Archive of magazines
Buy the full-text version or a separate article one can on the site www.elibrary.ru
Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
Адрес для переписки: 115419, Москва, Шаболовка, 65-1-50.
Тел/факс: (495) 952-76-25
Отпечатано в ООО «САМ Полиграфист».
г. Москва, 109316, Волгоградский пр-т, д. 42, корп. 5.
Подписано в печать: 16.04.2021
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2021 / Issue 2
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Influence of nitrogen fertilizers and biopreparations on grain yield in mixed legume-bluegrassagrocoenosis
Research of the technology of using ammonium and potassium nitrate with nitrogen-fixing strains of nodule and associative rhizobacteria in mixed legume-bluegrass crops ofnarrow-leaved lupine, pea, soy with spring wheat and barley was studied. It is shown that the most complementary bacteria Rhizobium lupini strain № 363a, for pea Rhizobium leguminosarum strain № 261b, for soybean Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain № 634b, and for bluegrass crops associated rhizobacteria strains № 30 and № 7 belonging to the genus Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter mysorens were used for pre-sowing treatment of lupine seeds. It isshown that the introduction of small doses of mineral nitrogen fertilizers N60 per 1 ha of legume-bluegrass sowing and inoculation of seeds with biological preparations: Rhizotorphin at a dose of 300 g/ha, as well as Flavobacterin at a dose of 400 g/ha, allows to involve in the biological cycle in the soil from 24,9 to 31,6 t/ha ofmicrobial biomass. Studies have shown that the interaction in the soil of microbial biomass and plants, mixed legume-bluegrass agrocoenosis increases by 22,9-44,3% grain yield. It was found that the yield of grain mixture in mixed pea-barley agrocoenosis is higher from the introduction of potassium nitrate N60 against the background of inoculation of seeds of Rhizobium leguminosarum strain № 2616 and Flavobacterium strain 30 compared with the introduction of ammonium nitrate at the same dose.
Keywords: сmixed legumes-grasses in the agrocoenosis, mineral nitrogen fertilizers, biopreparations, nitrogenfixing bacteria.
Influence of mineral fertilizers on nitrate regime and nitrification at leached chernozem in Northern Trans-Urals
The article reflects the results of research on the effectof mineral fertilizers on soil nitrification. The work was carried out in 2018-2020 on arable leached chernozem in the Northern Trans-Urals under spring wheat crops. The doses of mineral fertilizers that were calculated based on the removal of nutrients by the planned crop, taking into account their actual content in the soil, were: 3.0 t/ha of grain N40P75; 4.0 t/ha – N95P110; 5.0 t/ha – N150P200 and 6.0 t/ha – N185P160 kg/ha. The option without applying mineral fertilizers was taken for control. It was found that up to 60 kg of nitrogen accumulates during the growing season as a result of nitrification on non-winded variants. The application of mineral fertilizers had a stimulating effect on the nitrate regime of the soil. In the variant with the application of mineral fertilizers at a dose of N150P200, the peak of nitrification activity was noted, nitrogen reserves in this variant amounted to 85 kg/ha on average for three years of research. At the maximum agrophone (N185P160), the microbiological activity was inhibited and the current soil nitrification decreased almost to the control values. A strong correlation was established betweenthe level of mineral nutrition and the nitrogen of the current nitrification (r = 0.94). The results obtained can be used in calculating the doses of mineral fertilizers for grain crops and in optimizing the fertilizer system of the Northern Trans-Urals.
Keywords:nitrification, soil microflora, leached chernozem, mineral nutrition, spring wheat, fertilization system; planned yield, the Tyumen region.
Influence of fertilizer systems and methods of basic soil treatment on crop yield, productivity of crop rotations with different saturation of legumes and fertility of soddy-podzolic soil in the Central Non-chernozem area
On medium-cultivated soddy-podzolic soils of the CentralNon-Chernozem region, a close productivity of 8-field biologized fruit-rotation crop rotations with 25 and 50% saturation with legumes in terms of the average annual accumulation of fodder units (3.53 and 3.85 thousand), crude protein (4.73 and 5.72 c/ha) and exchange energy (41.2 and 43.4 GJ/ha). A small (2-3%) advantage in productivity of the resourcesaving combined system of basic tillage over systematic cultural plowing was revealed. It is shown that in a crop rotation with a smaller proportion of legumes, the maximum level of average annual productivity of 4.06 thousand forage units, 5.12 c/ha of crude protein and 46.1 GJ/ha of exchangeable energy was created using the «traditional» organic-mineral fertilization system manure + green manure + N45P30K75 on average per year. This system did not ensure the preservation of humus in the soil at the initial level, did not have a positive effect on the dynamics of the content of nutrients and the degree of soil acidity over time. With a higher saturation with legumes, a close (93-115% depending on the indicator) level of crop rotation productivity was created byusing an organic fertilization system, which contributed to the expanded reproduction of humus in the soil, but also did not lead to an improvement in the noted agrochemical indicators. Therefore, at the achieved level of productivity of both crop rotations, in order to improve the agrochemical status of the soil, it is necessary to find additional ways to increase the level of humus content (25% of legumes), a significant increase in the content of mobile potassium in the topsoil by applying increased doses of potash fertilizers (at least 120-150 kg/ha K2O) and the use of phosphorus fertilizers in doses exceeding the average annual removal of P2O5 by 20-30%.
Keywords: Central Non-Chernozem region, crop rotation, biologization, tillage, fertilization, productivity, fertility.
Influence of long-term application of fertilizers during limestone using zinc on productivity of field crop rotation and phosphate regime of soddy-podzolic soil
In a long field experiment on a poorly cultivated soddy-podzolic heavy loamy soil with a high content of mobile aluminum (about 130 mg/kg), due to the systematic use of nitrogen-potassium fertilizers, a high efficiency of phosphorus fertilizers in liming was established. The application of phosphorus fertilizers without liming the soil increases the productivity of field crop rotation by 38%, with liming at doses of 1.5 and 2.5 g. (in total for all years) by 1.9 and 2.3 times, respectively, compared with the level of productivity against the background of nitrogenpotassium fertilizers 25.1 c grain units/ha (without lime). The efficiency of zinc fertilizers during liming increases – the increase in productivity reaches 5.9 c grain units/ha. When using phosphorus fertilizers in combination with zinc on limed soil with a dose of 2.5 g to the maximum productivity of field crop rotation was obtained (64.7 c/ha), which is 2.5 times higher than the background of nitrogen-potassium fertilizers. When liming with a large dose (2.5 g.), a slightly negative balance of phosphorus was formed during the last (12th) rotation, the content of mobile phosphorus in the soil did not change, the degree of phosphate mobility slightly increased.
Keywords: productivity of crop rotation, fertilizers,soddy-podzolic soil, phosphate regime.
Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers and plant protection systems during cultivation of winter wheat at soddy-podzolic soil
Here are provided the results of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers application depending on protection system for winter wheat in the conditions of soddy-podzolic soil of the Moscow region. A long-term field study on cultivated soddy-podzolic high clay-loam soil detected a higher efficacy of nitrogen fertilizers with an integrated system of plant protection for winter wheat than with a minimum one when only herbicides, and seed treatment were used. The application of nitrogen fertilizers has increased the yield with an increase of the dose from 45 to 135 kg/ha of the active substance reaching maximum with an integrated system of 65.8 c/ha, and minimum – 56.8 c/ha, without protection – 49.1 c/ha, which is higher than the background of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers by 1.8, 1.5 and 1.3 times respectively. A high yield of winter wheat is observed due to the action of nitrogen fertilizers and an improved phytosanitary state of crops with an integrated plant protection system. Whileapplying of high doses of nitrogen (90 and 135 kg/ha) in the form of ammonium nitrate the reaction of the soil environment, and the hydrolytic acidity of the soil slightly increased, the humus content did not change in the variants of experimental design.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, winter wheat, fertilizers, yield, protection system, the Moscow region.
Dependence of yield and quality of early ripe varieties of potato from mineral nutrition level in conditions of North-West Russia
The article presents research of the influence of different norms of mineral nutrition on such indicators as yield, marketability and quality of potato varieties of different ripening periods, taking into account the changing environmental conditions of North-West Russia and the Republic of Karelia in particular. The introduction of various norms of mineral fertilizers significantly increased the yield of potato tubers on average by varieties by 26-35%. The results of evaluating the effectiveness of different norms of mineral fertilizers when growing various varieties of potatoes (the average return of 1 kg offertilizers per crop) showed that the best payback of mineral fertilizers in the N80P60K120 rate was noted when they were applied under an early ripe potato variety Udacha (an average of 34 kg). It has been established that an important role among biotic factors is played by the variety itself, the level of its genetic potential and responsiveness to the conditions of cultivation. Weather conditions and the use of fertilizers affect not only the yield of potatoes, but also their quality indicators. The use of different norms of mineral fertilizers, as a factor in controlling the production process of potatoes to be expected had a significant effect in all studied varieties on an increase in the average weight oftubers (in the Udacha variety by 66,7%, Red Scarlett – 38.7%, Aurora – 24%), as well as on the quality of potato tubers, in terms of increasing the nitrogen content in them (by 8,8-15,4%), potassium (by 23,2-37,8%) and reducing starch content by 5,2-12,3%.
Keywords: potatoes, varieties, mineral fertilizers, yield,quality of tubers, the Republic of Karelia.
Optimizing of mineral nutrition of tomatoes
An assessment of the effect of separate and combined application of biohumus, mineral fertilizers and silicic fertilizer Siliplant at different consumption rates to tomato yield is given. The studies were carried out in 2017 and 2018 at the NPP «Agrolugan» of the Lutuginsky district of the Luhansk region. Biohumus, phosphorus, potash fertilizers and part of nitrogen fertilizers (30 kg/ha) at a rate of N120 were applied while autumn plowing in the fall. At lower rates of nitrogen, the fertilizer was applied in the spring as a top-dressing at 30 kg/ha. Siliplant was used for seed treatment and 4 times during the growing season for spraying plants at a rate of 1 l/ha. Established that the use of fertilizers contributed to a significant increase of crop yield by 28-70%. The maximum harvest of fruits 4.23 t/ha was obtained owing to Biohumus 5 t/ha+ N60P60K40. The application of biohumus at a rate of 10 t/ha was more effective than the use of mineral fertilizers (N120P120K80), respectively 4.07 and 3.97 t/ha of fruits was harvested. Almost the same yield (3.93 t/ha) was obtained owing to the complex application of Biohumus, 2.5 t/ha, N30P30K20 and Siliplant (seed treatment and 4 top-dressings during the growing season at 1 l/ha). Consequently, tomato yield directly depends on the level of supply with the necessary nutrients.
Keywords: biohumus, mineral fertilizers, silicic fertilizer Siliplant, tomato, yield, the Luhansk region.
RESEARCH OF BIOPREPARATIONS
Effect of Hypergreen biological stimulator on food regime of agrochernozems inthe Krasnoyarsk foreststeppe
ИIn a field experiment in the conditions of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe in 2017-2018 of the year the effect of the biological stimulant Hypergreen on the food regime of agrochernozems was studied. The biological stimulant Hypergreen was used in the complex protection of spring wheat, where it was used as a seed dressing agent and in tank mixtures for vegetative plants with herbicides, fungicides and insecticides. Studies have established that the treatment of spring wheat seeds with the drug Hypergreen in its pure form and together with a chemical dressing agent, as well as subsequent treatment of vegetative plants with a biological stimulator in tank mixtures led to alkalinization of the soil solution by 0,3-0,4 units. while maintaining the optimal parameters (LSD05 = 0,2-0,3). An improvement in the nutritional conditions of spring wheat with the use of the biological stimulator Hypergreen has been shown. The intensification of mineralization processes in agrochernozem against the background of the use of a biological stimulant determined the replenishment of the soil solution with ammonium nitrogen by 4-8 mg/kg in comparison with the control. The soilof the control variants, on average, during the observation period was characterized by a low supply of nitrate nitrogen (7 mg/kg). The use of the biological stimulant Hypergreen contributed to the average supply of soil with it (9-10 mg/kg), as well as the maintenance of ahigh supply of mobile phosphorus. The maximum content of mobile phosphorus was observed in the variant with the use of Hypergreen in its pure form during seed treatment and subsequent foliar treatments (278 mg/kg), exceeding th control on average for two years of research by 36 mg/kg. Under the conditions of a very high provision of agrochernozems of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe with mobile potassium, its concentration in the soil solution decreased by 29-69 mg/kg in variants with the use of a biological stimulator.
Keywords: biological stimulant, agrochernozem, spring wheat, soil pH, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, mobile phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, the Krasnoyarsk region.
Anti-stress and phytohormone preparations in technology of spring rapeseed cultivation at gray forest soils in the Republic of Tatarstan
The results of the effectiveness of foliar feeding of spring rape with a preparation with anti-stress properties (Cytodef-100, VRP) and phytohormone Giberelon, VRP are presented. It has been established that the combined use of drugs belonging to the class of gibberellins stimulates cell division and elongation, enhances plant growth, increases their survival rate during the growing season, forms a dense stalk, which makes it possible to form rapeseed agrocoenosis with a minimum content of weeds, increases the number of pods and seeds in a pod. The gross harvest of vegetable oil from 1 hectare of arable land was 997 kg. All this provides additional production of rapeseed oilseeds with a crude fat content of 47.3%.
Keywords: gray forest soil, spring rapeseed, nutrition backgrounds, biopreparations, yield, crude fat, vegetable oil, the Republic of Tatarstan.
Vertical migration of 90Sr in soil horizons of leached chernozemо
In a long-term field experiment (30 years), the vertical migration of 90Sr in leached chernozem in the conditions of the Krasnodar region was studied. Options for the location of the nuclead in the soil: 1-arable layer (0-25cm), the second-50cm (imitation of plantage plowing). In the first version of the experiment, for the first 1 years of research (1989-2004), a low migration of 90Sr from the place of application to the underlying soil horizons was noted. The movement was only 5 cm. Over the next 10 years (2004-2014), the radionuclide also did not "go" deep into the soil. The total depth of migration, from the place of introduction, for 25 years was 10-12cm. In the next 5 years (2014-2019), the vertical migration and the content of the studied nuclide in the studied soil layers practically changed little. That is, the radionuclide is pretty much reduced my mobility. In general, for th entire period of observations, starting from 1989, the vertical migration of the studied nuclide was 10-13 (up to 15 cm in repetitions). In the second variant of the experiment, the vertical migration of the studied radionuclide for the period of research from 1989 to 2019 was 10-12 cm. Over the past 5 years of research, it is possible to note an increase in the nuclide content in the 50-55cm layer, while its simultaneous decrease in the 45-50cm layer. As a result, it can be argued that the vertical migration of radionuclide in the studied soil is low even with long-term presence in the soil.
Keywords: soil, leached Chernozem, radionuclide, migration, the Krasnodar region.
Use of test plants for assessment of soil contamination degree by heavy metals
ИThe studies were carried out on soils contaminated with heavy metals (HM). The first is the native soil sampled in the city square (NS)), the second is compost based on leaflitter (C), the third is substrate (S), consisting of 40% of the compost obtained and 60% of the imported soil-forming rock, peat, construction sand. Parsley (Petroselinum Mill.) And watercress (Lepidium sativum) plants were selected as test objects of plants. Test cultures were characterized by the highest absolute accumulation of zinc, lead and copper. The accumulation of cobalt, nickel, chromium and cadmium over the studied period is insignificant. A closepositive correlation was revealed between the content of lead in watercress and parsley greens (r = 0.72-0.82) and its content in soils. A positive correlation was revealed between the value of the coefficient ofbiological accumulation and the HM content in test plants (r = 0.48-0.99), with the exception of cobalt. The most favorable for growing plants proved to be S, where the value of the coefficient of biological accumulation of HM, had values equal or significantly lower than that ofNS and C. Under the experimental conditions, the type of soil and the type of test plant influenced the bioavailability of metal from the soil to the plant. Two-way analysis of variance revealed the predominant positive effect of the type of soil on the accumulation of Cu, Pb, Ni in test plants (F > Fcrit (75.79 > 19 at p < 0.01; 55.81 > 19 at p < 0.01; 302.14 > 19 at p < 0.003)). The accumulation of Zn in the greens of test plants was more influenced by the type of the grown plant (F > Fcrit; 121.89 > 18.51 at p < 0.008).
Keywords: urban soil, compost, substrate, native soil, landscape gardening, test plants, heavy metals, coefficient of biological accumulation, Saint-Petersburg.
Agroecological evaluation of soil physicalchemical processes speed
In laboratory experiments is shown that the rate of desorption of ions from PPK decreases in soils of heavier texture, with a greater proportion of minerals of the type 2:1; 2:2. Thus, in reddish-brown soil and in vertisol, the ratio of slowly to rapidly displaced EDTA phosphates was 1.5 and 2.4, respectively; the content of strongly bound phosphates was 0.6 and 1.4; The kinetics of soil sorption of 0.1N KH2PO4 (X = lg·t), is 0.04 and 0.15 respectively. The amount of potassium displaced fromthe soil by 0.01N HC1 in 5 days and 5 minutes was 2.7 in chernozem; 1.8 in soddy-podzolic soil; phosphorus content was 6.7 and 3.7 respectively. It is shown that the rate of migration of substances, changes in microbiological activity, and the development of anaerobiosis differ in different soils. The processes of soil contamination with heavy metals also differ atdifferent rates, which are typical for individual soils and terrain elements. Thus, in ordinary chernozems over a 10 year period, the content of mobile forms of lead was described by the equation: Pb = 1.4t+ 1.4R2 = 0.63; Cd = 0,03t + 0,003R2 = 0,90; Co = 0,15t + 0,5R2 = 0,71. It is shown that the rate of change in soil properties during flooding (first of all, Eh) and the content of water-soluble H2S, NO3-, NH4+ , Al3+, Fe2+, CO2, Mn2+ isan important criterion for correcting the components of agricultural systems on soils with temporary excess moisture. From the agroecological point of view, the speed of development of the processes of salinization, podzolization, gluing, sod process, desertification, soil degradation with the development of erosion and contamination with heavy metals is important. To increase the efficiency of farming systems and improve the ecological state of biogeocoenosis, it is necessary to regulate the rates of processes occurring in soils.
Keywords: sorption and desorption of ions in soils, anaerobiosis, heavy metals, speed of soil processes, soil evolution.
Solving the problem of wetlands in the conditions of megapolis by example Environmental station of the RussianTimiryazev State Agrarian University
ДTo restore the ecosystem of waterlogged urbanized territories, using the example of the Environmental Station of the Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University (RSAU-MTAA), a method of planting moisture-loving crops (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia, Hipnum cupressiforme) was developed. The planting of moisture-loving crops was also carried out to obtain biomass, which will be used in further research. The agrochemical properties and hardness of the substrate on which the moisture-loving crops grow were studied by the penetration method.
Keywords: canal, moisture-loving crops, Hypnum cypress moss, common reed, narrow-leaved cattail, ecological stationary, restoration of ecosystems.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Influence of mineral fertilizers and biopreparation Epin-Extra on yield and quality of lupine narrow-leaved grain in conditions of radioactive contamination of agrocoenosis
The presents results of three-year researches to assess the effectiveness of mineral fertilizers and the biopreparation Epin-Extra biologics in the cultivation of narrow-leaved lupine for grain, depending on the level of intensification of chemical agents at soddy-podzolic light loamy radioactively contaminated soil. The field experiments were conducted on the experimental field of the Novozybkov branch of the Bryansk State Agrarian University in 2017-2019. The researches have reliably established that the maximum grain yields (2.21 t/ha) of narrow-leaved lupine of the variety Kristall was formed when using the N60Р90К120 fertilizer system in combination with the biopreparation Epin-Extra. The average grain yields increased by 24.2% due to the application of the biopreparation Epin-Extra. On average, over the years of researches, the protein content of narrow-leaved lupine grain changed from 31.54 to 40.72% depending on the background of fertilization and the action of the biopreparation Epin-Extra. When using different fertilizer systems, the total energy consumption varied in the range of 13.76-25.36 GJ/ha, the gross energy (GE), depending on the degree of saturation of the fertilizer systems, was 19.60-46.19 GJ/ha, and the exchange energy (EE) varied from 11.59 to 25.50 GJ/ha. The highest feed units output (0.900 t/ha), digestible protein (0.778 t/ha) and gross energy increments were obtained withthe complex application of mineral fertilizer at a dose of N60Р90К120 and the biopreparation Epin-Extra. The energy coefficient (EC) and the energy efficiency coefficient (CEE) varied in the range of 1.42-1.97 and 0.80-1.19, respectively. The complex application of mineral fertilizers and the biopreparation Epin-Extra contributed to a decrease in the specific activity of 137Сs in the grain of narrow-leaved lupine from 1.05 to 1.61 times, amounting in these variants 221-216 Bq/kg.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, narrow-leaved lupine, mineral fertilizers, yields, biopreparation Epin-Extra, grain quality, 137Сs, the Bryansk region.
Efficiency of biological fertilizers Azotovit and phosphatovit for barley cultivation at soddy-podzolic soils in the Udmurt republic
The effectiveness of biological fertilizers Azotovit and Phosphatovit was studied in laboratory and model experiments, as well as during 2018-2020 in a field experiment on soddy-podzolic soils of the JSC «Put' Ilyicha» of the Zavyalovsky district of the Udmurt Republic. The results of laboratory and model experiments showed that seed treatment had a positive effect on their germination, as well as on plant development. In the field experiment, presowing treatment of seeds contributed to obtaining significantincreases in grain yield within 10.5-37.0% relative to control without treatment. In conditions of relatively low temperatures in the first half of the growing season in 2019, seed treatment with Vial TT reduced the yield; against this background, the efficiency of biological fertilizers Azotovit and Phosphatovit increased; the yield increase was 62-83% in relation to the treatment background.
Keywords: barley, biological fertilizers, seed treatment, yield, soddy-podzolic soil, the Udmurt Republic.
The role of green manure in increasing soil fertility in crop rotationsof the Lower Volga region
The aim of the research was to study biologized techniques that increase soil fertility in organic farming in the Lower Volga region. The research was carried out on the experimental field of the Nizhne-Volzhsky Research Institute of Agriculture, a branch of the Federal Research Center of Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The soil of the experimental plot is light chestnut, heavy loamy, with a humus content in the arable layer of 1.74%. The average annual precipitation was 339.7 mm. The cultivation technology for these crops was generally accepted for the study area. In all variants of the experiment, except for the control, a positive balance of organic matter is provided. A high indicator is noted in a five-field biologized crop rotation, where green manure (sweet clover) is embedded in the soil – +1.36 t/ha, negative balance of organic matter in the control. The positive balance of the main nutrients in the soil per 1 ha of the crop rotation area is ensured in the five-field grain-fallow and seven-field grain-rotgrass-grain cultivated green manure biologized crop rotations, nitrogen +18.2; phosphorus +1.3 and potassium +8.0 and +15.1; +0.6 and +7.7 kg/ha, respectively. Negative balance of nutrients was obtained on control. In the dry steppe zone of the chestnut subzone of light chestnut soils of the Lower Volga region, various methods of biologization have an effective effect on the intake of organic matter into the soil and the yield of grain crops.
Keywords: green manure, organic matter, nutrients, balance, crop rotation, the Lower Volga region.