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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 18.02.2021
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2021 / Issue 1
Agroresource potential and State Agrochemical Service
The concept of agroresource potential (hereinafter – ARP) is proposed. ARP is defined as a category of fundamental concepts, reflecting the essential properties and interaction of a large group of factors (resources) necessary and ensuring the production of primary (i.e. plant) consumption products. ARP structural frame is indicated. ARP is considered as a multi-factor functioning system. As basic factors are defined agrobiological, agroclimatic and soil and land resources. They form the production system itself. The main directions of agrochemical influence on ARP are indicated.
Keywords: agroresource potential, agrobiological, soil-land and agroclimatic resources, support resources, conditions and opportunities for implementation, management directions, State Agrochemical Service.
Dynamics of agrochemical indicators of soils of «Ardatovskoe» LLC over time and assessment of it sustainability to anthropogenic impact
The article presents the data of a comparative analysis of the results of a survey of the soils of the farm, carried out in 2014 (a complete agrochemical survey on an area of 3014 hectares) and in 2019 – a sample survey on an area of 865 hectares. This made it possible to assess the dynamics of changes in the main agrochemical indicators and to give an average characteristic of the state of agricultural land at the beginning of 2020. In a selective agrochemical survey, soil samples were taken from the upper humus layer and soil sections were laid on the main soil types. The soil cover is represented by light gray and gray forest soils (263 ha – 30% of the surveyed area), dark gray forest soils (371 ha – 43%), as well as podzolized chernozem (231 ha, or 27% of the surveyed area) on loess-like loams, mainly of heavy granulometric composition. For the period 2014-2019 the soils of the farm were not cultivated, being in a state of fallow. It was found that during this period the weighted average humus content decreased from 3.83 to 3.64%, the availability of mobile phosphorus compounds decreased by 21 mg/kg (from 108 mg/kg in 2014), the potassium content changed from 158 to 132 mg/kg, the acidity of the soil increased (pHKCl decreased from 5.24 to 5.06). The soils have their inherent buffering capacity and resistance to anthropogenesis, although the absorption capacity on average for the farm decreased by 1.67 mmol/100 g of soil (7% by 2014) while maintaining the degree of soil saturation with bases at 89%. It is noted that the greatest decrease in fertility was noted on chernozem soil.
Keywords: soil, humus, phosphorus, potassium, acidity, soil profile, resistance to anthropogenesis, the Nizhny Novgorod Region.
Experience in estimating of soddypodzolic soils degradation by microbiological indicators (on the example of the agricultural farm in the Kaliningrad region)
The soil degradation of the agricultural farm in the Kaliningrad region by an integral indicator of the functioning of the soil microbiota – the microbial metabolic coefficient (qCО2), defined as the ratio of basal respiration to the carbon of the microbial biomass of soils. It was found that the studied soddy-podzolic soils on an area of about 21 ha, in general, are characterized by a significant variation in properties: the humus content varies from 1.19 to 4.27%, the degree of acidity – from medium acid to neutral, the degree of availability of mobile potassium – from medium to high, mobile phosphorus – from very low to high, the density of soil composition – from 1.10 to 1.76 g/cm3. Such a significant variability in the values of the main soil properties over a relatively small area can be a consequence of uneven agricultural processing, as well as natural heterogeneity of the soil cover associated with strongly pronounced meso- and microrelief. The five-point scale, based on the degree of deviation of the measured value from the reference value, was used to rank the degree of degradation in terms of qCО2 indicator. As a result, the degree of soil degradation was calculated for each sampling point of the agricultural farm and the spatial location of the areas of soils degraded by qCО2 indicator was determined. The studied territory is absolutely dominated by soils characterized by the 3rd and 4th degrees of degradation, which indicates a high level of anthropogenic load during agricultural activities here. The amount of damage calculated in accordance with the «Methodology for determining the amount of damage from soil and land degradation» in terms of qCО2 indicator is on average 153,391,79 rubles/ha.
Keywords: soil and land degradation, soil microbial respiration, microbial metabolic coefficient, the Kaliningrad region.
Soil as a component of protected landscapes in the system of specially protected natural territories (on the example «Basegi» State Reserve)
The soil cover of the reserves is one of the components of the protected landscape, but, in contrast to the flora and fauna, soils are extremely poorly studied. The article presents the results of studying the soils of high-altitude landscapes on permanent phenological sites (PPhS) on the territory of the Basegi ridge, which is part of the «Basegi» State Reserve. Soils were studied at 7 phenological sites and additionally at 5 supporting soils for the sites proposed in the future. Soils on PPhS are all very acidic and unsaturated bases, and diff er in the morphology of profiles, in the content of organic matter and its saturation with nitrogen. Field diagnostics of soils based on profile morphology showed some soil diversity in the Basegi ridge. However, the prevailing soil types in the soil cover (lithozems, burozems) do not have a representative representation of the conditions for their formation. Thus, the existing stationary sites do not represent the entire variety of natural conditions and soils of the reserve, formed in the special ecological conditions of the Middle Urals. We propose to organize new stationary sites in the indigenous dark coniferous taiga and in the crooked forest to increase the information content about the diversity of natural components in the high-altitude landscapes of the Basegi ridge and to represent the vertical zonation in the Middle Urals in relation to the soil cover. The results of the study can serve as a basis for the systematization and inventory of the soils of the reserve, the development of a program for soil-ecological monitoring, soil-ecological and soillandscape zoning of the Middle Urals, clarification of the existing soil map in relation to the mountainous part.
Keywords: mountain soils, landscapes, high-altitude vegetation zones, morphological features, classification, stationary phenological sites, the Perm region.
Precision fertilizer system as a factor in optimizing the agrochemical properties of soddy-podzolic soil
For a five-year model field experiment, a contrast structure of the soil cover was artificially created in the form of a lithogenic mosaic of soddy-podzolic soils of different particle size distribution and cultivation level. Under these conditions, we compared the agronomic and ecological efficiency of the traditional zonal (ZFS) and precision (PFS) organic and mineral fertilizer systems in a vegetable crop rotation. PFS showed an advantage over ZFS in influencing the productivity of the vegetable crop rotation, the spatial heterogeneity of the soil agrochemical properties and crop yields, and also the payback of fertilizers. Against this background, crop rotation productivity increased by 115% relative to the control and by 10% relative to the ZFS, and its spatial variability decreased from 32 to 9%. The payback of 1 kg of NPK with precision application increased by 21% (from 9.9 to 12 cereal units). The spatial heterogeneity of the agrochemical properties reduced unequally. The average value of the variability of agrochemical properties decreased from 46% in the control to 30% in ZFS variant and 23% in PFS variant. This was achieved mainly due to the content of easily hydrolysable nitrogen, mobile phosphorus, organic matter, metabolic bases, and hydrolytic acidity. Since plants and soil require specific conditions for the absorption of potassium from fertilizers, the content of its mobile compounds was levelled out less clearly in the space of the lithogenic mosaic.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, soil cover structure, variability, soil properties, fertilizer system, the Pskov region.
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Efficiency of application of biomodified nitrogen fertilizers for winter wheat
In a field experiment in the Kaluga region, the agrochemical efficiency of using standard and biomodified ammonium nitrate and urea in the spring feeding of winter wheat of the Moskovskaya 39 variety on light gray forest soil characterized by an average level of fertility was evaluated. As a result of three-year research, it was found that the yield of winter wheat grain placed after long-term legumes and grasses without fertilizers was 2.10-2.65 t/ha. Adding N30 to the spring fertilization of conventional forms of fertilizers increases the grain yield by 1.1 t/ha or 48% in relation to the control. The use of biomodified urea increases grain yield by 0.32 t/ha compared to the usual form. The effect of biomodified ammonium nitrate is estimated as a growth trend. Spring feeding with conventional and biomodified forms of nitrogen fertilizers does not affect the mass of 1000 grains, which is obtained in the range of 45.1-46.3 g. Nitrogen fertilization at a dose of N30 increases the protein content in winter wheat grain by 0.8-1.3%, and the biomodification of fertilizers does not affect the protein content. The content of phosphorus in grain is 0.91-0.98% and increases in straw from 0.19 to 0.25% of the biomodification of ammonium nitrate, the content of potassium in grain is 0.91-0.98%, in straw increases from 0.67 to 0.76% from the use of both forms of fertilizers. The use of biomodified nitrogen fertilizers increases the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the crop by 1.1 times. The nitrogen utilization rate of fertilizers increases by 16-20% when applying biomodified forms when calculating for grain and by 25-29% – for biomass (grain + straw). The payback of 1kg of nitrogen due to biomodification increases by 4-7 kg of grain. During the flowering phase of winter wheat in the soil layer of 0-40 cm, the content of mineral nitrogen increases from 19-20 to 22-24 mg/kg or 1.2 times when applying biomodified fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilization increases the nitrogen concentration in plants from 1.16 to 1.29-1.37% during this phase, and its changes from biomodification were not obtained.
Keywords: winter wheat, nitrogen fertilizers, biomodification, yield, grain quality, nitrogen utilization rate, fertilizer payback, the Kaluga region.
Influence of mobile phosphorous content in soddy-podzolic soil and doses of nitrogen fertilizers to formation of yield and quality of spring wheat
In a field experiment in a small plot on soddy-podzolic soil with different content of mobile phosphorus, the effect of nitrogen fertilizers on the yield and quality of spring wheat of the Lubava variety was studying during two years. The results of the studies showed that the application of nitrogen fertilizers at a dose higher than 60 kg/ha into the soils with a low content of mobile phosphorus isn`t advisable. Increase nitrogen dose doesn`t improve obtained yield and the nitrogen uptake (12-16%). With an average content of mobile phosphorus in the soil, the maximum crop increase was ensured by applying nitrogen at a dose of 90 kg/ha. The application of nitrogen at the maximum dose (120 kg/ha) led to a further increase in the crop increase only into the soil with the highest P2O5 content.
Keywords: nitrogen fertilizers, mobile phosphorus, soil fertility, spring wheat, yield, quality, protein.
Promising strain Pseudomonas asplenii 11RW as a source for biofungicide development
More than 350 bacterial strains were isolated from various soils, rhizosphere and plants and the most promising strain with the highest fungicidal activity was selected. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas asplenii and deposited in VKPM. The results of analysis of the properties of Pseudomonas asplenii 11RW (VKPM B-13395), including the production of IAA and siderophores, fungicidal and bactericidal activity, and in vitro growth-stimulating effect on wheat, barley and corn were shown. The biological efficacy of a biofungicide based on the studied strain was confirmed in a field research carried out against gray mold of the Merlot grapes, and the results were comparable to the action of a chemical fungicide.
Keywords: PPGPR, pseudomonas, biofungicide, antagonism, fungicidal activity, growth-stimulating activity, grape.
Estimation of Simbionta growth stimulator efficiency in combination with different microelements
he study of the influence of various microelements (B, Cu, Co, Fe, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn) and the growth stimulator Symbionta Zh on the length of the roots and stems of sunflower seedlings of the Signal variety by the method of roll culture of seed germination was carried out. The positive effect of using microelements in combination with Symbionta in certain dilutions for presowing treatment has been established. The optimal conditions for the germination of sunflower are combinations: molybdenum (0.004%) + Symbionta (0,02%); cobalt (0.004%) + Symbionta (0,05%); copper (0.04%) + Symbionta (0,01%); boron (0.02%) + Symbionta (0,01%); manganese (0.2%) + Symbionta (0,01%). No stimulating effect was found when seeds were treated with zinc salt. An inhibitory effect on the development of roots and stems was shown at a zinc concentration of 0.004%. The positive effect of microelements for seed treatment was established in the following concentrations: boron – 0.02%, copper – 0.04%, cobalt – 0.004%, iodine – 0.5%, nickel – 0.004%, molybdenum – 0.004%, iron – 0.008%, manganese – 0.2%.
Keywords: growth stimulator, Symbionta, microelements, sunflower seedlings, presowing seed treatment.
Importance of mineral fertilizers application with bentonite in preventing loss of nutritional elements and their transformation into absorbing forms
From lysimetric researches carried out under vineyards in mountain-brown soils of Mountain Shirvan in the Azerbaijan, while washing out 7.3% nitrogen, 0.88% phosphorus, 5.49% potassium from the given mineral fertilizers in an application of mineral fertilizers at N100P100K120, it was 0.43; 1.06; 0.82% correspondingly at a ratio 1:2 with bentonite mineral. Applying of bentonite clay in the background of mineral fertilizers, unlike the natural background, has led to a significant increase of N-NO3 in the soil. This is connected to the fact that the fertilizer cation (NH4+) was absorbed in an exchange form by the negative charged surface of the clay particles and its transition to nitrate weakened and the impact duration of the fertilizer extended. As shown by the obtained results, the adsorption properties of bentonite mineral have reduced the prevention of nitrogen and potassium wash up to 35 times, depending on the applied rates, which have been provided nutritional elements for a long time that is by the end of development stage of the grape plant. The phosphorus quantity increase was connected with the passage of the hardened phosphorus combinations to the assimilated forms in lysimetric waters, and this was ecologically and practically of great importance.
Keywords: bentonite, mineral fertilizer, adsorption, lysimeter, ablution, ion exchange, infrared spectrum, hydrogen connection, nitrogen problem, the Azerbaijan.
Use of shungite for onion (Allium cepa L.) growing
The effect of various doses and fractions of shungite in soddy-podzolic soil on its basic agrochemical properties, as well as on the yield and quality of green feather when growing onions, growth and development of plants were studied in a short-term pot experiment. It is shown that the studied shungite does not have a negative effect on plants. At a dose of 50 g/kg or more, adding shungite in its pure form leads to a significant increase in the length and weight of the leaves, as well as a significant increase in the length of the roots. Adding shungite to the soil leads to an increase in the content of carbon and potassium, but does not cause significant changes in the content of phosphorus. In its pure form, shungite does not significantly affect the level of soil acidity.
Keywords: shungite, vegetation experience, soddy-podzolic soil, agrochemical properties, the Republic of Karelia.
Elemental composition, optical and thermal properties of humic acids in soils at the Moscow City Northern administrative district
Humic acids of urban soils of the Northern administrative district of the Moscow city can be more or less oxidized and enriched in cyclic and nitrogen-containing groups, compared with humic acids in soddy-podzolic soil, which is due to differences in their molecules in component composition. An increase in the contribution of aliphatic structures to the formation of humic acids molecules in urbanozems contributes to magnification in their saturation with nitrogen-containing groups. According to the results of graphical statistical analysis, the higher content of cyclic components in the composition of humic acids of urbanozems, in comparison with humic acids of soddypodzolic soil, is mainly due to the process of dehydrogenation, the presence of the opposite process contributes to the development of their molecules aliphatic part. Urbanozems humic acids have typical electronic absorption spectra, without any visible maxima on the spectrophotometric curve. They differ from the humic acids of the zonal sod-podzolic soil in both higher and lower values of the optical density of solutions, reduced to the same concentration and the absence of the Pg-fraction in their composition. There is a clearly pronounced relationship between the E-values, the values of the H:C ratio and the Z coefficient of the urban soils humic acids. As the H:C ratio decreases, the optical density meaning and E-values increase, and the Z coefficient values decrease. Differences in the elemental composition, thermal and optical properties between humic acids of urban soils and zonal soddypodzolic soil indicate their unequal component composition. Inconsistency of the component composition of humic acids in urbanozems with zonal features of humus formation can cause their degradation and deterioration of the humus state of urbanozems, which will result in an unfavorable change in their properties and regimes.
Keywords: humic acids, urbanozems, elemental composition, atomic ratios, oxidation state, heat of combustion, optical density, E-values, the Moscow City.
Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by cultivated oat from industrially polluted soils of the Tyumen town
Heavy metal content (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd) in soils from various industrial enterprises of Tyumen town is presented. Besides, heavy metal concentration was studied in the cultivated oat grown in examined soils. Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn content in soils of the industrial area was higher than background values, while in some cases exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations. Heavy metals mobile fraction percent in soils was decreasing in the order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Fe. After treatment with cultivated oat Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Pb content in soils decreased by 10% up to 6 times, meanwhile heavy metals accumulated in surface and underground parts of cultivated oat. Bioconcentration factor revealed oat capacity to accumulate Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd. Heavy metal accumulation in oat was decreasing in the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd, although metal bioavailability changed in the order: Cu > Zn > Cd > Pb > Mn > Fe. Results of this study allow to recommend cultivated oat in the recultivation of industrially polluted by heavy metals soils.
Keywords: heavy metals, soil, cultivated oat, accumulation, the Tyumen town.
The first issue of «Chemistry in Agriculture» journal
Short description and content of first issue of «Chemistry in Agriculture» journal of the State Committee for Chemical and Oil Industry and Ministry for Agriculture of the USSR published in November 1963 is presented.
Keywords: scientific journal, history, Chemistry in Agriculture, Agrochemical Herald.
65-th anniversary to restart «Harvest and Fertilizer» journal publishing
Short description and content of first issue of renewed «Harvest and Fertilizer» scientific-production journal of the Ministry for Agriculture and Ministry for State Farms of the USSR published in January 1956 is presented.
Keywords: scientific journal, history, Harvest and Fertilizer, Agrochemical Herald.