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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 16.11.2020
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2020 / Issue 6
Balance of main nutrients in agriculture of the Kuzbass
The analysis of the balance dynamics of main nutrition elements and ways to improve it in Kuzbass agriculture are presented. Since 1966 the average dose of fertilizer application in the region had increased from 11.4 kg/ha to 61 kg/ha by 1990. Due to the economic conditions, the volume of fertilizers dropped sharply to 6.3-9.3 kg/ha in the last decade. The application of organic fertilizers had decreased significantly. The economic balance analysis revealed, that by the 2016-2019 period the deficient balance was: in nitrogen –15.2 kg/ha, in phosphorus –6.3, in potassium –13.7 kg/ha. For the crops nutrition optimization, the growth of yield and its quality, balanced use of fertilizers is necessary, as well as liming of the acidic soils for increasing efficiency of fertilizers.
Keywords: аnitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, agricultural takeaway, regulatory takeaway, balance, mineral fertilizers, organic fertilizers, green manure, liming of acid soils, micro- and biofertilizers, the Kemerovo region.
Agroecological assessment of soil and possibility of using glauconite and industrial wastes for soil fertility increase in the Chelyabinsk region
The paper presents the results of studies related to the influence of heavy metals on soil fertility indicators in the Chelyabinsk region. The content of heavy metals in some soils exceeds the permissible value due to anthropogenic pollution, this leads to a low content of both hydrolysable nitrogen and labile phosphorus when the content of grossforms is high. The possibility of using glauconite as an effective sorbent for reducing the heavy metals mobility and improving the agrophysical parameters of soil is considered. Its chemical composition and its application methods are given.
Keywords: soil fertility, assessment, glauconite, industrial wastes, heavy metals, the Chelyabinsk region.
Recommendations for programming of corn yield at main soil types in Pre-North Caucuses
Programming high yields is one of the main directions in increasing the productivity of crops grown and maintaining soil fertility. One of the main elements of programming crop yields is nutrients from mineral fertilizers. Mineral fertilizers must be planned using scientifically grounded methods for calculating their doses and assortment in order to prevent an excess or decrease of their need, in accordance with the physiological characteristics of crops, and not to lead to a decrease in their agrochemical efficiency and soil fertility indicators. The main method for calculating doses is the balance method. In this method, the rate of fertilizer nutrients is determined for each nutrient. For this, the literature data on the removal of this element by the crop yield, the utilization rate of the nutrient from fertilizers, its content in the soil and the utilization rate of this element from the soil are used. With programmed cultivation of agricultural crops, it is necessary to take into account specific agrochemical indicators of soil fertility for each specific field, which show the state of soil fertility and supplement their lack of nutrients from fertilizers. This paper presents the results of calculating the nutrient requirements of the doses of mineral fertilizers for the planned corn harvest by two methods: the balance method and using the data of agrochemical soil parameters on the main soil types in the foothills of the North Caucasus.
Keywords: corn, programming of yield, soil types, agrochemical parameters, fertilizers dozes, the Northern Osetia, Kabardino-Balkaria.
SOIL PROPERTIES AND FERTILITY
Influence of winter wheat plant residues burning on microorganism quantity and agrochemical indicators of regular chernozem.
The results of study of plant residues (straw and stubble) of winter wheat burning effect on the number of microorganisms of the main physiological groups and the content of nutrients in ordinary carbonate chernozem of the Stavropol Territory. Burning stubble and winter wheat straw was carried out on an area of 5 m2. After that, irrigation with distilled water was simulated at a rate equivalent to 250 m3/ha (25 mm of precipitation). Plant residues by weight were in the range of 6-6.5 t/ha. The soil was taken from the 0-5 cm horizon on the burnt and unburned part. The first selection was carried out immediately after burning the stubble, the second –after 1 day, and the third –5 days after burning. Burning winter wheat stubble and straw does not lead to a decrease in the number of nitrogen-converting microflora in ordinary chernozem. After the soil was moistened, which simulated precipitation in the amount of 25 mm, the amount of nitrogen fixers increased by 2.4-3.4 times, ammonifiers and nitrifiers by 3.3-3.8 times, and especially after the burning of plant residues. 5 days after watering, the differences between the options remained, but with a decrease in the total number of microorganisms. The number of micromycetes decreased immediately after burning the stubble, but it restored and increased its population as a result of moistening ordinary chernozem by an average of 1.5-2.0 times. In the change in the amount of cellulose-destroying microflora, which is mostly represented by fungi, the same pattern is observed as with micromycetes. After burning plant residues and moistening the soil, an increase in the content of exchangeable potassium from 321 to 352 mg/kg was noted. No changes were found in the content of nitrate nitrogen of mobile phosphorus and sulfur.
Keywords: ordinary chernozem, stubble burning, number of microorganisms, ammonifiers, nitrifiers, micromycetes, nutrients, the Stavropol region.
Changes of organic matter condition, level of soil degradation and physical properties of southern (Haplic) chernozem due to transition from moldboard treatment to No-till treatment
A comparative assessment of indicators of the state of organic matter, state of aggregation and physical properties of southern (haplic) chernozem in the Volgograd region during the transition from traditional moldboard processing to No-till technology was carried out. After 5 years of applying no tillage, there was a significant increase in the content of readily degradable organic matter by 0.17%, the reserves of readily degradable organic matter in the 0-20 cm layer increased by 2.2 t/ha, and the degree of plowing of the soil decreased. As a result of the use of no-till, there was a tendency to an increase in the humus content and to a decrease in the density and density of the solid phase of the soil, there was an improvement in the indicators of the aggregate and micro-aggregate state of the soil.
Keywords: zero tillage (No-till), southern chernozem (Haplic Chernozems), soil organic matter, easy decomposable soil organic matter, soil physical properties, soil aggregate composition and soil microaggregate composition, the Volgograd region.
Influence of complex application of fertilizers on fertility of soddy-podzolic soil, productivity and quality of forage crops in the European North of Russia
Long-term scientific research on soddy-podzolic soil has shown that the highest yield of forage crops is obtained by applying of peat-manure compost (PMC) at the rate of 80 t/ha + N60P30K180. With this ratio of fertilizers, the average yield of potato tubers is 38.7 t/ha, perennial grasses –6.2 t/ha and annual grasses –4.9 t/ha. It was found that the content of crude protein in perennial grasses increased to 14.7% (in the control –10.4%), crude fat –to 4.4% (in the control –2.5%). The amount of starch in the potato tubers increased to 16.7%, which is 3.1% higher than in the version without fertilizers and 2.2% higher than when applying a full dose of NPK. Similar patterns are observed in the cultivation of annual grasses. Organic and organic-mineral fertilizer systems had a positive effect on the humus content in the soil. During the period 1978-2019 the humus content increased by 0.3-1.1% when using two doses of PMC, and by 0.5-0.9% when using organic and mineral fertilizers together. When using mineral fertilizers, the humus content in the soil increased by 0.2-0.5%. In the variants with NPK, there was a slight acidification of the soil and the content of mobile potassium due to its significant removal by forage crops.
Keywords: feed crop rotation, mineral and organic fertilizers, yield, starch, raw protein, potatoes, annual and perennial grasses, the Republic of Komi.
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Influence of fertilizers under different weather conditions at stationary experiment of the Kurgan SRI for Agriculture
The course of the formation of the grain crop in the grain-row crop rotation in different weather conditions is presented. These data were accompanying studies in a stationary experiment conducted at the Central experimental field of the Kurgan Scientific-Research Institute of Agriculture. By calculating the correlation coefficients, the dependence of dry matter accumulation and crop yield on several weather factors was estimated. The effect of fertilizer was compared with the addition of nitrogen alone and in combination with phosphorus. Nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer had a great advantage over the unilateral use of nitrogen, which was manifested in the 1st period of the experiment in crop rotation and in the 2nd –on permanent wheat on stubble.
Keywords: grain-row crop rotation, mass accumulation of plants by growth phases, the relationship of mass and yield between themselves and weather factors, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, the Kurgan region.
Yield of spring Camelina sativa (L.) grantz varieties at different levels of mineral nutrition in the Non chernozem zone
The article presents an analysis of research on improving the technology of spring Camelina sativa (L.) grantz cultivation in the southern part of the Non-chernozem zone of Russia. The research was carried out at the agrotechnological experimental station of «Agrotechnopark» (Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev) in the Ryazan district of the Ryazan region, on gray forest soils in 2019-2020. Established that vegetation period depended on the level of mineral nutrition. For Veles variety it was 65-74 days, for Jubilee variety – 63-71 days. Spring Camelina sativa (L.) grantz of the studied varieties was characterized as a precocious crop. Jubilee and Veles varieties responded well to the application of mineral fertilizers, primarily nitrogen. The maximum yield was obtained on the N120P100K100 variant (14.0 C/ha for Veles; 13.3 C/ha for jubilee). Varieties of spring Camelina sativa (L.) grantz matured together, easily threshed. Harvesting was carried out directly, without desiccation.
Keywords: spring Camelina sativa (L.) grantz, oilseeds, variety, level of mineral nutrition, yield, the Ryazan region.
Influence of presowing seed treatment by microelement chelates on spring wheat yield
The article presents three-year research results on the application of presowing seed treatment with zinc and copper chelate fertilizers in the cultivation of spring wheat in the conditions of the Omsk region during 2017-2019. The predecessor is steam, agricultural technology is generally accepted for the zone. The zinc and copper chelate fertilizers used positively affected the yield and grain quality of spring wheat. For presowing seed treatment the best dose of zinc is 20 g/100 kg and copper chelates is 30 g/100 kg. The use of zinc fertilizers in a dose of 20 g/100 kg made it possible to form an increase in the yield of spring wheat grain of 0.20 t/ha, copper –0.14 (in the control version, the yield was 2.2 t/ha). In this case, protein collection increased from 295 in the control variant to 307-335 kg/ha with the use of chelates. The seed germination energy significantly increased from 93.3% in the control to 94.3-97.0% during seed treatment. The best in mass of 1000 grains (31.26 g) was the Cu30 variant, and in the grain type (715 g/l) –Cu20, which exceeds the performance of the control variant (29.92 g and 693 g/l, respectively).
Keywords: zinc, copper, fertilizers, chelate, presowing treatment, spring wheat, productivity, the Omsk region.
Influence of mineral nutrition on development and harmfulness of potato Alternariosis in the North West of Russia
The conducted research showed that the number of cases of the potato plantations heavy damage with the early blight on the Northwest of Russia is growing. The intense development of this illness occurred in the years with the high average diurnal temperatures in the second and third decades of June along with the high level of precipitation in the first decade of July. The application of the full mineral fertilizer leaded to the later emergence of the illness symptoms (7-10 days more) and significant decrease in the plant lesion intensity of the potato with early blight (by 1,4-2,0 times). In years favourable for the development of alternariosis, a strong defeat of potatoes with this disease occurred on all variants of fertilization. The assessment of the harmfulness of the disease showed that variants with an increased level of mineral nutrition had a more pronounced negative effect of alternariosis on the formation of potato productivity. The coefficients of the harmfulness of this illness characterizing the decrease of the productivity of the potato plants in respect to the each point of the leaf surface lesion were 14,15, 65,61 and 80,97 g per plant (2,4, 5,3 and 5,8%) for the low, medium and strongly fertilised plants, respectively. However, the reliable productivity decrease of the plants with the 5-25% of leaf surface covered with the early blight lesions has not been recorded. If the plants are strongly affected with the early blight, the harvest loss can reach 25%, and the number of marketable tubers can decrease by 21-33%. Therefore, in years of severe development of alternariosis there is an increasing expediency in fungicide treatment to protect potato from early blight on fertilized plantations.
Keywords: potatoes, mineral fertilizers, phytopathogens, alternariosis, harmfulness, coefficient of working capacity, crop losses, the Leningrad region.
Influence of bean plants inoculation by endophyte bacteria Bacillus subtilis on seedlings growth in model experiment and it’s yield in conditions of the Southern Pre-Ural territory
Endophytic bacteria are natural growth bioregulators and plant phytoimmunity inducers. Previously, a positive effect of Bacillus subtilis 10-4 strain on the growth, resistance to abiotic stresses and diseases of inoculated wheat, sugar beet, and potato plants was revealed. Its interaction with bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is being studied for the first time. Under model conditions strain 10-4 like reference strain of Bacillus subtilis 26D, enhanced growth of roots and hypocotyl of bean seedlings of Zolotistaya variety. Inoculation of Ufimskaya variety plants with each strain resulted in reduced signs of disease. Specificity of interaction of endophytic bacteria strains with different varieties of beans was revealed. An increase in seed productivity by 31% was observed atinteraction of plants of Ufimskaya variety with a strain of 10-4, and a yield increase of 39% was obtained by inoculating Zolotistaya variety with strain 26D. Correlation relationships of growth indicators in model conditions and productivity in field were analyzed. Signs such as laboratory germination, sum of all roots lengths and hypocotyl length did not correlate with crop. The length of the main root was longer in the most productive plants of Ufimskaya variety. High germination energy under model conditions correlated with the highest productivity in plants of Zolotistaya variety. For both varieties, a significant growth indicator associated with crop was the number of lateral and additional roots.
Keywords: bean, inoculation, endophytic bacteria, growth indicators, model conditions, field productivity, crop structure, varietal specificity, the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Using of rainfall simulator for impact assessment of soil temperatures on biogenic substances lossesв
During formation of rain water flow on soil surface there are mass exchange processes of dissolved biogenic substances between soil and flow. Soil loss of biogenic substances (NH4, NO3, K2O, P2O5) was estimated from the soil temperature difference by their concentration difference dC = Сrunoff – Сrain, where: Сrunoff – concentration in water flowing from soil, Сrain – concentration in rain. Portable rainfall simulator used. Three similar soil samples were prepared with different temperatures in similar metal cylinders with a lateral weir. The soil temperature was 22,5°C, 8,5 and 2,0°C. The cylinder bore is (0,203±0,002) m, the cylinder height is (0,250±0,002) m, watershed the surface area is (0,049±0,001) m2. The sprinkling did with distilled water. Mineral fertilizers were introduced into the soil. This is done to reduce the error in the estimate dC. The soil density and moisture, concentration of biogenic substances in soil and rain water, intensity and rain duration were for all soil samples within the margin of error. The experiment results: 1) all values dC valid and dC > 0 (soil lost biogenic substances); 2) within the margin of error for each biogenic substance, dC values are independent of soil temperature (except for one case). These results can simplify the development of methods for calculating soil losses of dissolved biogenic substances. An example of the application of experimental data in calculating the biogenic substances loss for natural rain is shown using rain similarity criteria.
Keywords: rainfall simulator, soil, biogenic substances, losses, temperature.
Influence of foliar and ground fertilization BY potassium and nitrogen on calcium, potassium and magnesium content in apple fruits of two cultivars
The effect of ground and foliar top-dressings with potassium and nitrogen on rates of calcium, potassium and magnesium in apple fruits of Sinap orlovsky and Ven'yaminovskoe variety was studied. The experiment was conducted in 2018-2019growing seasons in soil-climatic conditions of forest-steppe zone of the Central Russian Upland (the Orel region). The soil of the orchard was loamy Haplic Luvisol. Ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride were used as soil fertilizers and were applied once a year at early spring with doses N30K40, N60K80 and N90K120. Urea (1%) and potassium sulfate (0.3%) solutions were used for foliar top-dressing and were applied 3 times during vegetation. Factor analysis of data showed that both ground and foliar top-dressings led to significant changes in the balance of mineral elements in apple fruits towards an increase of potassium and magnesium concentrations relative to calcium. There were significant differences in the response of the studied varieties to different methods of fertilizing. In the Sinap orlovsky apples (known for its high susceptibility to bitter pit) negative changes in the elemental composition of fruits occurred both at soil fertilizing (when applying doses of N60K80 and above) and at foliar top-dressing. In Ven'yaminovskoe apples foliar top-dressing mainly influenced the accumulation of the studied elements.
Keywords: apple tree, mineral nutrition, ground and foliar top-dressings, fruit quality, potassium, calcium, magnesium, the Orel region.
Promising varieties of alfalfa on leached chernozem of the Republic of Bashkortostan
Breeding work with alfalfa in the scientific department «Ufimskoye» of the Bashkir Scientific-Research Institute of Agriculture, the Ufa FRC of the RAS has been carried out since 2008. Over the years, the collection material, attracted from the VIR (239 samples), covering 23 ecological-geographical groups, as well as 27 local and breeding varieties from other breeding institutions, has been studied. As a result of this work, 5 complex hybrid populations of the best cultivars were identified, having a complex of economically valuable traits in terms of the yield of the vegetative mass, seed productivity, the rate of regrowth, foliage and winter hardiness. On average, over the years of testing, samples P-85044; S-302; С-344 exceeded the standard for green mass yield by 13.0; 12.5; 12.2% respectively. Seed productivity of the Bibinur variety standard over the years of the study averaged 0.313 t/ha, the yield of the studied populations ranged from 0.363 to 0.383 t/ha with an increase to the standard from 15.9 to 22.4%.
Keywords: alfalfa, variety, selection, green mass productivity, seed productivity, the Republic of Bashkortosta.
Approbation of organic-mineral fertilizer based on sewage sludge
Non-traditional fertilizers and ameliorants, including organic-mineral fertilizers (OMF), are required to maintain the fertility of soils with low content of humus in the arid climate zone, as well as to increase the productivity of agricultural crops. Modern strategies of agriculture development based on chemicalization, that why it is very important to introduce environmentally friendly technologies, which use OMF, obtained as a result of biological treatment of domestic sewage sludge, for increasing soil fertility. Therefore, the use of such fertilizers to maintain soil fertility and improve the products quality is expedient, environmentally friendly, and also solves the problem of sewage sludge disposal and provide rational nature management. Studies of the content of heavy metals in the OMF in 2016-2018 in the Volgograd region were carried out, its physical-chemical parameters were determined. The research results indicate that such fertilizers belong to group I and can be used in the cultivation of agricultural crops. The content of heavy metals did not exceed the values established in the technical requirements for the use of sewage sludge. The results of physical-chemical studies show that the moisture content in the OMF is in the optimal value (11%), the amount of organic matter (32%) correspond to the stated requirements, and the presence in such fertilizer of nitrogen (3.3%), phosphorus (4.27%) and potassium (0.31%) indicates a high fertilizing value of the OMF. High crop yield rates of safflower –from 1.42 to 1.51 t/ha with the OMF introduction of in the amount of 5 and 10 t/ha, respectively, were obtained as a result of the use of non-traditional organic-mineral fertilizer. Studies of the content of heavy metals in safflower seeds has also been carried out. The use of non-traditional organo-mineral fertilizers does not lead to exceeding of the maximum permissible concentrations for heavy metals in safflower seeds.
Keywords: organic-mineral fertilizer, sewage sludge, biological treatment, heavy metals, safflower, the Volgograd region.
Protection of potato during storage with chemical and biological preparations
Experimental data on the effect of autumn seed potato etching with chemical and biological preparations on total crop losses during storage of potato tubers obtained in production conditions in the Domodedovo district of the Moscow region in 2018-2019 are presented. The study evaluated the following drugs: Kagatnik, Maxim, Vist (as standards), Kartofin and Siliplant. The experiments were carried out in a potato storage facility with a capacity of 1 thousand tons, equipped with an active ventilation system (70 m3/t per hour). It was found that the autumn treatment of potato tubers of the Nadezhda variety with the studied preparations reduced the total losses during long-term storage by 3.1-6.3% (depending on the preparation) by reducing the natural loss of mass and waste losses. The biological effectiveness of Maxim and Kagatnik preparations was 33.1 and 29.8% of the fungicidefumigant Vist –32.1%, Potato and Siliplant 20.5 and 25.2%. The combined use of a half-dose of Maxim and Siliplant was the most effective (41.7%), Vist and Siliplant (31.4%). The profitability of autumn treatment of tubers with preparations was in the range of 72.2-104.6%, when used together –83.3-125%.
Keywords: potato, protection, storage, diseases, losses, preparations, biological efficiency.
Influence of herbicides and fertilizers on yield and quality of barley grain
The results of three-year studies of the effect of multicomponent herbicides used on two backgrounds of mineral nutrition N54P54K54 and N70P70K70 on the infestation of barley crops with juvenile and perennial weeds, yield and quality of barley grain are considered. It was found that the use of herbicides Secateur Turbo, Bomba, Demeter Mix and tank mixture of herbicides Foxtrot and Dianat provides high biological efficiency up to 84-90%, due to the suppression of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds. The highest efficiency against weeds and the yield of barley grain in experiments was obtained on the variant with Dianate and Foxtrot on the background of fertilizers N70P70K70 – 3.49 t/ha. The use of herbicides and fertilizers helps to increase the protein and dry matter content in the barley grain.
Keywords: herbicides, fertilizers, doses, weather conditions, productivity, grain quality, the Chuvash Republic.
HISTORY OF SCIENCE
The first steps of agronomic ores doctrine (to the 150 th anniversary from the date of Ya.V. Samoilov’s birth))
The article is dedicated to the memory of the Russian and Soviet mineralogist, one of the founders of agronomc ores science, a leading specialist in phosphorites to professor Yakov Vladymirovich Samoilov. Formation of outstanding Russian scientific as researcher and the teacher is shown. Ya.V. Samoilov’s contribution to development of mineralogy, fertilizers industry, agrochemistry and agriculture of our country is described.
Keywords: jubilee of scientist, science, practice, agronomic ores, phosphorites.