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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.Г. Сычев, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н.
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2019 / Issue 2
55th ANNIVERSARY OF AGROCHEMICAL SERVICE
On the guard of Russian soils fertility
The article discusses a brief history of creating and achieving agrochemical service of Russia in modern technologies of preserving and enhancing soil fertility of agricultural land, in the field of digitization of agriculture and creating an electronic program for maintaining a database of data obtained from soil monitoring.
Keywords: agrochemical service, soil fertility, monitoring, modern technologies.
Change of grey forest soil fertility in field crop rotation
In the grain crop rotation the highest content of organic matter in the soil was recorded in the variants with biological cultivation technology under spring barley (the foregoing crop being manure-fertilized potatoes) – 4.13%, under winter wheat – 2.75%. Applying 40 t/ha of cattle manure under potatoes resulted in the formation of labile organic matter («new» humus) in the soil. In the variants with biological cultivation technologies there was the maximum organic matter supply under all crops in field rotation. The biological cultivation without mineral fertilizing and pesticides applying ensured the arable land productivity of 53.0 с/ha of fodder units. The application of complete NPK rates for the planned yield of the crop rotation led to an increase in the arable land productivity by 1.7 times.
Keywords: fertilizer system, grey forest soil, crop rotation, soil fertility.
Influence of agrochemical parameters of soddy-podzolic soil on agroeconomic efficiency of the phosphorous fertilizers for spring barley cultivation at crop rotation
In field experiments, a high agroeconomic efficiency of the use of phosphate fertilizers on poorly cultivated sod-podzolic loamy soil (pHKCl 3.9-4.2; Р2О5 35-60 mg/kg) with low content of mobile aluminum (40-48 mg/kg) was established. On cultivated soil (pHKCl 5.1-5.7; Р2О5 95-140 mg/kg) with a low content of mobile aluminum (13-19 mg/kg), the highest rates are achieved with a lower dose of phosphate fertilizers than on poorly cultivated. On poorly cultivated soil with a high content of mobile aluminum (about 130 mg/kg), due to the systematic use of nitrogen and potash fertilizers, the effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers increases with liming.
Keywords: cultivated and poorly cultivated soddy-podzolic soil, phosphorous fertilizers, spring barley, yield, profitability.
Change of fertility at different technologies of soil treatment
The regularities of change of fertility agrochemical indicators at different technologies of soil treatment are reviewed. It is established that both at plowing and at the minimal treatment, the total nitrogen content increases for 0.03-0.06 mg/kg of soil by the end of vegetation as compared to its beginning. As far as the content of labile phosphorus is concerned, it is noted that in the tillering phase of barley its content in the soil layer 0-20 cm is higher (154.5 mg/kg of soil) at the traditional treatment in comparison with the exact treatment, and the content of labile phosphorus in this option is 136 mg/kg of soil. By the end of vegetation the provision level of this element is 124-180 mg/kg of soil. The content of exchangeable potassium in the layer 0-20 decreases with the accumulation of biomass components by barley plants. Thus, at the beginning of vegetation it is 232.5 mg/kg of soil at plowing, and it is 228.5 mg/kg of soil at the minimal treatment, and by the end of vegetation it is 52.5 and 96 mg/kg of soil, respectively.
Keywords: soil, fertility, dump treatment, minimal treatment.
Studying the effect of long-term application of fertilizers on organic matter of soddy-podzolic soil by method of IR-spectroscopy
Currently infrared spectroscopy is widely used in physical-chemical studies of soil organic matter. This method allows to obtain, in general terms, the structure of the molecule of humic acids, to follow the changes occurring in them under the influence of various factors, primarily anthropogenic. In this work, a study was conducted to identify changes occurring in humic acids during long-term fallowing of the soil, the application of mineral and organic fertilizers, and also without them in permanent crops of winter rye. It was revealed that the presence of an absorption band caused by the stretching vibrations of methylene groups is characteristic of all humic acids. The application of organic and mineral fertilizers increases the heterogeneity of the components of humic acids and the role of the peripheral part in the composition of the molecule, and prolonged fallowing increases the central part.
Keywords: IR-spectroscopy, humic acids, organic matter, valent and deformation vibrations, spectra, absorption bands, intensity.
Energy-informational effect of herbicide on plants
Despite the significant reduction in doses of chemicals for the protection and preservation of crops, claims to their use do not subside and remain justified due to the harmful effects on the environment. The method of mediated energy-information signal transfer to plants through the effector medium is presented and certain provisions of the methodology of variational synthesis are confirmed. The possibility of reducing the concentration of herbicide in 10 and 100 times of the recommended dose while maintaining the required level of inhibition of growth and death of model dicotyledonous plants.
Keywords: herbicide, dose, energy-information transfer, research methods, dicotyledonous plants.
Experience of database creating for model of automated system of agroecological assessment of soils and lands, adapted to urban conditions
Describes the main aspects of the agroecological evaluation of soils in the conditions of urban ecosystems on the example of pilot plots of Environmental experiment of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University (RSAU – MTAA). It was determined: the dynamics of agrochemical characteristics for 2017-2018, as well as their variation within one area, the influence of weather factors and different food systems on grain yield. As a result of the study, it was possible to reduce the range of values of a number of parameters of intra-field variation in agrochemical characteristics, for example, in the southern field in 2017, the minimum acidity values locally reached 7, and the maximum to 8.35, then in 2018 the minimum value is 7.4, and the maximum 8. A similar phenomenon was noted in relation to other parameters, but despite the decrease in the content of mobile phosphorus, locally recorded low anthropogenic eutrophication of site, which can be explained by the intense impact of a nearby urban ecosystem on the resistance of agrocoenosis. Monitoring of abiotic factors (temperature and soil moisture) throughout the vegetation period revealed 14 days with a high stress load on the growth and development of barley plants in May and 15 days in June, which adversely affected the growing season of crops, high yields (2,60 t/ha) in the southern field identified in barley cultivar Vladimir (in the variant with application of ammonium nitrate and biopreparation Agrinos). The lowest yields were obtained on Central field in the variant with application of ammonium nitrate in conjunction with Bisolbifit and Extrasol (1.94 t/ha), what may depend on the internal variation of both agrochemical characteristics and the complex influence from the urban ecosystem.
Keywords: agroecological assessment, grain crops, soils.
Yield of barley grain and its dependence on level of mineral nutrition and hydrothermal conditions during vegetation period
The dependences of barley grain yield on increasing level of mineral nutrition and hydrothermal conditions in different interphase periods of vegetation are presented and discussed. These dependences have a complex nonlinear view and are most accurately described by second-order equations with clearly defined extremum points or areas of optimum. To the maximum degree (at largest of the coefficient of determination – R2) the yield of barley grain is related to hydrothermal conditions during the period of shooting – earing and the entire vegetation period (sowing – full ripeness). The hydrothermal coefficient (HTK by G.T. Selyaninov) during the vegetative period (sowing – earing) does not always correctly reflect the dependence of the yield on the hydrothermal conditions prevailing during the given growing season.
Keywords: barley, yield, mineral fertilizers, hydrothermal coefficient, interphase periods of vegetation, multiple regression analysis.
FERTILIZERS AND BIOPREPARATIONS
Effect of iodine microfertilizers on yield and quality of winter rape
The results of studies of the effect of foliar fertilizing of winter rapeseed with solutions of potassium iodide with a concentration of 0.01 to 0.1% in the bud budding phase. It has been established that in a specified range of concentrations, plants absorb iodine by a barrier-free mechanism. The stimulating effect of microfertilizer on the accumulation of nitrogen by the plants in the phases from the onset of budding to the onset of flowering has been revealed. It has been established that the use of potassium iodide in the concentrations studied does not adversely affect the oil content of the seeds. In the conditions of the Kaliningrad region, the expediency of foliar treatment of plants of winter rape with 0.01% KI solution along with treatment with an insecticidal drug has been proved.
Keywords: potassium iodide, winter rapeseed, foliar treatment, yield.
Assessment of fertilizers and biopreparation Gumistim efficiency at cultivation of winter wheat at radioactively polluted soil
The results of evaluating the effectiveness of the application of various doses, combinations and ratios of mineral fertilizers and biological preparation Gumistim in the cultivation of winter wheat of Moskovskaya 39 have been conducted the research in the conditions of radioactive contamination of the territory and their influence on yield and grain quality are presented. The field experiments were carried out on the experimental field of the Novozybkov branch of the Bryansk State Agrarian University in four-field crop rotation on soddy-medium-podzolic light-loamy soil, soil contamination density of 137Cs is 216-248 kBq/m2 (6-7 Ku/km2). The crops were treated with biopreparation Gumistim in spring in the tillering phase at the rate of preparation consumption of 6 l/ha. The account of the plant stand on the fixed sites on germination and before harvest has been carried out. The structural analysis of selected sheaves was carried out according to the method of the State cultivar testing of agricultural crops under laboratory conditions. The highest yield of winter wheat is formed due to all the indicators of the elements of the structure. It has been revealed that the yield of winter wheat grain in the studied varieties of the experiment varied on average from 1.88 to 4.07 t/ha. The highest grain yield of winter wheat (4.07 t/ha) was obtained with the introduction of a full mineral fertilizer in combination with the biological preparation Gumistim, to provide the protein content in grain of 13.6% and its collection of 0.553 t/ha, a mass fraction of gluten 27.3%. The complex application of the chemical means in the variant N120P90К150 + Gumistim allows to obtain the grain of winter wheat with the content of 137Cs 3.17 times lower in comparison with the control and 13.4 lower relative to the current standard (60 Bq/kg).
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, 137Cs, fertilizers, biopreparation Gumistim, winter wheat, yield.
Microfertilizers and biopreparations application for soya cultivation
There are presented the methods of increasing the productivity of soybeans through the use of modern micronutrient mixtures in the forest-steppe of The middle Volga region. The results of studies in 2016-2017 with the assessment indicators of the safety of the plants, growth of aboveground mass, the dynamics of accumulation of dry matter, leaf area, yield structure, yield and fodder qualities of soybean seed treatment with biopreparations and the spraying of crops microfertilizers mixtures. It is shown that the highest yield of soybeans 0,95-1,02 t/ha is achieved on crops with seed pre-treatment preparations Rhizotorfin + Megamix Semena and Megamix Semena, and then vegetation twice (in the phase of 3-5 leaves and budding) preparations Aminocat + Raikat Razvitie or Megamix Pro.
Keywords: forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region, soybean, yield, micronutrient mixtures, biological products, plant safety, crop structure.
Influence of new biological preparations on structure of spring barley harvest depending on climatic conditions
The data on the study of new biologically active preparations are presented: Vigor Forte – plant growth regulator, combining synthetic growth hormone analog (auxin) and correcting NPK complex with microelements, as well as Biopreparation (patent No 2463759), created at the Orel State Agrarian University on the basis of bioflavonoids of buckwheat, salicylic acid and magnesium salts. Studies were conducted on spring barley Raushan in 2017 and 2018 Conditions have a significant impact on the yield of grain of spring barley, especially in the passing phase sowing – emergence. Under the influence of drugs by increasing the productive stems and increasing the mass of grain on the yield of spring barley compared with the control increased by 18-21%. Vigor Forte was more effective than a Biopreparation.
Keywords: barley, growth regulators, biopreparation, climatic conditions, crop structure.
Varietal specificity of macro- and microelements accumulation in Calendula Officinalis L. flowers and it’s cytogenetic variability
The elemental chemical composition of varieties of the Zolotoe more and the Rajskij sad is studied. It is established that the raw materials of the studied varieties meet the requirements of the regulatory documentation for the environmental safety criterion for elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Hg. Variety differences in the elemental chemical composition of the studied plants were noted. The higher content of macronutrients in the raw materials of the Zolotoe more variety was found in such elements as sodium by 1.5 times, potassium – by 1.1 times, by the content of microelements: aluminum is higher in 2.3, boron in 1.9, iron in 1,4, compared with the Rajskij sad. In the raw material of the Rajskij sad, a higher content of such elements as potassium, magnesium, silicon, strontium is observed. Cytogenetic analysis showed that the percentage of deviations in the varieties of Calendula officinalis is not critical.
Keywords: Calendula officinalis, variety, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, cytogenetic analysis.
Application of biofungicides and growth regulators for cultivation of Golden Root (Rhodiola Rosea L.) seedlings
The article presents the results of research about the effectiveness of the combined use of biofungicides and growth regulators, which are effective against pathogens of seed and soil infection for the protection of medicinal crops. They are an alternative to chemical plant protection products. Presowing soil treatment with Fitosporin-M and Alirin-B reduces the death of plants from fungal diseases by 14 and 16%, while the biological efficiency of their use increases to 45,2 and 51,7%, the biological efficiency is 45,2 and 51,7%. It was found that presowing treatment of stratified seeds of Golden root (R. rosea) with growth regulators of Epin-extra and Zircon increases germination energy and germination up to 83.5-91% and reduces plant death by 8-9% compared to the control. Integrated system of protection against root rot including presowing soil treatment by biofungicides and foliar treatment of vegetating plants with Zircon, the most appropriate to produce healthy seedlings of Golden root (R. rosea).
Keywords: Rhodiola rosea L., root rot, biofungicides, growth regulators.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Influence of herbicides on chemical compound of forage from corn
In the laboratory, hybrids of corn on chemical and ash compositions were studied. The results on the content of the main zootechnical indicators of feed are given. It is established that in the variants without treatment the energy value of the feed and the content of individual components is much lower than in the variants treated with herbicides.
Keywords: herbicide, biomass of corn, chemical composition, crude protein, crude fiber, crude ash, crude fat, exchange energy.
Variety specifications of winter barley yield formation depending on sowing rate
Shows the dependence of the formed yield of winter barley Kubagro-1 and Kubagro-3 varieties with different seeding rates. In the experiments used four options seeding rates. The individual elements of the structure of the yield of varieties with different areas of plant nutrition were studied. It was found that the variety Kubagro-1 formed a greater number of productive stems when sown with a norm of 5.0 million germinating seeds per 1 hectare, with higher rates of the spinniness and weight of 1000 grains it had a minimum seeding rate of 3.5 million seeds per 1 hectare, with an increase in the density of the stalk, these two indicators reduced their value. The variety Kubagro-3 had a similar dynamics to increase the seeding rate, distinguished by high productive tillering, but the indicators of the number of grains in the ear and the mass of 1000 grains were less.
Keywords: winter barley, variety, yield, seeding rate, elements of crop structure.
Influence of oil pollution on agrochemical and toxicological indicators of soddy-podzolic soils
The results of the influence of a wide range of oil pollution doses (from 1 to 60 g/kg abs. dry soil) on toxicological and agrochemical indicators of soddy-podzolic soils are presented. It has been shown that the most common in practice, the GOST method of determining the content of petroleum products using IR-spectrophotometry allows determining in polluted soil from 63 to 94% of these compounds. As the Standard for permissible residual oil content and its transformation products for soddy-podzolic loamy soils in conditions of the Udmurt Republic, it was proposed to recommend the content of oil products – 4.3 g/kg (based on toxicological analysis on two test objects: Paramecium caudatum Her and Daphnia magna Straus). The negative impact of oil pollution on the amount of exchange bases in the soil and the content of mineral nutrients in it has been established. The parameters of changes of these agrochemical indicators were directly dependent on the level of pollution, which allows them to be used as indirect indicators to assess the degree of contamination of soddy-podzolic soils with oil products.
Keywords: oil pollution, soddy-podzolic soils, permissible residual content of oil and oil products in the soil, agrochemical indicators, soil toxicity.