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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 08.02.2019
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2019 / Issue 1
Approbation of the methodology of the economy of land degradation for the Lipetsk region
We investigate the dynamics of land use and NDVI of vegetation in the Lipetsk region in the period 2001 to 2009 based on remote sensing data of MODIS. It is established that the most significant reduction of areas is typical for young forests (areas where 5-10% of the area is occupied by trees with a height of not more than 5 m), «passing» into Mature forest (land plots, 50-60% of the area of which are trees more than 2 m), which indicates the «throwing» and subsequent overgrowing of agricultural lands with woody vegetation in the study period. There is a decrease in NDVI (land subject to degradation processes) on the area of 112755 hectares and an increase in this value on the area of 44878 hectares, which was a characteristic phenomenon for agriculture in Russia for the 90s 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. The results of calculations performed by the method of J. von Braun showed that the cost of inaction in the Lipetsk region is higher than the cost of action against degradation (6-year and 30-year planning horizons), which confirms the economic feasibility of measures to restore (improve) the productivity of the region's land and support their ecosystem services. A sufficiently high level of the current state of agricultural production in the Lipetsk region, achieved largely due to investments in the growth of land bioproductivity, in practice confirms the adequacy of the environmental and economic analysis.
Keywords: dynamics of land use, degradation of soils and lands, ecosystem services, bioproductivity of lands, economy of land degradation.
Liming of acid soils - improvement of soil fertility in the Tomsk region
Based on the results of the analysis of long-term agroecological monitoring of agricultural lands conducted by the Tomsk State Agrochemical Service, 83% of the arable lands of the Tomsk Region are acidic and their acidity increases every year – every 10 years the weighted average pH is reduced by 1-2 units, acid soils. There is an urgent need for liming of these soils to improve the efficiency of agricultural production in the Tomsk region. According to the calculation of the demand for limestone flour, 3.248 million tons are required. There are large deposits of limestone in the region, for example Kamenskoye (61 million tons), located 50 km from Tomsk, where it is possible to extract a valuable ameliorant, which essentially raises the efficiency of agricultural production. The results of scientific experiments are presented to develop measures that increase the effectiveness of the use of acidic arable land in the Tomsk region. For the successful development of agricultural production in the Tomsk region, it is necessary to develop and adopt a long-term target program «Liming of acid soils on the territory of the Tomsk region», which stipulates the measures: compensation of a part of costs for liming to agricultural producers; design estimates and technical support of works; local production of limestone meliorants. Implementation of the program for liming acidic soils will increase annual production in the Tomsk region by 54.9-129.2 thousand tons of grain units, which will increase the annual income in crop production by 494.1-1162.8 million rubles (in prices of 2017), and will also ensure the productivity of agricultural land.
Keywords: acidity of soils, liming, limestone flour, calcium, agrochemical examination, Tomsk region.
Monitoring and estimation of soils in the steppe agrolandscapes at the North-western Caucasus
For effective management of natural resources of regions and the country as a whole is extremely important reliably systematized, generalized spatial, geographically grouped statistical data on the quantitative and qualitative condition of land resources. These data were obtained on the basis of the system of environmental-economic monitoring and estimation of soil condition of municipal areas of the Krasnodar region. Thus, the basis of monitoring of soils in the steppe agrolandscapes of the North-western Caucasus based on practice-oriented scientific approach for the study of the quality status of agricultural land, the study of fertility of farmland, zoning manifestations of degradation in the cultivated lands and the estimation of the effectiveness of environmental measures on restoration of soil fertility of degraded lands.
Keywords: monitoring, analysis of soil condition, steppe agrolandscapes of the North-western Caucasus.
Estimation of biological and enzymatic activity of alluvial drained soils in dependence of genesis and types of lands
The biological activity of alluvial marsh soils is determined by a complex of soil properties and regimes and is characterized by genetically determined low values. For example, peroxidase and polyphenoxidase, reflecting the transformation of organic matter, vary in the range from 1.5 to 7.3 mg of purporogallin/100 g of soil in 30 minutes. The intensity of soil respiration and catalytic activity, depending on the subtype of alluvial soils, lies in the range from 1.3 to 3.9 cm3 per g for min and from 0.7 to 4.4 mg CO2 per 10 g for 24 h, respectively. The highest activity of the enzyme urease was observed in the soil of the plowed plot (9.8 mg of NH4 per 10 g for 24 h), the least – in virgin dry soil (2.4 mg of NH4 per 10 g for 24 h). Cellulolytic activity of alluvial bog soils varied from 12.1% to 18.9. The interrelation of indicators of the biological activity of alluvial soils with the content and component composition of organic matter has been established.
Keywords: alluvial marsh soils, organic matter, biological activity, enzymatic activity.
Influence of different types and doses of sapropel on organic matter content in soddy-podzolic soil
It was studied the influence of different types and doses of sapropel on the change of organic matter content and composition in the soddy-podzolic sandy loam soil. It was found that sapropel in its pure form from 40 to 80 t/ha, as well as together with manure allowed to increase the carbon content of organic matter in the soil by 0.12-0.52%. In the composition of organic matter increases the amount of humic acids, mainly their first fraction, which is most noticeable in the soil when making organic sapropel at doses of 40 and 80 t/ha, as well as a mixture of manure with its 40 t/ha.
Keywords: sapropel, organic matter, fractional-group composition of humus, soddy-podzolic soil, fertilizers.
Soil biological activity when using sapropel and biohumus
The biological activity of the buckwheat rhizosphere soil has been studied in the complex application of the organomineral suspension of sapropel and the organic suspension of biohumus, as well as their nanostructured analogs for seed treatment and foliar feeding. Ammonifying agents dominate the combined treatment of seeds with macro-suspensions. In variants with a combination of seed and plant treatments with nanosuspensions, the tendency was to increase the number of nitrogen fixing (11.5 × 106 cfu/g) and phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms (18.5 × 106 cfu/g) at the end of the growing season. Nanosuspensions of sapropel and biohumus contribute to the development of cellulose-destroying microorganisms, increasing the decomposition of linen fabric up to 85.0%. The harvest data of the experiment correlate with biological indicators.
Keywords: biological activity of soil, microorganisms, sapropel, biohumus, nanostructural suspension buckwheat.
AgroecologIcal assessment of soIls on farmIng lands In the Lankaran lowland in Azerbaijan
The soils spreaded under the farming lands in Lankaran have been agroecologically estimated by S.Z. Mamedova modified method was used by us. In the first stage the main agroecological scale on facial groups of soils have been built using the enviroment (precipitations, Md, T > 10°C, BİP) and soil (humus, ph, > 0.25 mm, bulky weight) factors; the second stage the soils agroecological scores including in soil farming facial groups were found and open agroecological scale was constructed by the correcting coefficients application. The large agroecological scale has been worked out. The following assessment is got by the correcting coefficients application, facies of soil formation in Lankaran lowland: pseudopodzolic yellow-forest and pseudopodzolic yellow-gleyey facial group-81 scores; meadow-brown, grey-brown and meadow-grey-brown facial group of soil formation-75 scores; yellow-meadow and meadow facial group-69 scores; hydromorph-hidromorphic-holophyte facial group of soil formation -35 scores.
Keywords: Lankaran lowland, soils bonitation, correcting coefficients, main and open agroecological scales.
Influence of soil treatment systems on dynamics of nutrients content in chernozem ordinary in the Rostov region
Different levels of plant food compounds installed in the ordinary chernozems of the Rostov region with the use of different tillages. The studies were performed in a seasonal dynamics in soil under various field crops in 28 fields of No-Till is used during 8 years. We also explored the control fields of the neighboring farms with the conventional tillage (moldboard plowing). The profile distribution and seasonal dynamics of the main agrochemical indicators is determined. It is revealed that in the soils of winter wheat the use of No-Till leads to an increase in the content of mobile phosphorus and potassium. The content of exchange ammonium in most cases was reduced compared to soils with conventional tillage.
Keywords: No-Till, agrochemical indicators, ordinary chernozems, fertility, Rostov region.
Justification of potato cultivation technologies depending on fertilizers and varietal characteristics in the Moscow region
The research was carried out in «Agrico-Eurasia» LLC. in the Voskresensky District of the Moscow Region in 2015-2017 purpose was the development of adaptive industrial technology for cultivating potatoes depending on the fertilizer applied and varietal characteristics. The growth processes of potatoes, its phytosanitary condition, phytomass that responded well to agrotechnical measures by increasing the leaf area and, consequently, photosynthetic activity were studied. The regularities of potato yield depending on the technology of its cultivation, mineral fertilizers and varieties are studied. The quality of potato tubers is estimated according to its biochemical composition, heavy metals and nitrates content. It has been established that the highest potato growing efficiency was obtained with the use of industrial technology, in addition to the background of applying potassium sulfate at a dose of 60 kg/ha a.i. when planting a variety of Arizona. The highest indicators of the biochemical composition of potatoes were obtained in version 10 with industrial technology and additional potassium sulphate added to the background during the planting period and were greater than for traditional technology in a similar version 2 for dry matter – 8.1% protein – by 15.8%, starch – by 6.4% and vitamin C – by 11%. In the same variant, the lowest concentration of heavy metals and nitrates was noted.
Keywords: gray forest soils, potato growing technology, fertilizers, yield, quality of potatoes, Moscow region.
Estimation of mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of nanostructured phosphorous – component of complex fertilizers
Mutations are the first significant step in the carcinogenesis process, so mutagenicity tests should be widely used to detect mutagens/carcinogens. The article presents the material on the estimation of the effects of nanostructured phosphorite on the mutation process in the strains of Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, strains S. typhimurium TA1535, TA1538, without metabolic activation were used. The data concerning the estimation of mutagenic properties of nanophosphate in the Ames test indicate that the test substance does not increase the frequency nor the mutation of base-pair substitutions at the TA1535 strain, no type of shift reading frames from strain TA1538. Consequently, nanofactory does not possess mutagenic activity. In addition, the data indicate the presence of antimutagenic activity against ethylmethanesulfonate and 2,4-dinitrophenilhydrazine (38,0 and 60,0% at a concentration of 200.0 μg/ml, respectively). Results of SOS-lux test using S. typhimurium TA1535/pDEW238 indicate the absence of DNA-damaging properties of nanophosphate. Thus, in the Ames and SOS-lux test, the test shows the absence of mutagenic properties of nanostructured phosphorite, so it can be considered safe for the environment and used for agro-industrial purposes, in particular, as a component of complex fertilizer.
Keywords: nanostructured phosphorite, Ames test, SOS-lux test, mutagenic activity, biosafety.
Estimation of the microorganisms’ consortium with high biological activity and stability to pesticide stress
Autochthonous diazotrophic (Azotobacter chroococcum 5 V(e), Pseudomonas brassicacearum 26W(b) and phosphate-mobile (Achromobacter xylosoxidans 5 F(b), Sphingobacterium miltivorum 6 F(b)) microorganisms with multifunctional positive properties were isolated from various soils of the Republic of Tatarstan. On the basis of the best of them on nitrogenase activity, ability to produce antibiotic substances suppressing growth of phytopatogens, the effect on the energy of germination and germination of seeds, morpho- and biometric parameters of sprouts and other properties binary associations and consortium are created. It was revealed that the maximum resistance to the action of pesticides for various purposes (Actara, Lontrel, Ordan, Roundup, Fitoverm) is shown by consortium of four strains from three bacterial communities. The consortium of microorganisms reduces toxicity to the test plants, especially when combined with the herbicide Lontrel. The integrated application of a consortium of microorganisms and pesticides provides an integrated plant protection system.
Keywords: diazotrophic, phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms, association of microorganisms.
Influence of the urevious-formaldehyde fertilizer on acidity of soil-ground substrate and yield of arugula
The article considers the possibility of application of foam urea formaldehyde fertilizer-meliorant to regulate the level of acidity of soil. During the vegetation experiments it was found that in the variants with the introduction of fertilizer-ameliorant acidity of the substrate on the basis of peat-bog soil is reduced, increases productivity and improves the quality of the product.
Keywords: fertilizer-ameliorant, soil acidity, aeration, soil-ground substrate, arugula, yield, nitrates.
Research of new plant growth regulators with retardant facilities for winter wheat cultivation
The influence of plant growth regulators of a new generation with retardant properties in the cultivation of winter wheat variety Nemchinovskaya-17 was studied on soddy-podzolic soils in the Moscow Region. The reaction of winter wheat variety to the tested plant growth regulators was identified, the optimal dose of their use was established to effectively increase resistance to lodging. The tested plant growth regulators have a significant impact on the yield of winter wheat and the formation of its structural elements. The highest yield increases were obtained in 2014 with the use of Reggy, VC at a dose of 1.5 l/ha, where it was 6.13 t/ha against control without treatment – 4.33 t/ha. High yield was obtained due to the formation of a large number of productive shoots, higher grain content and the mass of grain from the plant.
Keywords: plant growth regulators, retardants, winter wheat, productivity, plant lodging.
Efficiency of application of organomineral fertilizers with the complex of amino acids on wheat
The results of registration tests of organomineral fertilizers based on a complex of amino acids on winter and spring wheat are presented. It is shown that their application for fertilizing plants during vegetation contributes to the increase of resistance to unfavorable environmental factors, increase in yield and improve the quality of grain. The increment of spring wheat yield, depending on the type of fertilizer, was 4.5-11.1% – in the Nizhny Novgorod region, winter wheat – 3.1-10.7% – in the Ulyanovsk region.
Keywords: spring wheat, winter wheat, organomineral fertilizers on the basis of a complex of amino acids, yield, yield increase, crop quality.
Formation of perennial high-yield grasslands based on Lotus corniculatus under conditions of the Kostroma region
The possibility of creating highly productive grass stands of Lotus corniculatus on soddy-podzolic soil of the Kostroma region has been studied. Recommendations on the choice of the cereal component for the compilation of the Lotus – Cereal grass mixtures. The conducted zootechnical analysis showed that the creation of such herbages allows to obtain green fodder balanced in protein and carbohydrates content in the North-Western region, the yield reaches 7.74 t/ha of dry weight and 0.86 t/ha of crude protein. This suggests the possibility of realization of high adaptive potential of Lotus corniculatus in the Kostroma region.
Keywords: Lotus corniculatus, quality of forages, Kostroma region.
Yield of perennial grass mixtures under influence of growth regulators
The paper presents data on the productivity of the mixtures with Wheatgrass comb and Chernogolovka polygamous in applying the growth Matrix Growth and Gumi 20M. Maximum productivity (30,29 t/ha), collecting dry matter (10,29 t/ha), yield of fodder units (7,59 thousands/ha) and digestible protein (1,25 t/ha) show a four-part mixtures with sainfoin sandy and alfalfa singireddy.
Keywords: grass mixtures, perennial grasses, yield, the comb-shaped Wheatgrass, Wheatgrass PPE, Chernogolovka polygamous, Sainfoin sandy, Seneviratna alfalfa, Lotus corniculatus, feed units, digestible protein, growth promoters, Matrix Growth, Gumi 20M, fodder quality.