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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 22.06.2020
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2020 / Issue 3
The earth and soil, soil and the earth – atwo-uniform resource?
Federal land legislation is represented by a number of laws. In the legislation existing land not enough attention is paid to soils. Only the federal law addressed to soils (federal law «About state regulation of ensuring fertility of the agricultural land»), it is incorrect in the name as fertility this specific property of soils, but not lands. The sphere operations of this law are limited to category the agricultural land. The Federal Environmental Protection Act defines soils as one of the main components of the environment and environmental protection facilities. On all components of the environment and objects of environmental protection special federal laws are adopted. Soils, soil resources remained «illegitimate» at the high state level as other natural resources.
Keywords: earth, land resources, soils, soil resources, components and objects of the environment.
Comparative assessment of states of the ordinary (calcic) chernozem organic substance and physical properties in traditional and no-till treatment
The research was carried out of differences in states of organic substance and physical properties between traditional tillage (with soil overturning) and no-tillage treatments of the ordinary (calcic) chernozem samples from the Voronezh region. In 6 years of usage No-till treatment, the increase of easily decomposable organic matter is significantly noticeable in 0-10 cm depth, and the increase of humus and humic acid in its composition in the topsoil showed as a trend. Stockpiles of easily decomposable organic matter in 0-20 cm depth have increased by 1 t/ha in comparison to traditional tillage. No-tillage has contributed to decline of soil density in 0-10 cm depth by 0,08 g/cm3 approximately, density of the solid phase of the soil by 0,12 g/cm 3, and aggregation state rate improvements – the content of agronomical valuable aggregates of size 0,25-10 mm have increased from 45 to 61,1%.
Keywords: No-till treatment, ordinary (calcic) chernozem, organic matter, easy decomposable organic matter, soil physical properties, soil aggregate composition, the Voronezh region.
Influence of long-term use of fertilizers on the dynamics of humus in the arable layer of soddy-podzolic soil of the Kostroma region
The article represents the results of evaluating of fertilizer systems on the content and fractional composition of humus in the sod-podzolic soil of the Kostroma region. Field research was conduc ted in 1992-2012 in the conditions of long-term, stationary field experience of the Kostroma State Agricultural Academy. Variants were studied in the field crop rotation: vetch-oat mixture for green mass – flax – barley + perennial grasses – perennial grasses 1 st year – spring wheat – oat. Organic fertilizers were applied for vetch-oat mixture and spring wheat, and mineral fertilizers for all crops. Ammonium nitrate, double superphosphate, and potassium chloride were used as mineral fertilizers. The saturat ion of organic fertilizers was 12.8 and 6.4 t/ha per year for organic and organic-mineral fertilizer systems, respectively. Over a twenty-year period, the mineral fertilizer system caused a decrease in humus reserves by 0.46 -0.69%, which means that soil lose 0.02-0.03% over the year. The use of organic fertilizers, especially in the last three rotations, tended to increase the humus. Over a twenty-year period, the use of litter manure on the first level led to an increase in the humus content by 1.32%. The humus content reached 2.83-2.85% by 2012, which significantly exceeded the control on plots of the second level with the use of manure. In humification processes, the use of organic matter was dominated by the formation of humic acids associated with calcium, in contrast to the control and mineral fertilizer system, where free fulvic acids were formed.
Ключевые слова: soil fertility, humus content, labile forms of humic substances, humic acids, fulvic acids, the Kostroma region.
Influence of complex application of organic and mineral fertilizers on the fractionalgroup composition and balance of humus of the Euro-north-east soddy-podzolic soil
In a long-term stationary experiment on soddy-podzolic medium-cultivated soil, scientific studies were conducted to study the effect of organic (40 and 80 t/ha of Peat-Manure Compost (PMC)) and mineral fertilizers (1/3, 1/2, 1 NPK) calculated from the NPK removal by the planned crop yield on the humus state and the quality of its labile forms. As a result of research, it was found that the most significant positive balance of humus was observed when using 80 t/ha and the full dose of NPK (1.70 t/ha annually). When using three doses of mineral fertilizers, a negative balance of humus was established (-0.63-0.85 t/ha), two doses of PMC and NPK – 0.38-1.70 t/ha. The use of PMC and NPK contributed to an increase in the amount of humic acids and a decrease in the amount of fulvic acids. The amount of the most valuable humic acid fraction (HA-2) increased from 2.7 to 5.4% and the most aggressive fraction (1A) decreased from 7.0 to 5.3%. In General, the combined use of organic and mineral fertilizers, especially in high doses, helped to improve the quality of humus (from the humate-fulvate type, it moved to the fulvate-humate type). The ratio of CHA:CFA was 1.13-1.29 (when using PMC and NPK together), in the variants with mineral fertilizers 1.03-1.13, in the variants without fertilizers-0.93.
Ключевые слова: humus, humic acids, fulvic acids, organic, mineral fertilizers, humus balance, the Komi republic.
Influence of various fertilizer systems on the humus state of soddy-podzolic soils of the Pskov region
The article presents the results of long-term field experiences in studying the influence of mineral and organic fertilizers on fertility indicators of soddy-podzolic soils in the conditions of the Pskov region. Organic crop fertilization systems (70 t/ha manure; peat equivalent to 70 t/ha manure; waste water sludge equivalent to 70 t/ha of manure) on soddy-podzolic light-loamy soil in 2003-2009, the humus growth rate was 0.03% per year. Organic and organomineral systems of fertilization of crops in crop rotation in doses – manure 30 t/ha and manure 30 t/ha + N60P60K60 on soddy-podzolic sandy soil in 2009-2015 contributed to an increase of humus content by 0.05% per year. It has been found that in the long-term use of organic and organomineral fertilizer systems of soddypodzolic soils, the thickness of the arable layer of medium and well-cultivated soils increases from 9 to 20 cm. In field tests in crop rotation on the control version there was a decrease in humus content on average from 1.92 to 1.80%, by 0.12% abs on light-loamy soil and from 1.95 to 1.72%, i.e. by 0.23% abs on sandy soil.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soils, humus, granulometric composition, fertilizers, fertilizer systems, the Pskov region.
Phosphate regime and phosphatase activity in ordinary chernozem when cultivating chickpeas
The phosphate regime and phosphatase activity was studied in a stationary experiment in the Rostov region
under chickpea crops in ordinary carbonate chernozem. The thickness of the humus horizon is 80 cm on average.
The humus content in the arable layer of the humus horizon (0-20 cm) varies from 3.92 to 4.06%, in the layer of
60-80 cm – from 2.24 to 2.87%. The pH value changes down the profile from neutral to slightly alkaline and alkaline.
The soil has high reserves of organic phosphorus but it is low in the content of phosphates available for
plants. The level of mobile phosphorus in the arable layer varies between 11.9-22.5 mg/kg of soil; the lower part
of the humus horizon contains from 5.7 to 9.9 mg/kg of P2O
Keywords: ordinary chernozem, available phosphorus, phosphatase activity, plant protection products, humic preparation, the Rostov region
Influence of chernozem basic treatment minimization on soil agrochemical parameters and quality of sugar beet
Minimization of soil cultivation is one of the important factors in increasing labor productivity, reducing production costs in agriculture and saving resources when growing agricultural crops. The results of field studies on the minimization of the main tillage in the crop rotation conducted in the Bureinskiy district of the Tatarstan Republic since 2016 to 2019 are presented. Experimental data have been obtained on improving the resource-saving soil cultivation system and the use of organomineral fertilizers to develop methods for increasing productivity, quality and maintaining soil fertility in the cultivation of sugar beets. The use of two-tier plowing contributed to a higher yield (45.3 t/ha) compared to the annual dump plowing (-2.3 t/ha). The highest sugar content was 14.8% in the variant with two-tier plowing, which is 2,4% more than in the control variant. There was no significant difference in the sugar content for the other options, this indicator was in the range of 11.3-11.8%.
Keywords:minimization of soil treatment, organic-mineral fertilizer system, sugar beet, yield, sugar content, the Tatarstan republic.
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Dependence of quality indicators of brewing barley grain on mineral nutrition level and hydrothermal conditions during the growing season
The dependences of the main indicators of the quality of brewing barley grain on increasing levels of mineral nutrition and hydrothermal conditions that develop in the spring-summer period of vegetation and, in particular, its interphase periods are presented and discussed. These dependences have a complex non-linear view and most accurately described by the equations of the polynomial half degree and second order. To the maximum degree (at largest of the coefficient of determination – R 2sup>) the content of protein and extractivity of brewing barley grain, as well the 1000 grains weight and test weight, are associated with hydrothermal conditions in the vegetative (sowing – earning) and reproductive period (earning – full ripeness). The hydrothermal coefficient (HTK by G.T. Selyaninov) for the entire growing season (sowing – full ripeness), in contrast to the grain yield, does not always more accurately describes the dependence of the main indicators of the quality of barley on the hydrothermal conditions that develop during this growing.
Keywords:brewing barley, protein, extractivity, 1000-grains weight, test weight, level of mineral nutrition, hydrothermal coefficient, interphase period of vegetation.
Influence of phosphorous and zinc fertilizers in dependence of liming of soddy -podzolic soil on harvest and quality of winter wheat
In a long-term (since 1966) field experiment on a poorly cultivated soddy-podzolic soil, laid in the Moscow region (Central Experimental Station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Agrochemistry named after D.N. Pryanishnikov), it was shown that the systematic use of phosphorus fertilizers together with nitrogen and potash fertilizers on the background periodic liming increases the yield of winter wheat of the Moskovskaya 39 variety by 2.2-3.1 times with the level in the control variant of 21.8 c/ha. The introduction of zinc fertilizers (from 2017) at the same time provides an additional increase in productivity (by 3.1-6.1 c/ha). Grain quality (crude protein content, gluten, natural mass) reaches maximum values when combined using macro- and micronutrient fertilizers on calcareous soil and corresponds to class II, which allows the use of the obtained flour in baking.
Keywords:soddy-podzolic soil, phosphorous fertilizers, zinc microfertilizers, liming, winter wheat, quality, the Moscow region.
Influence of mineral and liming fertilizers aftereffect on yield and quality of spring wheat grain under condition of Pre-Baikal area
The presented results of the research concern the influence aftereffect of mineral and liming fertilizers on yield and grain quality of spring wheat for the cultivar Buryatskaja ostistaja under conditions of the Pre-Baikal area in 2018-2019 in an alternating crop rotation: corn, barley + clover, clover, wheat. The soil of the experimental plot is gray forest heavy loamy. The pre-sown crop is a clover as a green-manured fallow. Mineral fertilizers were not applied under the crop of wheat. On the average for 2 years, depending on a variant of the trial, the yield of wheat grain was harvested 2.41-3.00 t/hа. The aftereffect of lime of the 3rd year provided an increase in grain yield by 4-10%. The complex aftereffect of complete mineral fertilizer (NPK) and lime provided the highest yield increase of 0.50 t/ha, the maximum protein content (16.1%) and gluten (31.3%) in spring wheat grain. The rest indicators of grain quality (weight of 1000 kernels, test weight, hardness, crude fiber, the content of starch and phosphorus) were impacted by neither the second year aftereffect of mineral fertilizers, nor the third year aftereffect of lime.
Keywords: spring wheat, crop rotation, green manure, aftereffect, mineral and liming fertilizers, yielding capacity, grain quality, the Pre-Baikal area.
Use of mathematical modelling in forecasting dynamics of humus balance
This paper introduces mathematical models for forecasting humus balance in arable lands of Central Russia, developed by research workers of ITSA – branch of FSAC VIM on the basis of the data set from multiannual field experiments, carried out by the Geographic Network of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Agrochemistry on different soil types (subtypes). It comprises data obtained from more than 450 observations, conducted in the course of 59 experiments with the duration, ranging from 7 to 60 years. The humus balance model was constructed by using the multiple regression analysis method. The authors explored the dependence of humus content from the following factors: the type or subtype of the soil and grain-size distribution; the application dose of organic fertilizers per 1 ha; the application dose of nitrogen mineral fertilizers per 1 ha; the crop rotation plan and the occupied area. The presented mathematical models constituted the basis for the software package «Digital Technology of soil nutrition of crops», implemented as a cloud service, which enables a user to get online access to data processing and calculations. Application of this software package enables a user to forecast humus balance, to carry out formation of the cultivated area structure in the crop rotation system, to calculate doses of organic fertilizers, depending on the actual conditions in farming enterprises.
Keywords: plant nutrition, mathematical models, calculation of organic fertilizer doses, humus balance, crop rotation.
Application of growth stimulator of plant origin Rafitur for flax cultivation
The results of the use of a plant growth stimulator Rafitur for growing flax culture at different stages of vegetation are discussed. The drug Rafitur is a plant extract obtained from impala potatoes in the juvenile period. It has a growth-promoting and immunomodulating effect, since it is a balanced protein-carbohydrate complex containing glycosides, free hydroxycarboxylic and amino acids, micro and macro elements and phytoho rmones. Among the cultures on which Rafitur has been tested in recent years, flax should be noted. The results of the use of the drug at the stage of seed germination and during the cultivation of flax plants in a three-year field experiment are presented. Moreover, the seeds obtained in the first year of the field experiment were used as starting material for the next year. The tasks of the phased experiment included determining the optimal stimulating concentrations of the Rafitur preparation (concentration range from 1∙10-1 to 1∙10-5 g/l) at different stages of development of flax plants, as well as a comparative determination of the protein and lipid content in the composition of flax seeds at the use of the drug Rafitur and in control. The positive effe ct of the drug Rafitur on the content of proteins and lipids in the composition of flax seeds is shown.
Keywords:regulator of growth and plant development, flax, Rafitur.
Foliar treatment of barley with sodium selenite in conditions of different levels of mineral nutrition
This paper is devoted to aspects of the sodium selenite behavior under its foliar treatment of barley: the accumulation of selenium in different organs of plants, its influence on the morphology of culture, yield. The role of selenium in the plants metabolism was studied: the relationship with the main elements of metabolism (NPK) and the dynamics of these relationships depending on the level of plant nutrition. Green pot experiments were carried out with foliar application of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3∙5H2O) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with additional application of different doses of mineral fertilizers to the soil. The experiments were carried out on soddypodzolic soil with low (deficient) selenium level. The structure and biomass of the crop were taken into account. Chemical analyses of soil and plant samples were carried out. The content of selenium, total and protein nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium were determined in straw and barley grain. Foliar treatment of sodium selenite contributed to the high utilization rate of selenium from selenite. The concentration of selenium in plants depended on the selenium concentration (from 50 to 500 mg/l) and on the level of soil supply with basic nutrients (NPK). Selenium increased the uptake of nitrogen and potassium in barley. The concentration of selenium 500 mg/l on the high level of mineral fertilizers (150-200 mg/kg) contributed to the maintenance of this element at an optimal level.
Keywords:foliar application of Se, barley, grain yield, selenium content in grain and straw.
Effect of presowing seed treatment with suspensions in macroand nanostructured forms on crop yield and quality
Studies of macro- and nanostructured suspensions of sapropel and biohumus for pre-sowing treatment of seeds based on the background of mineral fertilizers were carried out. Their influence on the yield of buckwheat, oats, barley and the protein content in the grain was revealed in 2017-2019. Nanostructured suspension of biohumus was effective for increasing the yield of oats and buckwheat, which is 11.7-19.2% higher than similar macro-suspensions. To increase the productivity of spring barley, presowing treatment with nanosapropel is a priority, the addition to the usual sapropel suspension was 20.3%. Diffuse impregnation of seeds with nanobiohumus suspensions increased the protein content in buckwheat grains by 5%, also there was a tendency to increase the element in oats and barley using nanosuspensions. Nanostructured suspensions having biologically active properties and prolonged action on biological objects, provided better indicators of yield and protein content in grain compared to processing with macro-suspensions.
Keywords:sapropel, biohumus, nanostructured suspension, mineral fertilizers, agricultural crops, yield, protein.
YOUNG SCIENTIST RESEARCH
Influence of waste water sludge in combination with zeolite-containing rock on physical-chemical properties of soil and productivity of crops
The authors present their scientific results on the aftereffect of zeolite-containing rocks, Penza city waste water sludge and their combinations on changes in the cation-exchange capacity, the amount of exchange bases, hydrolytic acidity and productivity of oats such as Jumping and Pea Jackpot. It has been established that on smallhumus meadow and black-earth soils, the most significant impact on the optimization of physicochemical properties was exerted by the complex aftereffect of urban wastewater sludge with zeolite-bearing rocks. The cationexchange capacity against their background exceeded the control by 4.85-5.70 mg-eqv/100 g of soil, the sum of exchange bases – by 6.57-7.71 mg-eqv/100 g of soil, the concentration of hydrogen ions was lower control at 1.72-2.01 mg-eqv/100 g of soil. The total productivity of oats and peas against the background of unilateral aftereffect of urban wastewater sludge was higher than the control by 5.35-8.52 t/ha per unit and against the background of their complex aftereffect with zeolite-containing rocks at 6.92-10.14 t/ha per unit.
Keywords:meadow-black earth soil, urban wastewater precipitation, zeolite-containing rock, cation exchange capacity, sum of exchange bases, acidity, productivity, the Penza region.
Efficiency of organic acids for spring soft wheat cultivation
Studies provided in the Omsk region have shown that it is advisable to use organic acids to increase the productivity of spring soft wheat. The maximum yield (3.56 t/ha) was obtained by combining pre-sowing treatment of seeds with a solution of succinic acid at a concentration of 10-3 M and applying nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers. The increase was 0.59 t/ha, which is 20% more compared to the control. The photosynthetic potential in this variant was 601.8 thousand m2/ha х day, which is 32% higher than in the control version.
Keywords:spring wheat, pre-sowing treatment, growth stimulants, succinic acid, lemon acid, photosynthetic potential, yield, the Omsk region.
Sustainability of organic carbon content in conditions of organic farming on example of agriculture in the Kaluga region
Organic farming on soils with low potential fertility implies maintaining the sustainability of agroecosystems in the long term and minimizing environmental pollution. In the proposed study, indicators of the curr ent state were determined and the degree of change in the organic carbon content of soils within a specific area of the economy in the North of the Kaluga region was evaluated to characterize the agroecosystem for stability. Due to the use of an organic farming system within the agricultural sector, the humus content after a two-year experiment is not lower than the regional standards of soil fertility. In the first approximation, a stable agroecosystem with a positive carbon balance has been created on the agricultural land area of the farm.
Keywords:sustainable land management, organic farming, organic carbon, stability of agroecosystems.
Application of mineral fertilizers and biopreparations when cultivating spring barley and oats at radioactivelycontaminated soil
The results of experimental researches in a long-term experiment on radioactively contaminated soddypodzolic sandy loam soil on the study of the influence of different doses of combinations and ratios of mineral fertilizers, both in a separate application and in a complex with biopreparation when cultivating spring barley and oats have been presented. It was shown that the maximum grain yields of spring barley of 4.93 t/ha with a payback of 1 kg of NPK by an increase in the grain yields of 6.7 kg was ensured by the use of full mineral fertilizer N120P90K180sub> in combination with the biopreparation Gumistim. Under the influence of chemicals, the content and collection of crude protein by grain yield per unit of sown area were increasing, the mass of 1000 grains, the nature, the grain extraction, the content of residual nitrates were growing, and the starch content was decreasing. The maximum oat grain yields was forming in the variant with the application of full mineral fertilizer N90P90K150 in combination with the biopreparation Albit with a payback of 1 kg NPK with a yield increase of 6.4 kg of grain. Under the influence of chemicals, the content of crude protein in grain and the size of its collection from 1 ha were increasing, the weight of 1000 grains, the nature, star ch content were growing, the concentration of residual nitrates in the grain were rising, not exceeding the MAC (marginal acceptable concentration). The highest rate of decrease in the specific activity of 137Сs in barley grain of 5.67 times in comparison with the control is provided by the complex application of mineral fertilizers N120Р90К180sub> and the biopreparation Gumistim, and when cultivating oats the greatest rate of decrease in the specific activity of 137Сs in grain of 3.8 times relative to the control has been obtained by adding N90P90K150sub> together with biopreparation Albit.
Keywords:mineral fertilizers, biopreparations, barley, oats, yields, quality, 137Сs, the Bryansk region.