Archive of magazines
Buy the full-text version or a separate article one can on the site www.elibrary.ru
Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
Адрес для переписки: 115419, Москва, Шаболовка, 65-1-50.
Тел/факс: (495) 952-76-25
Отпечатано в ООО «САМ Полиграфист».
г. Москва, 109316, Волгоградский пр-т, д. 42, корп. 5.
Подписано в печать: 07.08.2020
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2020 / Issue 4
50 TH ANNIVERSARY OF RUSSIAN INSTITUTE OF RADIOLOGY AND AGROECOLOGY
Influence of humidity of typical chernozem soil on the cationic composition and acidity of soil
The study of influence of soil moisture on the cationic composition and acidity of soil solutions in the range of productive moisture for a typical chernozem. The objects of the study were centrifuge soil solutions (CSS) extracted from typical chernozem contaminated with Zn, after conducting a growing experiment with a test culture – barley. The dependence of the cationic composition and acidity of quasi-equilibrium soil solutions on humidity was studied in the humidity range of 18-40% (≈ permanent wilting point х 1,5 – field moisture capacity), i.e., in the greater part of the range of productive moisture available to plants for the studied soils. The acidity of solutions extracted from the soils in the experiment with growing plants (variant «barley») was, on average, 0.5 units. pH higher than on «bare fallow» variant. At the same time, the mass fractions of metals (Me): Zn, Ca, Mg and K in more acidic CSS extracted from the soils of the «bare fallow» variants exceeded the content of these metals in solutions from the «barley» variants by 1.26-3.69 times. With increasing soil moisture, the acidity of the CSS decreased slightly for both the «barley» and «bare fallow» variants of the experiment. For the CSS of the same variants (Zn0, Zn100, Zn250 and Zn500), a negative correlation (from weak to strong) was established between the indicators of soil: W, % (predictor) – [Me]CSS, mg/dm3 (response function).
Keywords: centrifuge soil solutions, moisture, dilution, concentration, Zn, Ca, Mg, K, barley, bare fallow.
Distribution dynamics of 137CS in the soil profile of virgin chernozem
137Cs migration parameters and distribution dynamics in the soil profile of chernozem soils in the Tula region contaminated as a result of Chernobyl accident were studied from 1988 to 2016. A comparison of 137sup>Cs concentration in soil depending on the depth of soil layer deposition for different years after radioactive soil contamination was made. An active process of 137Cs vertical migration is observed with its depletion stock in the upper 0-5 cm soil layer from 91.2% in 1988 to 39.4% in 2016 and, consequently radionuclide concentration increase in 5-10 cm of the soil layer from 8.0 to 30.5%. In the long-term period of time, this radionuclide distribution stabilization in the soil profile was revealed. Developing 137Cs movement models in the profile of chernozem soils, it is necessary to take into account all the modifying factors, including pedo-, cryo- and bioturbation processes.
Keywords: Chernobyl accident, 137Cs, radionuclides, vertical migration, chernozem soils, countermeasures, mathematical models, the Tula region.
Effect of various of agrochemicals on productivity and translocation of 137Cs in lettuce plants
In vegetative experience studied the influence of mineral fertilizers, complex organomineral fertilizer SUPRODIT-M and new biologically active organic complex Gumiton on the deportment of 137Cs in the soil, productivity of lettuce and on the arrival of 137Cs to plants from soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil in the Kaluga region. It is shown that the introduction SUPRODIT-M in the soil, the content of exchange, mobile, and acid-soluble forms of 137 Cs decreased and the content of strongly bound forms increased. A significant proportion of 137Cs introduced into the soil in a water-soluble form (up to 75%), SUPRODIT-M transferred to a state that is difficult to access for root intake. The use of SUPRODIT-M increased the yield of lettuce by 11% compared to the use of NPK and 2.6 times compared to the control. Treatment of vegetating plants with Gumiton increased the yield of lettuce by 2.6 times against the background of NPK and by 3.0 times when applying SUPRODIT-M to the soil compared to the control. Application Gumiton against the background of NPK increased the yield by 12%, against SUPRODIT-M – on 15%. Spraying Gumiton in the variant with SUPRODIT-M increased the yield by 14.0% in comparison with the variant NPK + Gumiton. The 137Cs accumulation in yield of lettuce when making SUPRODIT-M decreased by 8.2 times compared with the control. The content of 137sup>Cs in lettuce leaves on the background of SUPRODIT-M was 19% lower than in the variant with NPK. Treatment Gumiton upon application of NPK reduced the 137Cs accumulation in the yield of lettuce by 19%, and when applying SUPRODIT-M - 18% compared with no drug. The use of Gumiton in the variant with SUPRODIT-M reduced the intake of radionuclide (RN) in the salad by 18% relative to the variant with NPK. It is established that use of SUPRODIT -M and Gumiton in the cultivation of lettuce on soddy-podzolic soil in the conditions of radioactive contamination is more effective to improve productivity and limitations of the 137Cs transfer from soil to plants than mineral fertilizers.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, mineral fertilizers, SUPRODIT-M, Gumiton, leaf lettuce, productivity, forms 137Cs, accumulation coefficient, removal, the Kaluga region.
New organomineral complex Gumiton: efficiency of application when growing spring crops
In farms of various forms of ownership of the Kaluga region in 2019 the effectiveness of different doses of the new organomineral complex Gumiton was evaluated when processing barley and oats plants in different phases of vegetation. It was shown that treatment with Gumiton increases the yield and grain quality of barley on different types of soil. The effectiveness of using Gumiton on barley is maximum at a dose of 1 l/ha. The increase in grain yield of barley was, depending on soil fertility, up to 22% on soddy-podzolic soils and up to 18% for gray forest, the increase of protein content in grain – up to 3% in absolute terms. Spraying of crops of oats Gumiton on soddy-podzolic soil increased the grain yield of the culture was 17%. Gumiton treatment of growing plants of barley and oats is an effective method of increasing the productivity and quality of crops on soils of various levels of fertility in the Kaluga region.
Keywords: Gumiton, soils, barley, oats, processing, yield, grain, quality, the Kaluga region.
Organic-mineral complex Humiton as an element of adaptive technology of winter wheat cultivation in the Bryansk region.
The article presents data on the efficiency of application of the new organomineral complex Gumiton in winter wheat crops in 2018-2019 years on grey forest soils of the Bryansk region. The evaluation of the effect of the use of the studied preparation was carried out on the winter wheat variety Moscow 40, according to the predecessor occupied steam. The seed was treated with fungicidal and insecticidal preparations. Herbicides were used to control weed vegetation. Comprehensive protection of plants against diseases and pests was carried out. The technology of culture cultivation was in accordance with the recommended for the conditions of the Bryansk region. The treatment scheme involved processing the seed with Gumiton (1 l/t), applying 0.5 l/ha (in the tube exit phase) and 1 l/ha (in the coiling phase) to the vegetating plants. It is noted that in the Gumiton variants (seed treatment, 2 vegetative plant treatment), productivity was improved. According to 2018 data, the increase in the number of productive stems was 118 pcs/m2, the number of grains in the ear – 2.9 pcs and the weight of 1000 grains – 3.4 g, relative to the control. In 2019, the pattern of increases in these indicators continued. When using this agrochemicals together with fungicides against the background of mineral fertilizers, the yield increase was more than 30% (288 g/m 2 in 2018 and 204 g/m2 in 2019). In order to reduce the cost of nitrogen fertilizer leaf feeding, the use of the agrochemicals under study in winter wheat crops should be recommended.
Keywords: Gumiton organic-mineral complex, winter wheat, grey forest soil, yield, the Bryansk region.
Influence of copper soil pollution on crop and metal content in radish and lettuce plants
We studied the effect of copper on the productivity and metal content in the marketable part of radish and lettuce-lettuce vegetation experiments on two soil types (soddy-podzolic and peat-bog) contrasting in terms of fertility. It was established that the change in growth indicators and productivity of the studied crops depended both on the type of crop and on the type of soil. The response of plants to the increased copper content in soils in terms of physiological state was threshold in nature, excellent in magnitude for different types of soils. The most pronounced negative effects in both cultures were manifested on soddy-podzolic sandy loamy soil: the threshold concentration of metal was Cu 200 mg/kg of soil. On peat-bog lowland soil, the threshold concentration of lettuce copper was Cu 1000 mg/kg of soil, while radish plants showed low sensitivity to copper on this type of soil. The intensive supply of copper to the biomass of vegetable crops with minimal levels of soil contamination indicates an accumulative type of input. A rather high level of copper accumulation in radish roots with an increase in the content of an element in the soil is apparently due to the species specificity.
Keywords: copper, soil, radish, lettuce, productivity, metal accumulation.
The influence of natural agricultural factors on the content of humus in the soil
Article presents the relationship of humus content, granulometric composition and other soil properties with the accumulation of productive moisture in the meter layer and crop yield was analyzed using four stationary experiments of the Kurgan Scientific-Research Institute for Agriculture. It is shown that with the best moistureretaining capacity of heavy-loam soils, the effect of mineral fertilizers on them is significantly higher than on medium-loam soils. Due to the high responsiveness of crops to fertilizers on heavy-loam soils, the payback of 1 kg of active substance reached 12-16 kg of grain, while on medium-loam it was 4-10 kg. In experiments, the humus content is determined in dynamics over time and under the influence of crop rotations and fertilizers. The greatest losses of humus were found in the grain-fallow crop rotation – fallow and 3 of wheat, the smallest on permanent wheat. Fertilizer in most examples reduced the decrease in the percentage of humus. In the crop rotation without fallow fertilization in doses of N50-75P in the years of crop rotation and N40-60P on permanent wheat in all years of soil analysis increased the humus content to control. With a lower dose of N20-25P and one-way nitrogen fertilizer, the humus content remained at the control level.
Keywords: soil properties, humus, grading, productive moisture, crop rotation crop yields, connection of soil properties with its productivity, the Kurgan region.
Hydrogel and efficiency of mineral fertilizers on the chernozem ordinary of the Central Ciscaucasia.
Аs a result of many years of research (2012-2019) on ordinary chernozems in the conditions of the Central Caucasus, where the factors limiting the production of stable crops of agricultural crops are the water availability of plants and the level of application of fertilizers, a positive mutual influence of hydrogel and full mineral fertilizer (N60P60K60) on their effectiveness was established. The maximum increase in production for an average of 7 years from the annual application of N60P60K60 was obtained against the background of a single application of hydrogel at a dose of 400 kg /ha and amounted to 2.02-2.14 thousand grain units/hectare, depending on the treatment method. The yield of cultivated crops when applying hydrogel depended on the use of fertilizers. On a non-fertilized background the increase in production from hydrogel reached 0.43 (300 kg/ha of hydrogel) – 0.88 thousand grain units/hectare (400 kg/ha of hydrogel), while on a fertilized one – 1.7-1.9 times more (0.74-1.68 thousand grain units/hectare).
Keywords: hydrogel, chernozem ordinary, mineral fertilizers, winter wheat, oilseed radish, yield, aftereffect
Influence of the Agrobionov product and mineral fertilizers on the fertility of ordinary chernozem and yield of barley
This publication presents the results of the research work on the Agrobionov preparation, produced from local, cheap industrial waste (ash and carbon black) in Republic of Kazakhstan. The study results showed that the introduction of the Agrobionov preparation in combination with mineral fertilizers contributed to the improvement of water-physical, agrochemical and biological properties of ordinary chernozem and increased the barley yield. In particular, the content of agronomically valuable soil aggregates in the 20-40 cm layer increased to 61.2-67.6% (54.1% in the control). The water stability of soil aggregates in the 0-20 cm layer increased to 36-47% (29% in the control). The pH value in the 0-20 cm layer decreased to 7.5-7.8 (8.0 in the control). The microbiological activity of the soil in the arable layer increased in the spring to 27.4-59.8% (12.2%in the control), in the summer to 33.1-26.6% (in the control 25.4%), and in the fall to 35.0-42.6% (31.0% in the control). The content of readily hydrolysable nitrogen in the arable layer of the soil during the tillage phase of barley in variants 1/5 of the estimated dose of fertilizer up to 77 mg/kg and ½ of the calculated dose to 67 mg/kg (33 mg/kg in the control). On average, in two years they received 0.08-0.49 t/ha, an increase in the yield of barley grain or 10.5-64.5%.
Keywords: chernozem, water-physical, agrochemical properties, biological activity, Agrobionov, productivity, barley, the Republic of Kazakhstan.
RESEARCH OF BIOPREPARATIONS
The influence of nanopreparations (Co, Zn, Fe) and fertilizers Nutrivant plus and Gringo on productivity of flax
The results of studying the influence of nanopreparations and fertilizers of the new generation on the field germination and survival of flax plants, as well as on the elements of the crop structure and its productivity are presented. The research was carried out in 2017-2018 on the experimental field of the Smolensk state agricultural Academy. In the experiment, we cultivated a variety of flax S-108, bred in the Smolensk region. It was found that nanopreparations increased the germination of flax seeds by 11-20%, and together with fertilizers Nutrivant Plus and Gringo contributed to better plant survival by the time of harvesting up to 79-98%. Processing (wetting) of the seed material with iron nanopreparations and zinc oxide contributed to a significant increase in flax straw 38-40%; flax fiber – 61-65%. The largest increase in the seed yield was obtained from wetting with cobalt nanopreparation 87% compared to the control. The greatest increase in the commodity part of the flax crop was provided by the interaction of nanopreparations and complex fertilizers: flax fiber up to 0.68 t/ha (72%), flax seeds up to 0.36 t/ha (116%). To make a profit in the production of flax, it is advisable to combine seed treatment before sowing (wetting) with 0.05% nanopreparations ZnO and Fe, and in the «herringbone» phase, spray Nutrivant Plus at a dose of 1.5-2.0 kg/ha.
Keywords: flax, flax fiber, seeds, nanopreparations, microelements, Nutrivant Plus, Gringo, yield, the Smolensk region.
Influence of silicon-containing drugs on the formation of corn grain yield
The results of research on the influence of various types of silicon-containing preparations and the timing of nonroot processing on the formation of grain yield of early-maturing maize hybrid which was conducted in 2018-2019 in the Penza region are presented. It was found that non-root treatment with silicon preparations contributed to an increase in the length of the cob by 2.7-4.2 cm or 18.2-28.0% compared to water treatment. More moistened ears were obtained by double treatment with NanoSilicon, the increase was 26.7%. When using Kelik Potassium-Silicon and Microvit-6 Silicon, the water content of the ear increased by 14.1-19.6%. When foliar treatment of crops in the fiveleaves phase with Kelik Potassium-Silicon and Microvit-6 Silicon, as well as in variants with two-time treatment with NanoSilicon and Kelik Potassium-Silicon, the weight of grain from the cob increased by 23.3-26.7% compared to the variant without the drug. The use of the drug Kelik Potassium-Silicon in the five-leaf phase contributed to an increase in grain yield by 2.32 t/ha, and in the seven-eight-leaf phase of maize-by 1.56 t/ha or 34.0% compared with water treatment. When sprayed twice, the increase was 1.80 t/ha. Sheet processing with NanoSilicon in the five-leaf phase of maize allowed to obtain an additional 1.62 t/ha of grain, or 35.7% in relation to without the drug. Spraying crops in the phase of seven or eight maize leaves provided an increase in grain yield by 1.49 t/ha, and double processing-by 2.64 t/ha in variants with treatment of crops with Microvit-6 Silicon, the increase in grain yield was 1.95-2.28 t/ha.
Keywords: silicon, corn, cob, grain, structure, yield, the Penza region.
Influence of biologization of garden agrocoenosis on soil fertility, condition and yield of peach
The data of a two-factor field experiment on the study of the influence of sodding between rows of a garden with various combinations of cereal-legume mixtures of perennial grasses and microbial preparations (MP) as biological fertilizers on soil fertility, as well as the state and productivity of the Redhaven peach are presented. Two variants of sodding were studied: a mixture of meadow fescue and meadow clover (1: 1) and a mixture of perennial ryegrass, blue alfalfa, meadow fescue, meadow clover and awnless rump (1.7:1.3:1.3:1.7:1). Control -natural sodding of row spacings. From the MPs, we used: Azotobacterin (Azotobacter chroococcum 10702) and a complex of microbial preparations (CMP) obtained by mechanical mixing in equal proportions of Diazophyte (Agrobacterium radiobacter 204), Phosphoenterin (Enterobacter nimipressuralis 32-3) and Biopolitus (Paenxa Control - without the use of MP. The soil is pre-mountain carbonate chernozem. It was found that the use of these methods and their combinations led to a decrease in the pHH2O value of alkaline soil by 0.13-0.31, an increase in the content of organic carbon (by 23-54%) and active carbon, as well as its share in the total pool of organic matter soil, a significant increase in the content of nitrate nitrogen (by 45-88%) and mobile phosphorus by 3 times, an increase in the content of macronutrients in the leaves and fruits of peach, an increase in the yield of peach (by 1.7-2 times) compared to natural turfing without the use of MP. The best combination of turf and MP was recognized to be the use of a mixture of meadow fescue and meadow clover with Azotobacterin.
Keywords: biologization. sodding of inter-rows, microbial preparations, peach, yield, soil fertility, the Crimea.
Applicability of the methodology of the Economics of land degradation at the regional level of the Russian Federation
Ecological and economic analysis of land degradation in four regions of Russia was carried out using the methodology of land degradation Economics developed by the International Food Policy Research Institute (USA) and the University of Bonn (Germany). The Y method was used. based on the comparison of economic indicators of agricultural production under sustainable land management and under «traditional» land use-the method of «assessment of action/inaction». At the same time, the cost of «action» was the cost of returning the most productive vegetation cover, and the cost of «inaction» was the cost of passive waiting, when the productivity of the ecosystem falls by a certain amount every year. The decrease in the value of land during the estimated period was regarded as its degradation. The study of land use dynamics and the NDVI value of vegetation cover in the Moscow, Tula, Lipetsk and Belgorod regions in 2001-2009, based on MODIS remote sensing data, showed the development of land degradation processes during this period, which led to a decrease in the value of the specified vegetation index. The subsequent economic assessment of «action» and «inaction» revealed the economic feasibility of investing in restoring land productivity in all regions and supporting ecosystem services at various planning horizons. A fairly high level of development of modern crop production (especially in the Belgorod and Lipetsk regions) in practice confirms the adequacy of the conducted environmental and economic analysis and proves the high efficiency of the economic policy of the Russian state in supporting agricultural production and combating land degradation.
Keywords: land degradation, ecosystem services, remote sensing, land use, crop production, assessment of «action» and «inaction».