of peat substrates. The maximum profitability in the cultivation of all studied fruit crops was obtained in the variants of adding to the composition of the substrate the controlled release fertilizer Basacote 6M at the rate of 4 g/l and the controlled release fertilizer Basacote 3M at the rate of 5 g/l of the substrate in the spring before planting the seedlings.
Keywords: сsubstrate, peat, expanded clay, Basacote, pot plant, apricot, pear, plum.
Exogenous regulation of biological productivity of the golden root (Sedum Roseum (L.) Scop.)
The dynamics of annual growth of the underground part of Golden root plants depending on non-root treatments was studied. Non-root treatments with binary mixtures of organomineral, chelate and microfertilizers (EcoFus, Ferovit, Siliplant) were used on vegetative plants of Golden root. Treatments were performed twice: at the beginning of spring regrowth and in the phase of mass budding. Non-root treatment with binary mixtures of Siliplant + Ferovit and Siliplant + EcoFus had a positive effect on the growth of the underground part of Golden root. The underground mass of the control variant in the fourth year of plant life averaged 31.04 g. The Siliplant + Ferovit and Siliplant + EcoFus variants exceeded the control by 30.83 and 39.81%, respectively. By the fifth year of life, the increase in the control variant was 16 g, in the Siliplant + Ferovit 10 g, Siliplant + EcoFus variants – 12.6 g. The underground mass of the control variant in the fifth year of plant life averaged 46.7 g. The Siliplant + Ferovit and Siliplant + EcoFus variants exceeded the control by 8.3 and 19.9%, respectively. When studying the dynamics of increasing the underground mass of Golden root by the third-fourth year of vegetation, it was found that climatic conditions do not significantly affect the formation of the underground part of plants, the difference in some years only slightly exceeded the experimental error. Plants of the fourth year of life (Siliplant + EcoFus variant) have a denser rhizome, long roots and a large number of wintering buds compared to the control variant. The use of microfertilizers does not effect on the content of phenylpropanoids in the raw material. Given the significant increase in the mass of the underground part of the treated plants compared to the control; microfertilizers can be used to increase the yield of rhizomes with roots of Golden root’s plants.
Keywords:golden root, organic fertilizer, micronutrient fertilizers, phenylpropanoid.
Influence of iodine dressing on cucumber productivity in sheltered ground conditions in the Arctic zone of the Yakutia
Article presents the results of a study to determine the effectiveness of different norms for the use of iodine in the cultivation of cucumbers in the protected ground of the Arctic zone of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Experiments were carried out in 2017-2019 on basis of the Borulakh agricultural school of the Verkhoyansk district. In experimental variants, iodine was added in drops dissolved in water. At the same time, they studied use of iodine for growth, development, productivity and the chemical composition of cucumber in sheltered ground conditions. When assessing the nitrogen content in soils, a difference was found. So in terms of nitrogen content in options 1 and 3 was more than the control by 0.97 and 6.76%, and in option 4 it was slightly less than in the control. Evaluation of the phosphorus content in soils showed that in all variants the difference was insignificant , except for the variant where the addition was 30 drops of iodine (by 59% in relation to the control group). The use of iodine influenced the biometric parameters of plants, improving the growth and development of the photosynthetic apparatus. A relatively large yield was obtained using a dose of iodine of 5 drops per 10 liters of water and was equal to 7.2 kg/m2. Chemical analysis of cucumber fruits showed that in terms of organic matter and vitamin C content, all variants had a slight superiority over the control. Evaluation of the content of calcium and phosphorus in cucumber fruits established an insignificant superiority of options 2, 3 and 4 over the control, except for the indicators of option 1.
Keywords:зsheltered ground, cucumber, iodine, efficiency, productivity, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
Investigation of the chemical composition of root radish seeds by near-infrared spectroscopy
The chemical composition of seeds of the European (Winter Round Black variety), Chinese (Margelanskaya variety) and Japanese (Dubinushka variety) subspecies included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements was studied by the method of near-infrared spectroscopy. The studies were carried out on a SpectraStar XT BIC analyser, model 1400XT-3, with a full scanning range of 1400-2600 nm. It was found that the seed material of all the studied seed samples was characterised by a high protein content: 31.32-32.55% per absolutely dry matter. The highest content of fat, phosphorus and calcium was in the seeds of the Chinese radish subspecies of the Margelanskaya variety and amounted to 2.31, 1.51 and 2.15%, respectively. The seed material of the Japanese radish subspecies of the Dubinushka variety surpassed the seeds of other studied varieties in the amount of proteins, cellulose and insignificantly in the amount of ash elements. Thus, the protein, cellulose and ash content in the studied seeds of this variety was 32.55%, 12.44 and 3.02%, respectively. The ease of use, high accuracy and reliability of the near-infrared spectroscopy method makes it possible to quickly and without prior preparation analyze the seed material to determine its quality and preliminary assessment of the future crop.
Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy, radish, root vegetables, chemical composition.
Spatial distribution of click beetle larves during long-term application of mineral fertilizers at soddypodzolic soil
The article presents the results of studies demonstrating the irregular distribution of click beetle larvae in the field and their damage to potato tubers soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil of the Leningrad region. This fact is indicated by the high values of variation (62.3-485.7) and aggregation (0.9-5.9) coefficients. The irregular spatial distribution of click beetle larvae was a consequence of the different content of nutrients due to the extended use of mineral fertilizers in crop rotation according to the experimental scheme. The introduction of an average (N65P50K50) and a high (N100P75K75) dose of complete mineral fertilizer over a long period of time led to an increase in the total number of click beetle larvae by 1.5-2.5 times and by 2.1-4.4 times respectively. At the same time, significant differences were noted between the variants of average and high provision with the main elements of mineral nutrition (33.0 and 49.8 individuals/m2). A strong variation in the population density and the same type of response to changes in the agrochemical and physical properties of the soil under the influence of regular fertilizers introduction turned out to be typical for both dominant species of click beetles – Agriotes obscurus L. and Adrastus pallens F. The revealed distribution of click beetle larvae, depending on the agrochemical properties of the soil, indicates the advisability of taking protective measures against this pest, primarily in fields intended for planting potato this year.
Keywords: click beetle larvae, potato, damage to tubers, soddy-podzolic soil, level of fertilization, the coefficient of variation, the Leningrad regionь.
Evito T, SC – a new fungicide for protection of spring wheat from diseases during the growing season
Biological and economic efficiency as safety of the fungicide Evito T, CS on spring wheat in fight against a complex of diseases was studied. Research was conducted in 2014-2015 in the Leningrad, Voronezh, Saratov and Volgograd regions on varieties of spring wheat susceptible to the main phytopathogens: Arkas, Darya and Saratovskaya 42. Fungicide was used once in 3 application rates: 0,5; 0,7 l/ha and 1,0 l/ha. Experiments were laid in 4-fold repetition with the size of experimental plots of 10 m2 . Processing of vegetating plants was carried out in the flag-leaf – beginning of earing phases (Z 37-51), the flow rate of the working fluid was 300 l/ha. Records of disease development were carried out on the scales of James, Peterson and Geshele. The ecological safety of the studied fungicide was evaluated by the integral indicator toxic load (TL). The composition of the phytopathogenic complex was noted by years and places of research. In the Leningrad region it was presented by the agents of powdery mildew and leaf rust, TanSeptoria and spot blotch, in the Voronezh – powdery mildew, leaf rust and the Tan-Septoria spot in the Saratov and Volgograd region – only powdery mildew and leaf rust. The highest biological effectiveness in the fight against complex infection was distinguished by the variant with the fungicides Evito T, CS with a maximum application rate of 1,0 l/ha. Regardless of the infectious background of phytopathogens, its effectiveness on average in the regions was against: leaf rust 89,6%; powdery mildew 82,5%; septoria-pyrenophorous spot 83,1% and spot blotch 66,7%. The use of the fungicide in this application rate allowed to save 15,6% of the crop. According to the indicator of TL, the fungicide Evito T, CS is classified as a moderately dangerous fungicide (109,5-219,5 LD50/ha).
Keywords: spring wheat, powdery mildew, leaf rust, leaf spots, tebuconazole, fluoxastrobine, toxic load.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Influence of macro- and micronutrient fertilizers on the yield and quality of winter wheat varieties
The results of the experiment laid on dark chestnut soils on the lands of JSC «To the name of Kalinin» in the Serafimovichesky district of the Volgograd region. The experiment studied 20 varieties of winter wheat. As a result of the research, a noticeable differentiation of varieties of different breeding centers in terms of yield and quality, depending on the prevailing weather conditions, was noted. Difficult weather conditions in 2018 led to some losses in yield, but provided an increase in the protein content in grain by 2.3% in control; by 1.4% on the tier with an early spring application of 150 kg/ha of ammonium nitrate and by 1.3% on the third tier with the maximum amount of fertilizer. The use of ammonium nitrate at a dose of 150 kg/ha gave an increase in yield by an average of 18.7% in 2018 and 19.2% in 2019. The use of micronutrient fertilizer Polydon Bio Universal against th e background of mineral nitrogen fertilizers led to an increase in yield compared to the first (control) tier by 23.8% in 2018 and 24,0% in 2019 The efficiency of the use of mineral fertilizers largely depends on the genetic potential of the variety. The use of micronutrient fertilizer together with herbicides increases the yield and potential of the variety.
Keywords: winter wheat, yield, quality, macro- and micronutrient fertilizers, protein, the Volgograd region.