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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 15.08.2019
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Свидетельство № 011095.
2019 / Issue 4
Experience of economic assessment of soils
A detailed review of existing approaches to economic assessment of soils is presented. The value of soils in the system of economic evaluation of agricultural land is determined by a variety of factors (real or potential productivity, other ecosystem services of soils, the efficiency of capital invested in the soil – fertilizers, agro-ameliorants, etc.). In Russia, the most complete system of economic assessment of soils of agricultural land was created by a group of employees of the Soil Institute named after V.V. Dokuchaev under the leadership of I.I. Karmanov. The main elements of this system are – soil-ecological index (bonus score, reflecting the level of soil fertility, taking into account specific climatic conditions and terrain) and the tariff category of the type of soil of the estimated area. For the territory of the Educational-Experimental Soil-Ecological Center «Chashnikovo» of Lomonosov Moscow State University proposed new methods of soil assessment – assessment of the cost of soils of agricultural land on the basis of ideas about «zero soil» and determining the magnitude of the damage to the soil environmental damage. The obtained value of the price of soddy-medium-podzolic light-loamy soils is less than 1% of the market value of these lands, calculated by a comparative approach. In the total amount of environmental damage from soil degradation, a significant part is loss of ecosystem services.
Keywords: price/cost of soils, damage, soil degradation, ecosystem services.
APPLICATION OF GIS-TECHNOLOGIES̆
Application of GIS for agroecological monitoring of agricultural lands
State Center of Agrochemical Service «Belgorodsky» developed and implemented a geographic information system that is called «GIS Agroecolog Online». System combines many functions and operates with database information. This provides wide opportunities for data analysis and decision-making on their basis for both land users and the management bodies of the agro-industrial complex at all levels. Using of this electronic resource allows users to have convenient access to the database of the agrochemical service, keep electronic books on field history and perennial plant inventories, calculate fertilizer doses, create various thematic cartograms and view data on them. The system also provides the ability to monitor the movement of vehicles in real time and view GPS tracks, generate reports, interact and exchange data between land users and the authorities of the agro-industrial complex.
Keywords: agrolandscape, agro-industrial complex, agrochemical service, agriculture, geographic information system, GIS, monitoring, soil.
SOIL PROPERTIES AND FERTILITY
Biogeochemical aspects of soil fertility in ancient agricultural areas of Crimea
The lists of chemical elements of accumulation and dispersion in natural soils relative to the main genetic groups of parent rock, as well as in the agrogenic series (virgin – deposit – arable land) were established for the conditions of North-Western Crimea. Indicators of agrogenic transformations, which made it possible to determine priority indicators for soil-ecological monitoring in ancient agricultural areas, were substantiated by comparing the soils of the new period of development and old-cultivated soils for the content of plant nutrients.
Keywords: gross soil composition, long-term agriculture, indicators of agrogenesis.
Influence of different dose of lime on agrochemical properties of the gray podzolized soil and yield of crops
The results of studies on the effect of different doses of lime on the elements of the crop structure, the yield of oats and peas, and quality parameters of protein and starch are presented. The long-term stationary experiment at gray podzolized heavy loamy soil in the experimental field of the Tomsk Agrarian College in the Tomsk area of the Tomsk Region was laid in 2016. The soil of the experimental field is characterized by a strongly acidic environment, weak humus content, high nitrate nitrogen content, high mobile phosphorus content and low exchange potassium content. The change of agrochemical parameters of gray podzolized soil is shown. Application of lime in a full dose (7,2 t/ha) contributed to a significant decrease in soil acidity, an increase in the amount of metabolic bases and the degree of soil saturation bases. When lime was introduced in different doses, an increase in the yield of oats to 1,8-7,5 c/ha of grain units was observed, which is 7,4-30,7% higher than in the control variant and peas to 1,6-7,9 c/ha of grain units (11,7-58,1% higher than the control). Significant increases in the yield of oats and peas were obtained by applying lime in full dose (7,2 t/ha).
Keywords: gray podzolized soil, liming, agrochemical parameters of soil, crops structure, yield.
Assessment of the impact of erosion control systems for the reduction of the removal of nutrients with spring runoff from agricultural lands
A long-term study of the effect of anti-erosion complex on chernozem soils consisting of a double row narrow forest shelter belt with a ditch in between the rows and a bank at the lower edge and a ridge terrace to reduce spring runoff and removal of biogenic substances into the drainage network. Depending on the composition of the anti-erosion complex and agricultural background the snow depth and total water supplies in the snow were always higher and reached in some years up to 100% compared to the control. The runoff was always lower in the transformed catchments and, depending on the year and weather conditions, decreased from 26 to 78%, which led to the reduction in soil loss by 58-97%. In the years with the absence of soil loss, the removal of nutrients at the most saturated with anti-erosion complexes: a forest belt with a bank and a ditch plus a ridge terrace was lower than at the control and reached the reduction of 87%. In the years of observed soil loss the removal of nutrients was lower in the variant with a forest belt and a bank with a ditch and achieved the reduction by 69%, in the variant with a forest belt bank and a ditch plus a ridge terrace was only 58%.
Keywords: agrolandscape, soil erosion, nutrients, spring runoff.
The composition and properties of the serpentinite rock and the possibility of using it as a meliorant of soils
The results of the study of the possibility of using ground serpentinite as a soil ameliorant are presented and the ways of expanding the scope of its use are proposed. The area of soils with acidic reaction of the environment in the Krasnodar region in 2012 was 323300 hectares (4.3% of the area of the region), and acidic (to varying degrees) soils are allocated in the vast majority on agricultural land, which (especially when used under arable land) everywhere there is acidification of soils due to the use of fertilizers. Established in its current form serpentinite ground should be used on acidic soils (рНН2О < 5.5), when mixed with calcium-containing substances (dolomite powder) scope of possible applications is extended to neutral soils (рНН2О 5.5 and 7.0), adding phosphogypsum (рНН2О 2.2-4.5), the use of serpentinite as fertilizers suitable for all soil types.
Keywords: soil acidity, reclamation, wastes utilization, parent rock, serpentinite.
Cultivation of perennial grasses as a factor in improving the structure and water resistance of the arable layer of the soddy-podzolic soils in the Udmurt Republic
Studies on the aggregate composition and water resistance of the arable layer of soddy-podzolic soil depending on the cultivated perennial leguminous and cereal grasses: meadow clover, alfalfa changeable, birds-foot trefoil and awnless brome were conducted in the Udmurt Republic in 2015-2016. The yield of the dry grass mass reached 5.7-8.2 t/ha. It was revealed that after two years of use the grass leaves a root weight of 3.5-7.0 t/ha, and the main nutrient elements (nitrogen 36.1-109.2 kg/ha; phosphorus 15.4-46.7 kg/ha; potassium 21.4-103.4 kg/ha) with the best performance – after meadow clover and alfalfa changeable. In the cultivation of the awnless brome the highest structural coefficient was determined – 4.92, after other grasses it was 2.05-3.03. The structure of the soddy-podzolic soil increased due to the increase in the number of agronomically valuable aggregates (0.25-3.0 mm) by 18.7-43.6% in comparison with the indices in the cultivation of grain crops. The coefficient of water stability after the use of grasses was at the level of 1.55-2.57, for grain – 1.29.
Keywords: soil, aggregate composition, water resistance, perennial grasses, roots, main nutrients, yield.
Changing in agrochemical properties of gray forest soil with systematic application of mineral fertilizers, lime and green manuring
Of the 1.6 million hectares of arable land in the Irkutsk Region, about half are mainly represented by light gray and gray forest subtypes, among which strongly acidic and medium acid ones predominate. in the process of long-term agricultural use (1970-2015), the proportion of acidic soils increased from 413.2 thousand ha (25.1%) to 567.5 (34.2%). The use of mineral fertilizers in 2010-2015 decreased compared to 1985-1990 to 12.4 times (up to 5.0 kg a.v / ha), organic - 21 times (up to 0.1 t / ha). Since 1990, a steady negative balance of nutrients has been observed. At long-term fruit exchangeable crop rotation it has been established that systematic application of lime in the dose 0.5 Нr (5.7 t/hа) and green manuring for 16 years considerably improves agrochemical properties of gray forest heavy loamy soil and enables to transfer it from the category of strongly acidic (pHKCl 3.8-4.0, Нr 10.1-11.9 mg-equ/100 g, V 65.7-68.7%) to the category close to neutral and neutral (pHKCl 5.8-6.3, Нr 1.8-3.5 mg-equ/100 g, V 89.6-95.3%). Mineral fertilizers in the applied doses did not effect agrochemical indicators of soil neither on limed, nor on a natural backgrounds.
Keywords: gray forest soil, agrochemical properties, alternating crop rotation, liming, mineral fertilizers, green manuring.
FERTILIZERS AND HARVEST
Influence of agrometeorological conditions and fertilizers on harvest of the spring barley in the dry-steppe zone of the Kalmykia
The results of using of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and their combinations under spring barley in the dry steppe zone of the Kalmykia are presented. The grain yield of spring barley varied within 9.8-44.6 C/ha and was largely formed due to the meteorological conditions of the year and mineral nutrition. In the vegetation periods of 2016-2017, characterized as humidified, the yield of spring barley was 36.1-43.7 C/ha. Analysis of water consumption of spring barley for 2016-2017 allowed to identify that the water consumption coefficient is less on the variants N60P30 and N60P60 is 59 and 58 m3/C with an average yield for 2 years of research 43.1 C/ha and 43.7 C/ha. The yield increase of spring barley from mineral fertilizers in moistened years was 4.2-8.3 C/ha, which is significant for the dry steppe zone of Kalmykia. In the acute-arid 2018, the yield was formed due to the varietal characteristics of the culture and mineral fertilizers.
Keywords: soil, fertilizers, weather, water consumption, yield, payback.
Application of phosphate flour and potassium chloride for cultivation of field crops in the Bryansk region
The results of studies on the use of phosphate rock and potassium chloride in the cultivation of field crops in the Novozybkov district of the Bryansk region, whose lands are still experiencing the negative effects of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, are presented. The studies were carried out in a long field experiment (2002-2009) on soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil. The use of phosphate rock and potassium chloride, both separately and in combination, ensured the transition of acidity from the group with pH 5.3-5.4 to the group close to neutral (pH 5.8-5.9), and also positively changed the hydrolytic acid. This contributed to a sharp decrease in 137Сs in the crop production, and also enriched the soil with potassium, phosphorus and exchange bases, which had a positive impact on the growth of yield.
Keywords: milled phosphate, potassium chloride, phosphate flour, radioactive pollution of soil.
Influence of mixed and separate application of biohumus, Zircon and Siliplant on yield and oil content of sunflower seeds
The data on the joint and separate effects of biohumus, growth regulator Zircon and Siliplant fertilizers on the content of available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil are presented. At the beginning of the growing season with the introduction of biohumus (8 t/ha) the maximum nitrogen content of 39.9 mg/kg, phosphorus 167 and potassium 197 mg/kg was established. When spraying plants with Zircon the amount of nitrogen at the beginning of the growing season decreased by 14% with Siliplant by 8%; at the end of the growing season by 19 and 15% relative to the control; phosphorus at the beginning decreased by 5 and 9%, at the end 8 and 10%, respectively; potassium at the beginning decreased by 6 and 9%, at the end by 6 and 10%. The decrease in the content of macronutrients in the soil indicates their consumption by plants. The introduction of biohumus and spraying of plants Zircon and Siliplant contributed to the growth of yield and oil content of seeds. The maximum increase in seed collection by 7.4 centners per hectare was obtained with double treatment of plants with zircon. The least effect is obtained from the introduction of one biohumus. With the complex use of biohumus and mixture (Zircon + Siliplant), the yield increase amounted to 6.1 centners per hectare, and the oil content of seeds increased from 37.8 to 40.3%.
Keywords: biohumus, Siliplant, Zircon, growth regulator, sunflower, yield, oil content.
Influence of the mineral fertilizers and Gumistim biopreparation on yield and quality of barley grain cultivating at radioactively contaminated soil
In the long-term field experiment on soddy-podzolic sandy loam radioactively contaminated soil of the South-West of the Bryansk region, the influence of biopreparation Gumistim and different doses and ratios of mineral fertilizer on the yields and quality of barley grain has been studied. It was found that the treatment of barley crops by the biopreparation Gumistim in the phase of the beginning of earing on the background of complete mineral fertilizer increased the yields of barley grain by 90,0-123% relative to the control. The mineral fertilizers both at separate application, and in a complex with biopreparation Gumistim were increasing the content of crude protein in grains and the value of its harvesting per hectare, were raising mass of 1000 seeds, were enlarging concentration of residual nitrates in grains and reducing a number of biochemical indices of grain quality (crude fat, crude fibre, starch). The application of the full mineral fertilizer N120P90K180 in a complex with biopreparation Gumistim has contributed to reduction of specific activity of 137Cs in barley grain concerning control more than in 4 times.
Keywords: soil, 137Cs, barley, mineral fertilizers, biopreparation Gumistim, yield, quality.
Methods of surface and radical improvement of forage lands under radiation contamination̆
The results of researches on studying of a mineral fertilizer influence and methods of surface and radical improvement of perennial grasses hay yields of the 1st and 2nd cuttings and its 137Сs content have been presented. It has been revealed that the highest hay yields are provided by the introduction of N60P60K90. The higher yields are marked against the background of the radical improvement. The agrotechnical and agrochemical measures contributed to improving the quality indicators of hay of the 1st cutting. With increasing doses of fertilizer applied, the content of crude protein, crude ash, crude fiber, crude fat and carotene in the feed has been increased. The higher values of these indicators have been noted against the background of the radical improvement. The concentration of nitrate nitrogen in the hay of perennial grass of the 1st cutting was below the maximum permissible level. In the first and second cuttings of perennial grasses, nitrogen fertilizers in the composition of NRK contributed to an increase in the specific activity of hay. The decrease of 137Cs concentration in the hay caused the application of potassium fertilizers in consistently increasing doses. The complex application of agrotechnical and agrochemical methods in the conditions of radioactive contamination of natural forage lands allows to grow food that meets the sanitary and hygienic standard.
Keywords: forage lands, surface improvement, radical improvement, mineral fertilizers, perennial grasses, yields, quality, 137Сs.
The content in the generative and vegetative bodies of raspberry strontium-90 depending on the depth of its location in the soil
Migration of 90Sr in the soil-plant trophic chain was studied. All work on the preparation of the site for planting raspberries was carried out very carefully in compliance with the uniformity of the conditions. All the selected seedlings were homogeneous in strength of development and with a benign root system. On both sides of the experimental site are protective plants. Taking into account the above, field experiments are based on the standard method of placing options. The experimental site was laid in the field in 2016 on the territory of VNIIBZR (Krasnodar). Tests of products on the basis of radioactive contamination were performed on the device USK «Gamma Plus» by the method of measuring the activity of beta-emitting radionuclides in counting samples using software «Progress». The technique was developed by GP VNIIFTRI and approved by Gosstandard of Russia 05.05.1996. As a result of the research, the variants of agricultural raspberry cultivation in the contaminated area are proposed, which reduce the accumulation of nuclide in the fruits, wood and raspberry bark. Plantage plowing reduces the accumulation of 90Sr in the studied parts of the plant. The difference between the studied variants in the with-holding of 90Sr in raspberry fruits made in 2018 to 1,9 times, in the leaves – in 2,6 times, in the wood – in 2,9 times, and bark – 2,8 times.
Keywords: raspberry, radionuclide, soil, migration, accumulation.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Ecological-agrochemical evaluation of new types of nitrogen fertilizers and it’s transformation in the cultivation of barley
For the modern nitrogen fertilizers are characterized by a number of disadvantages: high water solubility and mobility in the soil; acidification of the soil solution; significant gaseous nitrogen losses (up to 40% of the applied dose) and increased greenhouse effect; pollution of groundwater and surface water; deterioration of the quality of crop and livestock products. Ways to improve the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers, which do not have a strong negative effect on agroecosystems, have been conducted for a long time. To solve the problem of environmental assessment of the use of new forms of nitrogen fertilizers in the cultivation of barley was laid on the experimental field of the Russian state agrarian University named after K.A. Timiryazev micro-field experience to assess the transformation of soil and gaseous nitrogen fluxes.
Keywords: agroecology, modern fertilizers, small-scale experience, nitrogen transformation, emission of nitrous oxide from soil.
Influence of organic, organic-mineral and mineral fertilizer systems on heavy metals content in arable layer of soddy-podzolic soil in aftereffect
The paper presents the results of a study aimed at studying the effect of long-term use of mineral, organic and organic-mineral fertilizer systems on the content of heavy metals in the arable layer of soddy-podzolic soil. When using mineral fertilizer systems in the soil of experimental variants, in 2017, copper content was exceeded relative to the control – 15.1 mg/kg, in 2018 this figure was 4.5 mg/kg, which was lower than the control variant. In the aftereffect of long-term use of various fertilizers for two years, a decrease in the content of heavy metals in the arable layer of soil was noted. In all variants of the experiment, it did not exceed the approximate permissible concentration.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, approximate permissible concentration, fertilizer system, aftereffect, heavy metals.
«Agrochemical Herald» journal at Web of Science
The citation analysis of the «Agrochemical Herald» journal is carried out via Web of Science Core Collection database. It is revealed that the journal has stable citation characteristics.
Keywords: Web of Science, citation, «Agrochemical Herald» Journal.