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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 06.10.2020
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
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2020 / Issue 5
SOIL TREATMENT TYPES AND FERTILITY
Technology of barley cultivation at different levels of intensification in the Ulyanovsk region
Technologies of barley cultivation using domestic agricultural machines and zoned varieties were studied. Extensive technology is focused on using the natural background of soil fertility, including the system of plowing without the use of fertilizers and plant protection products. Normal technology includes soil protection treatment with the use of starting doses of fertilizers and a minimum of plant protection products from weeds and roots. Intensive technology is designed to produce the planned crop with high grain quality and the use of an integrated plant protection system. The applied technologies for barley allow providing favorable water-air and nutrient regimes of the soil, as well as optimally combining fertilizers and plant protection products for various methods of basic soil treatment. Therefore, the actual level of intensification of agricultural technologies in farms can be s elected depending on the production and resource potential of the commodity producer. The highest yield of barley was marked by the plowing system with a supporting dose of fertilizers and integrated plant protection of 2.98 t/ha, the grain yield on this variant was equal to the absolute control – 0.58 t/ha. With the use of soil protection and comb-back processes as the main tillage, production costs decreased by 8.8-11.5% in relation to plowing. The cultivation of barley using normal and intensive technologies with the use of fertilizers and plant protection products are the most important factors for the development of production and increasing its efficiency, ensuring stability and further growth of barley yield.
Keywords: soil treatment, mineral fertilizers, plant protection system, agrophysical properties, density, moisture, clogging, productivity, efficiency, the Ulyanovsk region.
Structural condition of arable grey forest soils in the Vladimir opolye at different types of treatment
The influence of soil cultivation methods (plowing, combined-energy-saving, combined-layering, anti-erosion) on the structural state of arable gray forest soils and arable gray forest soils with a second humus horizon of the Vladimir opolye in a six-field crop rotation in the framework of the long-term experience of the Vladimir Scientific-Research Institute of Agriculture is considered. Using cluster analysis and the method of principal components, the difference in the structural state of layers 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm was shown. In the layer 0-20 cm, the aggregate composition depended on the type of processing, and in the layer 20-40 cm on the presence of a second humus horizon. It was found that the minimum (energy-saving) processing contributes to the formation of the soil structure with the largest number of agronomically valuable aggregates.
Keywords: soil treatment types, gray forest soil, aggregate composition, second humus horizon, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, humus, water-resistant aggregates, the Vladimir opolye.
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Influence of agrochemical soil properties and fertilizers on crop yield in grain-row crop rotation
The results of observations of the properties of leached chernozem on backgrounds without fertilizers and their long-term use in a long experiment conducted at the Shadrinsky experimental field of the Kurgan Scientific R esearch Institute of Agriculture are presented. The influence of time and fertilizers on the content of humus, mobile phosphorus and pHKCl are analyzed. On the site under the experiment, over the 30 years of its conduct, the percentage of humus decreased from the initial value of 6.14 to 5.37%, which is explained by annual plowing, intensive tillage on corn and removing straw from grain crops. Fertilizers influenced the humus content within the error of these observations. The presence of mobile P2O5 in the soil was entirely determined by the composition of the fertilizer and the dose of phosphorus. The optimal fertilizers were selected from the compared fertilizers, which ensured a high increase in the grain yield, on average, 0.9-1.1 t/ha. Based on the results of the agricultural production experience, it is recommended to use nitrogen alone in an average crop rotation dose of N67sub> on soils with a sufficient content of mobile phosphorus in the soil (68 mg/kg). The combination of nitrogen fertilizer N67 with ammophos in a dose of P15 in rows during sowing is also effective. The two named receptions had the highest payment of the active substance of the fat by increasing the yield.
Keywords: crop rotation, leached chernozem, humus content, mobile phosphorus, fertilizer, doses, the Kurgan region.
Realization of productivity potential and quality of winter wheat varieties at different levels of nitrogen nutrition
In the field experiment for 3 years (2017-2019), the influence of nitrogen fertilizer (Naa-N0, N60, N90, N120), introduced into the feed, on the yield and grain quality of 6 varieties of winter wheat selected by FRC «Nemchinovka» was studied. The effect of nitrogen doses on structural elements, the mass fraction of protein and gluten is shown. Data on nitrogen utilization coefficients and on its payback by adding grain, depending on the variety in condition of the Moscow region, are given.
Keywords: winter wheat, nitrogen fertilizer dose, yield, mass fraction of protein and gluten, the Moscow region.
Improvement of fertilizer system for millet cultivation in conditions of the North-east of the Republic of Belarus
The article presents the results of studies, carried out in the Republic of Belarus in 2009-2011, on the effect of macro-, micronutrient fertilizers, bacterial preparation and plant growth regulator on the yield and quality of millet grain. As a result, it was found that the highest grain yield with optimal quality indicators in the smallseeded variety Galinka, and in the large-seeded variety Druzhba 2 was obtained using doses of mineral fertilizers N90P60K90 and in-crusting seeds with a chelated form of copper, which was 44.0 c/ha and 46.5 c/ha, respectively.
Keywords: millet, macrofertilizers, microfertilizers, bacterial fertilizers, growth regulators, incrustation, inoculation, yield, quality , the Republic of Belarus.
Influence of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers on pH of leached chernozem and yield of winter wheat at the Stavropol upland
The materials on the effect of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers on the pH of leached chernozem and the yield of winter wheat in the conditions of the Stavropol Upland are presented. As a result of research (2015-2018), it was found that in the variants with increasing doses of mineral fertilizers in the soil layer 0-40 cm relative to the control, the soil solution was acidified by 0,09-0,26 units, and when making doses of N186P95K45 and N248P133K60 the difference is 0,24-0,26 units. turned out to be significant. From the entry phase to the heading phase, acidification of pH by 0,56 units was noted, a significant decrease in the soil solution reaction indices corresponded to the interfacial sprouting periods – tillering (0,17 units) and tillering – exit to the tube (0,31 units). To the phase of complete ripeness, alkalization of the soil solution by 0,18 units was established, which is associated with the frequency of nutrition of the culture. Reliable alkalization from a soil layer of 0-20 cm to a layer of 20-40 cm by 0,31 units was revealed. On all varieties of winter wheat on average for 2016-2018, the calculated doses of mineral fertilizers relative to the control increased the yield by 1,60-5,36 t/ha. The planned yield level of 5,0 and 7,5 t/ha was achieved on all varieties, the planned yield level of 10,0 t/ha was not achieved.
Keywords: leached chernozem, soil solution reaction, winter wheat, mineral fertilizers, planned yield, winter wheat varieties, the Stavropol region.
Sheet treatments at intensive technologies of crop production
In a series of field experiments 2008-2017 studied the effectiveness of the application of sheet treatments with macro- and microelements in intensive technologies for the production of cereals and potatoes. As a result of the conducted studies it was established that the processing of the vegetative mass of grain crops and potatoes in different phases of development with liquid nitrogen, phosphoric, potassium and organomineral fertilizers positively influenced the yield and its quality.
Keywords: sheet treatments, liquid nitrogen, phosphoric, potash, organomineral polymer fertilizers, microel ements, intensive technologies.
Yield, content and removal of mineral nutri- ents by amaranth when use fertilizer and herbicide
The results of studies on the combined use of Agrovit-Kor A organomineral fertilizer and Miura herbicide in the Penza region are presented. It has been established that the combined use can significantly increase yield of grain and green plant mass of amaranth. The combined use increases the content of basic macronutrients in the amaranth phytomass. According to the level of amaranth removal of macronutrients while cultivating crops for green feed, they are located in the row: K20 > N > P2O5, while cultivating crops for grain – in the row N > K2O > P2O5.
Keywords: amaranth, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, yield, nutrient removal, the Penza region.
Application of modern organic and mineral fertilizers for tobacco manufacturing in the Central zone of the Krasnodar region
Effect of the fertilizers OMU universal, Ispolin universal for presowing treatment applied before sowing, and Stimix (standard + photostim) Stimulife, Rostok, Chudozem universal, Marvel organic, Cytohumate applied three times has been studied. Utilizing organic and mineral fertilizers led to (compared with reference) decreasing activity of mycopathogens, increasing contents of basic labile forms of nutrients, increasing nitrification activity in 1.3-5.7 times, increasing cellulose degradation rate in 1.3-2.1 times, and breathing in 1.2-2.4 times. In seedbed soil the following nutrient contents had increased: nitrate form of nitrogen – by 541%, ammonia form of nitrogen – by 133%, labile phosphorus – by 44%, and labile potassium – by 50%. Seedlings treated by fertilizers has increased length up to growing point – by 29-108%, up to leaf tips – by 41-104%, above ground plant mass – by 39-117%, root mass – by 13-88%. Treated plants had improved root system in 1.6-2.9 times defined by carrying soil ability. Applied fertilizers lead to 1.5-1.8 times increasing outcome of standard seedlings in optimal time for transplantation. Tested fertilizers led to decreasing of seedling decays by 75%. Improved seedlings led to increasing tobacco plant leaf yield (by 13-19%) and quantity of plants productive for seeds (by 18-39%). Improving quality of cured tobacco treated by fertilizers due to increasing of carbohydrates content has been discovered.
Keywords: tobacco, seedling, fertilizers OMU universal, Ispolin universal, Stimix (standard + photostim), Stimulife, Rostok, Chudozem universal, Marvel organic, Cytohumate, yield, quality of cured tobacco.
Influence of humic substances on dynamics of mineral nutrients in combination with various chickpea protection systems
The influence of biological and chemical protection systems with the inclusion of BIO-Don liquid humic preparation in tank mixtures on the yield of Donplaza variety on chickpeas and the mode of nutrient elements in soil was studied. The production experiment was held at the experimental fields of the Federal Rostov Agricultural Scientific Research Center. Soil type – ordinary carbonate chernozem. During the experiment, it was found that the use of chemical protective agents (seed treatment with a fungicide, the use of a herbicide before germination, the treatment of vegetative plants with new fungicides and insecticides) is more effective th an the use of biological preparations when cultivating chickpeas and allows to obtain up to 35% increase in the chickpea yield compared to the control. The addition of the humic preparation to the tank mixture of new chemical plant protection products makes it possible to increase their effectiveness due to its adaptive effect on plants. The increase in chickpea productivity with the combined use of chemical protective agents and a humic preparation is 56% of the control. The use of a humic preparation on chickpeas has a negative effect on the content of nutrients in the soil. This is due to the fact that humic compounds exhibit physiological activity, and under pesticidal stress intensified by dry weather, they help the plants to cope with toxic stress. As a result, the plants are capable of more complete consumption of nutrients from the soil. The use of bacterial preparations also enhances intra-soil processes, contributing to a more intensive course of nitrification and mobilization of phosphorus.
Keywords: chickpeas, plant protection means, biological preparations, Planriz, Geostim, humic preparation, nutrients, ordinary chernozem, the Rostov region.
Evaluation of basic microelements content and balance in arable soils in the Central chernozem area
The data characterizing the balance of trace elements in arable soils of the Central chernozem area (CCA) are presented. It has been established that with the use of chemicals in the soil receives a small amount of trace elements. A negative balance and deficiency of trace elements in soils leads to a decrease in the supply of trace elements to agricultural plants, which in turn leads to a deterioration in the quality of crop production. The greatest negative balance in soils of the CCA is observed for such elements as manganese and zinc.
Keywords: arable soils, chernozems, microelements, copper, zinc, manganese, removal, fertilizers, balance, soil fertility, the Kursk region.
Relationship of ammonium forms with agrochemical properties of soils in the Nizhnevyatsky natural and agricultural district
The spatial variation of the exchange and thermo-salt-extractable (TSE) forms of NH4+ in soils has been determined in experiments carried out in 2017-2018 in the Votkinskiy district of the Udmurtia republic. The relationship of these indicators with the agrochemical properties of soils, the productivity of corn and barley is established. The mass fraction of exchange ammonium in the studied soils varies from 15.6 to 46.0 mgN/kg with a «degree of saturation of the soil absorbing complex with ammonium» of 0.52-2.71% NH4+ of the cation exchange capacity. The amount of TSE forms NH4+ in soils exceeded its exchangeable forms by 37% on average according to 48 observations. The content of exchangeable NH4+ has a reliable correlation of «medium» tightness only with pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. The relationship between the saturation degree of the soil absorbing complex by the exchangeable and TSE forms of ammonium and all studied physicochemical parameters (with the exception of hydrolytic acidity) is the reverse «high». The relationship between the amount of exchangeable and TSE ammonium in soils with their nitrification ability, nitrate content, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium is mostly weak. The yield of corn and barley is inversely related to the amount of both forms of ammonia in soils. Since the amount of absorbed ammonium has an inverse relationship with acidity, the dynamics of the NH4+ forms content in soils can be an indicator of the need of agricultural land for liming.
Keywords: exchangeable ammonium, absorbed ammonium, agrochemical properties of soils, soil acidity, correlation relationship, the Udmurtia republic.
Influence of microfertilizers on exogenous regulation of biological productivity of Alpine sweetvetch (Hedysarum alpinum L.)
Results of research of two-year-old plants of Alpine sweetvetch (Hedysarum alpinum L.) are presented. Given the positive effect of organomineral fertilizers and microfertilizer on the development and growth of Alpine sweetvetch, it was necessary to trace the direct effect of these drugs on the content of mangiferin in leaves and stems. After treatment of Alpine sweetvetch plants by Ferovit, the increase in the crop above ground weight compared to the control was 22.3%, after treatment by binary mixture of EcoFus + Ferovit was 34.7%. The use of exogenous treatments with Ferovit and a binary mixture of EcoFus + Ferovit contributed to an increase in the content of mangiferin both in the raw material as a whole and separately in leaves and stems. It can be noted that the leaves of Alpine sweetvetch accumulate a greater number mangiferin than stems. The use of Ferovit microfertilizer can significantly increase the content of mangiferin in the raw material as a whole (by 20.8%), and separately in the leaves and stems. Studies have shown that, despite significant increases in productivity of the aboveground part, organomineral fertilizer EcoFus has a negative effect on the effect of Ferovit in the binary mixture. Since the final goal is to obtain raw materials of Alpine sweetvetch with a high content of mangiferin, it is recommended to carry out non-root processing with microfertilizer Ferovit.
Keywords: Alpine sweetvetch, EcoFus, Ferovit, yield, mangiferin.
Research of oil transformation in soils of the South of the Tyumen region
Study of the natural self-purification of oil-contaminated soils in the south of the Tyumen region carried out a series of full-scale field experiments on two reference sites, simulating emergency oil spills on the soil surface in the amount of 10 and 20 l/m2. The duration of the field experiment was four years. To study the morphological characteristics of the soil in the study area, a soil section was made to a depth of 1.5 meters. The soil is characterized as a meadow leached medium-thick low-humus medium loamy. Loam and clay are the parent rocks. As a result of the field and laboratory studies, the high toxic effect of oil was confirmed, which was expressed in the death of soil vegetation and its subsequent absence during two growing seasons. The process of natural regeneration of oil-polluted meadow soils has a long adaptation period. The main decrease in the residual content of oil products in the studied areas occurred only in the third (66.2 and 73.8%) and fourth (86.0 and 91.5%) years. In the lower horizons, the dynamics of the decrease in oil products was distinguished by greater inertia in comparison with the upper ones. The results of the study show that the process of natural restoration of oil-contaminated meadow soils is long-lasting and raises the question of the creation and implementation of modern technologies for the restoration of disturbed territories.
Keywords: oil pollution of soil, transformation, self-purification, hydrocarbons, biodegradation, the Tyumen region.
Assessment of biogenic elements content in soils at Rostov-on-Don zoo)
The content of biogenic elements in soils is important for assessing their state, as it conveys information about the intensity of biological processes that regulate the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. Organic waste accumulating on the soil surface can not only reduce the aesthetic appeal of zoos, but also serve as sources of pathogenic microflora, biotoxins and unpleasant odors. The content of mobile forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soils of 12 plots of different functional zones of the Rostov-on-Don Zoo was studied. A significant excess of the content of nutrients, primarily exchange ammonium and mobile phosphorus in the soils of aviaries, was revealed. The accumulation of these compounds is associated with the ingestion of animal excrement contained in the enclosures of the zoo. The significant role in this process of the size and activity of animals, the area of aviaries, and also the introduction of ameliorants into the soil were revealed. The highest concentrations of mobile forms of nitrogen and phosphorus are observed in enclosures with large animals: Asian buffalo and red deer. The correlation coefficient of ammonium nitrogen with animal urine is 0.79-0.94.
Keywords: soil, pollution, biogenic elements, organic matter, zoo, Rostov-on-Don.