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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.Г. Сычев, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 26.08.2019
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2019 / Issue 5
Evaluation of the contribution of factors in the soil fund of phosphorus in forest-steppe chernozems of the Republic of Tatarstan
The results of long-term monitoring are presented, where natural indicators (content of gross and mobile forms of phosphorus) of soils are combined with a factor of economic activity (use of fertilizers and phosphorization). The results of the monitoring are presented, where the natural indicators (the content of gross and mobile forms of phosphorus) of the soil are combined with the factor of economic activity (fertilizer use and phosphorization). In the time series for 1970-2017 in the forest-steppe of the Buinsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan, the phosphorus content is estimated by means of income and alienation relative to its gross reserves within the arable horizon. In the item of receipt, the introduced mineral fertilizers have high rates (16.7%), then organic (4.4%). In the expenditure item, the leading position is occupied by the removal with the crop of spring wheat (20.1%), the second – the use of phosphorus to increase soil fertility (2.0%). Receipt of phosphorus due to phosphorization is 0.8%, alienation with water erosion – 0.3%, the share of mobile fund of phosphorus in time increases from 4.0 up to 6.0% of its gross stocks.
Keywords: gross and mobile phosphorus, chernozem, aeration of rocks and minerals, assessment of sources of phosphorus, Republic of Tatarstan.
Soil fertility of arable land of the Eastern zone of the Krasnoyarsk Territory
The article analyzes the state of agrochemical indicators of soil fertility for agricultural purposes in the Eastern zone of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and their dynamics for 1965-2018. As of 01/01/2019, the area of arable land in this territory was 912.2 thousand hectares (as of January 1, 1991 – 1017.1 thousand hectares). The soil cover of arable land is represented mainly by chernozem (50.5%) and gray forest with slightly podzolized (39.4%) soil. The soil fertility indicators for the period 1965-2018 changed insignificantly. The content of organic matter over the study period was consistently at the level of 5.6-5.7%. The weighted average phosphorus content was 178 mg / kg and ranged from 90 to 225 mg/kg of soil. The content of exchangeable potassium during the observation period did not change significantly and corresponded to a high level. The fluctuations in the value of this indicator ranged from 96 to 133 mg/kg of soil. The weighted average soil acidity index (pH) of arable land as of 01/01/2019 was 5.8 pH units, which is 0.1 units. The pH is lower than the original (5.9 pH units) in the period 1965-1977. In recent decades, there has been a significant decrease in the use of mineral fertilizers: from 34 kg a.v/ha in 1986-1990 up to 6.2 kg/ha in 2014-2018. The negative balance of nutrients in agriculture in the Eastern zone of the Krasnoyarsk Territory took shape during the entire observation period from 1976 to 2018. At the same time, grain yield increased to 2.38 t/ha.
Keywords: soil fertility, soil acidity, mobile phosphorus, mobile potassium, soil organic matter, balance, fertilizers, yield.
Agrochemical aspects of sustainable agriculture
On the example of the Bryansk region, increasing the productivity of arable land for six years, the agrochemical aspects of sustainable agriculture are considered. It has been established that this occurs due to the improvement of the functional properties of the potential fertility of the soil cover of arable land under the conditions of degradation of the main indicators of its fundamental properties. The proposed tactical and strategic measures and recommendations to ensure the sustainability of agriculture.
Keywords: potential soil fertility, productivity of arable land, measures for the sustainability of agriculture
Simulation of spatial variability of agrochemical indicators of soils in agricultural fertilizers of the Non-Chernozem region
The results of the spatial variability of physico-chemical and agrochemical indicators are given for soils of the non-chernozem zone (for example, LLC «Selskoye» Solikamsk district of the Perm region). The analysis showed that in the agrosoddy-podzolic soils of light granulometric composition the parameters considered varied greatly within the field. Linear structural relationships between soil properties are established. Adequate forecasting models of maintenance of a humus are received from exchange acidity, the sum of the exchange bases and nutrients for agrosoddy-podzolic soils of light granulometric composition were obtained. The models of spatial variability were calculated using different criteria: by correlation coefficients and by information criteria. Depending on need of expeditious change of system of fertilizer specialists of farms can on the basis of soil cartograms and(or) definition of indicators of properties of soils to predict the level of a humus and(or) mineral nitrogen in the soil. These models can be the basis for planning activities to improve the fertility of soils specific fields and to recommend a differentiated application of organic and mineral fertilizers.
Keywords: agrochemical properties, soddy-podzolic soil, variation, statistics indicators, models of soil fertility
Main winter wheat nutrients content in light-chestnut soil under influence of the field-protective forest belts in dependence of soil treatment types
The article presents the results of long-term research to study on the combined effect of field protective forest belts and soil tillage methods on the productive moisture content, the hydrolytic nitrogen, mobile phosphorus mobile potassium and the winter wheat productivity on the light chestnut soils of the Volgograd region. It was found that in the experimental site under the field-protective forest belts (FPFB) with the resumption of winter wheat vegetation, the content of hydrolyzed nitrogen is the highest at a distance of 15H from FPFB – 45.3 mg/kg, mobile phosphorus and potassium at a distance of 5H from FPFB – 17.2 and 327.8 mg/kg, respectively, the most productive moisture accumulates and remains during the growing season in the areas of the greatest influence of FPFB at a distance of 5-15H. These features of the protected landscape have a direct impact on the productivity cultivated crops formation. The highest yield is formed at a distance from 5 to 15H from FPFB, on average for 11 years of research it was 2.06 t/ha, which is more than in the unprotected agricultural landscape by 0.39 t/ha. The most effective soil tillage is a combined soil tillage, which provided the accumulation of productive moisture in the phase of vegetation resumption at the level of 116.5 mm, providing hydrolyzed nitrogen 43.4 mg/kg , mobile phosphorus 16.4 mg/kg, mobile potassium 314.5 mg/kg. The average winter wheat yield under this option on for 2008-2018 in the protected agricultural landscape was of 2.17 t/ha, without protective plantations of 1.88 t/ha.
Keywords: winter wheat, protective forest belt, light chestnut soils, tillage, mineral nutrition, Volgograd region.
Assessment of No-Till soil treatment on soil mezofauna, soil breathe and enzyme activity of calcic chernozems
The impact of No-Till and traditional dump plowing on soil biota and biological activity of calcic chernozems of the Rostov and Stavropol regions is assessed. The use of direct sowing technology led to an increase in the content of humus by 19%, invertase and dehydrogenase activity by 30-50%, and the intensity of carbon dioxide emission by 4.3-6.5 times. The biodiversity and abundance of mesofauna was higher in soils using alternative No-Till technology compared with arable soil. A high dependence of the number of worms on soil moisture (R = 0.82) and lower on soil temperature (R = 0.41) was revealed. Soil respiration was also more determined by soil moisture (R = 0.79) and less dependent on soil temperature (R = 0.56). The reason for the increase in the b iological values of the calcic chernozems was the formation of a mulching layer of plant debris on the surface and the improvement of the physical parameters of soils with No-Till.
Keywords: No-Till, biodiagnostics, bioindicators, enzyme activity, soil respiration
Influence of irrigation and nutrition regime of lucerne on dynamics and balance of nutrition elements in grey brown rocky soils
The article presents the materials of the influence of the combination of irrigation regime and mineral nutrition of lucerne on the dynamics of the content of elements of fertility and nutrient balance in gray -brown rocky soils. Laboratory and field studies have shown that with an increase in p re-irrigation soil moisture from 60 to 80% of limit field moisture content (PPV), the accumulation of nitrogen in the layer of 0-50 cm for three years of standing alfalfa is observed at the level of pre-irrigation soil moisture 80% of PPV in combination with the introduction of N100P300K150 and N100P400K200.
Keywords: grey-brown rocky soils, lucerne, irrigation regime, mineral fertilizers, humus, fertility, balance.
Productivity of barley and sunflower when applying biol ogical preparations and mineral fertilizers
The influence of preparations Gribophyt, Immunazot and mineral fertilizers on the productivity of summer barley and sunflower olive is studied. It is shown that on typical chernozem the sunflower was more sensible to the application of biopreparations. The productivity of the oil-bearing crop was 43.4 centner/hectare in that option that is higher in comparison with the control by 39%, for the barley the difference made only 6%. The highest productivity of barley grain (33.6 centner/hectare) and sunflower seeds (47.4 centner/hectare) was in the option with the application of mineral fertilizers. Treating of seeds, treatment of soil and twofold crop treatment with biopreparations during the vegetation period had less effect on the productivity of the crops in comparison with conventional fertilizers which is explained by hydrothermal conditions of the year 2018. During the period of active growth and development of the plants the temperature increased above the average annual by 5.8°C and moisture deficiency was observed. The alteration of the indicators of grain quality was similar to that of the crop productivity.
Keywords: biological preparations, mineral fertilizers, barley, sunflower, productivity, product quality.
Dynamics of plant nutrition and productivity of crops at the after-effect of prolonged use of mineral fertilizers at the ordinary chernozem
In long-term experience of Geographical network of experiences with fertilizers dynamics of maintenance of nitrate nitrogen, mobile phosphorus and potassium in an arable layer of the chernozem of an after-effect of fertilizers, ordinary for the 11-year period, is studied. It is noted that the most significant changes happened in the phosphatic mode of the chernozem after long introduction of phosphoric fertilizer. Rates of decrease in content of phosphorus depended on degree of security with it of the soil. At very high degree of security average annual decrease of P2O5 made 2.7-2.8 mg/kg, and at raised was twice lower – 1.3-1.4 mg/kg. The greatest effect of an after-effect of phosphorus is gained when using the highest dose of 150 kg/hectare. The productivity increase in the sum by years of an after-effect made 7.50 thousand z.e./hectare. The responsiveness of cultures on an after-effect of phosphoric fertilizer was almost equal. The increased and high level of content of residual phosphorus in P60-150 and N120Р90-150K120 options demonstrates that the phosphorus after-effect is completely not exhausted. The high and long effect of an after-effect of prolonged systematic use of nitrogen in a dose 60 and more than a kg/hectare is for the first time established. The total rise got from nitrogen fertilizer did not concede to phosphoric and made 5.42-7.93 and 5.33-7.50 thousand z.e./hectare. The highest total gain of productivity of cultures (8.36-9.39 thousand z.e./hectare) will reach in an after-effect of N120P30-150K120. The maximum effect of an after-effect of full mineral fertilizer is gained in the third and fifth; from phosphoric – in the ninth and from nitrogen fertilizer – in the seventh years. On dynamics of maintenance of nitrate nitrogen and mobile potassium in an arable layer of the chernozem it is difficult to judge efficiency and duration of an after-effect of nitric and potash fertilizers.
Keywords: after-effect of fertilizers, loudspeaker of batteries, phosphatic mode, nitrate nitrogen, mobile potassium, gain of productivity
Influence of perennial grasses to increase the fertility and productivity of grain crops.
The influence of perennial grasses (alfalfa) on soil fertility, as well as on the productivity and quality of winter, spring wheat and barley was studied. An economic assessment of crop productivity for different precursors and fertilizer systems was carried out. It was found that the use of alfalfa in crop rotation provides favorable water-air and nutrient regimes of the soil, as well as the preservation and maintenance of organic matter reserves in leached Chernozem can be ensured by introducing stubble-root residues from 3.31 to 10.6 t/ha and nutrients in plant residues (nitrogen 41.3 kg/t, phosphorus 12.2 and potassium 29.1 kg/t). Cultivation of winter and spring crops on a layer of alfalfa increases the collection of quality products per unit area, and reaches the highest level of profitability of grain production from 70 to 137%.
Keywords: winter and spring cereals, perennial grasses, alfalfa, leached chernozem, soil moisture, soil density, basic nutrients, soil biological activity, yield
Influence of different doses of fertilizers on yield and quality of Napa cabbage hybrids
In the conditions of soddy-podzolic heavy-loamy highly-cultivated soil with a high content of easily hydrolyzed nitrogen and a very high content of mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, the application N80 for Napa cabbage allowed to receive a yield of heads F1 hybrids Nika and Nejnost` – 22-59 t/hectare, and green mass productivity – 48-96 t/hectare; The introduction of N120 and N120К120 allowed to get the same yield of heads in the amount of 28-56 t/hectare, and the total yield of green mass – 58-101 t/hectare. The nitrate content in heads was at the level of 600-2000 mg/kg wet weight, solid substations – 4.2-7.9%, and in by-products, 5.1-9.0%. In the solid substation was determined nitrogen (1.8-5.4% for absolutely dry weight), phosphorus (1.1-1.9% for absolutely dry weight), potassium (4.2-7.7% for absolutely dry mass). The content of NPK in the main product did not differ much from its content in the by-products. Hybrid F1 Nika 1.2 occasion more accumulated solid substations, and as much less nitrogen, than F1 Nejnost`. The share of nitrate nitrogen was in the main production – 7-20%, in the by-production – 8-39% of the total. Defined: carry out of N (1.5-2.8 kg), P2O5 (0.8-1.1 kg), K2O (2.6-5.0 kg) 1 t of green mass, coefficients utilization of easily hydrolysable N (24-50%), mobile forms of P2O5 (2-4%) and K2O (12-24%) from soil and nitrogen (38-69%) from mineral fertilizers; nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium balance at different productivity Napa cabbage.
Keywords: Napa cabbage, hybrids, yield, heads of cabbage, green mass, productivity, fertilizer, dose, carrying out, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, nitrates, solid substation.
Biological effects of seed generation of barley variety Zazerskiy 85 at pollution of soil by zinc
The results of the influence of soil contamination with heavy metals (in particular, zinc) research on seed progeny of plants are presented. It was shown that the seed progeny of barley obtained on soils with zinc concentrations not exceeding the APC values by more than 1-2 times, tends to increase in germination. The introduction of large doses of Zn (leading to an excess of APC in the studied soils by 4 to 9 times) can have a negative effect on seed progeny: an increase in the frequency of cytogenetic disturbances in the root meristem of seedlings of seeds is observed, their germination decreases. In addition to the mass fraction of Zn in the soils, the type, physical and chemical characteristics of the soil have a significant impact on the entry and translocation of the metal in plants (and, ultimately, on the quality of seed progeny). The change in germination and pronounced cytogenetic effects in seed progeny of barley obtained on soddy-podzolic soil occurs at lower concentrations of zinc than on black soil and peat soil. This is due to the fact that soddy-podzolic soil has the lowest buffering capacity of soils with respect to Zn, due to the low content of humus in it, low absorption capacity, significant exchange acidity and a high degree of unsaturation with bases.
Keywords: barley, zinc, seed quality, chromosomal aberrations
Influence of the poultry manure and straw of cereals on 137sup>Cs absorption by spring wheat and peas plants at cultivation on the polluted dark grey forest soil
In two-year-old greenhouse experience with the dark grey wooded soil polluted 137Cs (500 Bq/kg, Chernobyl accident losses) in the Plavsk area of the Tula region studied absorbed radionuclide by spring wheat and peas plants at application a quail and a chicken manure as separately, and together with mineral fertilizers and straw of cereal cultures. Results of experiences have shown increase in grain yields and vegetative weight of studied cultures and decrease in specific activity and operating ratios of radiocaesium from application of the poultry manure and organic-mineral fertilizers. The straw of cereal cultures brought in dark grey wood soil has shown smaller efficiency as a counter-measure.
Keywords: spring wheat, peas, radionuclides, quail manure, chicken manure, 137Cs, straw of cereals, dark grey forest soil.
Combined use of protectants with plant growth regulators on potatoes
In 2016-2017 the preparations: Maxim, an experimental drug based on diphenoconazole: Prestige, Prestigitator, Celest Top and their combinations with growth regulators Gumi-20, Atonic Plus, Vigor Forte and Narcissus were investigated in field conditions. The study was performed in Lyubertsy and Dmitrov districts of the Moscow region. According to the results of the experiments, the efficiency of mixture of growth regulators with protec tants in reducing the negative impact on the dynamics of germination, growth and development, potato yield was established. The best results were shown by Vigor Forte and Gumi-20.
Keywords: potatoes, protectants, plant growth regulators, diphenoconazole, germination, yield.
Perspectives of organic farming in Russia
Organic production in any country is an indicator of the state’s conscious and careful attitude to the environment and the health of the nation. The survey has analyzed the use of land resources in organic farming and assessed the conditions of this segment in the world and Russian markets. Organic agriculture is developed in 178 countries of the world on 58 million hectares of agricultural land (about 1% of the global agricultural land area). Russia is among the ten countries with the fastest increase in organic land, the area of which is 656933 hectares (world 14th place – 0.3% of all the country's agricultural land). The trends in the development of the organic products market have been revealed: the active growth of organic production in all countries of the world due to the negative effects of chemical protection products application, synthetic mineral fertilizers, hormones, plant growth regulators, antibiotics; the increasing popularity of organic products among different population types. Particular attention is paid to the peculiarities of the organic production market development of the most commonly demanded biologically pure products – fresh fruits and vegetables. The total global area under organic fruit production is evaluated – more than 204,000 hectares – 1.6% of the total area of fruit plantations in the world, vegetable production – 676.000 hectares (1.1%), and in Russia – 51 hectares (0.01%) and 96 hectares (0.01%), respectively. The influence of the most important factors on the development of the Russian market of organic products has been determined and the reasons restraining its growth have been identified.
Keywords: organic farming, organic vegetable growing, organic horticulture, ecologically safe products.