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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 02.10.2018
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2018 / Issue 5
Estimation of fertility indicators of agricultural lands in the northern forest-steppe of the Trans-Urals
Estimation of fertility of farmland Northern forest-steppe of Kurgan region on the main agrochemical indicators presented. The total area of arable land includes 744,5 thousand hectares, including of 128,8 thousand hectares fallow, of which over 40% are not used for more than ten years. In 2016, 78% of the soil is classified as slightly acidic and neutral. The highest proportion of strongly acidic and medium-acidic soils (7.65%) was recorded on fallow, at the same time 80% of the lands are characterized by low and medium content of mobile phosphorus. The share of lands with phosphorus content above the average does not exceed 10%. 87% of agricultural lands are characterized by the content of exchangeable potassium from high to very high level. The humus content is estimated as an average and higher for 85% of agricultural land. 26% of the fallow have a low and very low humus content, at the same time these areas are characterized by a low content of mobile phosphorus on the background of increased acidity. The increased content of mobile manganese is in 40% of the soils. This is due to the natural geochemical background and technogenic pollution. The level of fertility of arable land provides a high profitability of agricultural production.
Keywords: agricultural lands, Kurgan region, northern forest-steppe, fertility parameters, nutrients.
Estimation of soils fertility and the influence of mineral convenients on the crop productivity of winter cereals (based on example of the Government farm «Zakan-Yurtovsky»)
An agro-chemical assessment of the fertility of dark chestnut soils of the state farm Zakan-Yurtovsky of the Chechen Republic and the effect of mineral fertilizers on and productivity of winter grain crops are given. According to a survey conducted in 2012, it was found that the content of humus in dark chestnut soils was 2.0-2.5%, and by gradation refers to a few humus types of soils. For such soils, the accumulation of ammonia nitrogen will contribute to the conservation of humus and provide plants with an accessible form of nitrogen nutrition. To determine the degree of decomposition of the organic matter of soils, a determination was made of the nitrification capacity of the soils and the accumulation of nitrate nitrogen in them. The results of the studies showed that the soils have an average nitrification capacity, that is, under optimal conditions, the soil can accumulate 12-17 mg/kg of nitrate nitrogen. With this level of nitrate nitrogen, it is possible to ensure a yield of up to 20 centners per hectare without the use of fertilizers. To increase the productive yield to 40 c/ha on the soils of the state farm «Zakan-Yurtovsky», it is necessary additionally to add 60-80 kg/ha of nitrogen in nitrate and ammonium forms. The most favorable conditions for ensuring nitrogen nutrition of plants should be considered the presence in the soil of two forms of mineral nitrogen: nitrate and ammonia.
Keywords: fertility, soil, fertilizers, yield, Chechen Republic.
SOIL PROPERTIES AND FERTILITY
Influence of fertilizers application aftereffect on ecological and agrochemical state of chernozem ordinary
In the long-lived experience put in 1975 on the chernozem ordinary in the conditions of unstable humidification of the Central Ciscaucasia researches carried out for the purpose of determination of interrelation of average annual productivity of a crop rotation with indexes of soil fertility within 10 years after phase-out of mineral fertilizers. Fertilizers brought under each culture of a crop rotation in doses from 30 to 150 kg/hectare of century within 30 years that essentially changed fertility condition of soil. Acidifying of soil solution and decrease in maintenance of a humus, positive – improvement of conditions of a mineral delivery of plants and a soil microflora became the negative result of effect of fertilizers. It provided increase in number of the basic physiological groups of the microorganisms transforming soil nitrogen in agrocoenosis, change of enzymatic activity of the soil and increase in average annual efficiency of a crop rotation in the period of an after-action for 13.7-32.0%. The highest increase of productivity of a crop rotation was reached on options of an after-action of the complete mineral fertilizer (N120P30-150K120) which soil was characterized by the best indexes of an ecological and agrochemical state. The productivity of a crop rotation was in close direct interrelation with the maintenance of the relative frame forms of phosphorus and a potassium, quantity of microorganisms and activity of enzyme of a catalase (r = 0.55-0.68 coefficient of correlation).
Keywords: fertilizers, aftereffect, chernozem, agrochemical properties, the number of microorganisms, activity of enzymes, the productivity of the crop rotation.
Changes of soils of nitrogen soil and its forms under influence of mineral and organic fertilizers
In a short rotation «cotton – cotton – winter wheat» studied the effect of a combination of different doses of organic fertilizer (manure) with mineral fertilizers on nitrogen stocks and its forms in irrigated typical serozem (gray soil). It was found that the use of only mineral fertilizers leads to a reduction in the total nitrogen storage in the soil, although there is an increase in mineral and readily hydrolyzable nitrogen reserves, mainly due to a significant reduction in the reserves of hardly hydrolyzable nitrogen. The combination of manure 5 t/ha with full mineral fertilizer also does not ensure a non-deficit balance of total nitrogen reserves. At the same time, the reserves of mineral and easily hydrolyzable forms of nitrogen increase more than when only mineral fertilizers are introduced, and the scarcity of hardly hydrolyzable and non-hydrolyzable forms is significantly reduced. Increasing the manure dose to 10 t/ha provides a positive balance of total nitrogen reserves, mainly due to an increase in the reserves of mineral and easily hydrolyzed forms. With a further increase in the manure dose of up to 20 t/ha, a positive balance of total nitrogen reserves is achieved by increasing the reserves of all its forms.
Keywords: irrigated typical serozem (gray soil), crop rotation, cotton, winter wheat, mineral fertilizers, manure, nitrogen reserves, productivity.
Dynamics of soddy-podzolic legumine soil acidity in crop rotation with fertilizers at different backgrounds
Materials of long-term studies in the steady-state experiment on the decrease in the acidity of medium loamy soddy-medium-podzolic soil are presented with an annual use of mineral fertilizers. It was established that liming in a dose of 1 of hydrolytic acidity has a relatively short-term effect, only during one rotation of the eight-field crop rotation. Repeated liming in a dose of 2 of hydrolytic acidity completely neutralized the acidity of the soil and ensured a long (for 32 or more years) its stay in the fifth (neutral) acidity group. The use of manure for each rotation of the crop rotation in the calc-organomineral fertilizer system has led to a trend of decreasing soil acidification rates.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, fertilizer systems, lime, manure, soil acidity.
Estimation of soils of different complete- ness in sugar beet cultivation
The issue of studying the effectiveness of the application of mineral fertilizers for sugar beet is considered on the basis of field experience of the agrochemical service. The results of the research showed that the effect of nitrogen fertilizers depends mainly on the content of available forms of nitrogen and mobile phosphorus in the soil, phosphorus – on the degree of P2O5, potassium – only on potassium doses. When calculating the balance, it was found that on low-cultivated soils the deficit of nutrients is less pronounced compared to highly cultivated soils and, consequently, the level of their degradation with insufficient application of fertilizers will be more pronounced. In soils with low availability of mobile phosphorus when phosphorus fertilizers are introduced in a dose of 60 kg/ha, a gradual increase in the available phosphorus content occurs, and on high-income phosphorus, it will help to maintain the phosphate content at the same level.
Keywords: chernozem soils, agrochemical indicators, mineral fertilizers, nitrogen, mobile phosphorus, sugar beet, yield.
Changes in soddy-podzolic soil fertility under influence of complex application of fertilizers in the Republic of Komi
Organic fertilizers in the form of peat-manure compost (TNK) and mineral fertilizers designed for the planned crop of herbs (15 t/ha of green mass) and potatoes (15 t/ha of tubers) were used in the fodder six-field crop rotation on soddy-podzolic soil (two fields of potatoes, perennial and annual grasses). It is established that at use of organic system of fertilizers the humus content increased on 0.7-0.9%, organomineral – 0.3-0.5%, at the same time application of mineral fertilizers promoted decrease in organic substance on 0.1-0.2%. Increased soil acidity and decreased potassium in the soil due to the high removal and leaching of calcium and potassium. It was found that the most optimal fertilizer ratio is TNK 80 t/ha and the total dose of NQF. With such an amount of organic and mineral fertilizers, the highest yield of agricultural crops (potatoes – 21.4 t/ha of tubers, perennial grasses 6.6 t/ha of SV and annual – 4.4 t/ha of SV) was obtained. The starch content in potato tubers increased to 13.0-13.6% (in control – 11.6%), the amount of nitrate nitrogen did not exceed MPC; the content and collection of crude protein in annual and perennial grasses increased. The positive effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the amount of organic matter and nutrients in the soil.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, fertilizers system, potato, annual, perennial grasses, the Republic of Komi.
SOIL TREATMENT SYSTEMS
Influence of resource-saving main soil treatment on agrochemical properties of leached chernozem at corn cultivation
The results on the study of resource-saving basic soil cultivation under maize for green mass and the application of the fertilizer system with the aim of preserving soil fertility and developing techniques for increasing yields are presented. It was established that longline plowing combined with subsequent fine processing improved the agrochemical properties of chernozem soil, steadily increased the yield and quality of maize for green fodder in comparison with the traditional annual dumping of plowing, especially with the organomineral fertilizer system.
Keywords: resource-saving, basic soil cultivation, organomineral fertilizer system, corn, agrochemical soil parameters, chemical composition of green mass, yield.
Influence of main soil treatment systems for light-grey forest soil and fertilizers on agrochemical parameters in unit of crop rotation in Nizhniy Novgorod region
The influence of various resource-saving processing systems and fertilizers on the agrochemical properties of light-gray forest soil in the grain crop rotation line of mustard is shown; winter wheat; soybeans. The use of traditional, superficial, minimal and zero technologies on light gray forest soils in the rotation system of cereal crop rotation mustard-winter wheat provides an increase in the exchange acidity from 5.6 to 5.9 units. pH, decrease in hydrolytic acidity from 2.80 to 1.65 meq/100 g of soil, an increase in the amount of exchange bases from 11.5 to 13.3 meq/100 g of soil. Crops of plant residues (straw + stubble and root residues) mustard white, winter wheat and soybean are not sufficient to maintain a non-deficit balance of humus within the three-year rotation of grain crop rotation (the deficit is 0.06-0.18%). Zero soil cultivation provides a greater increase in mobile phosphorus compared to traditional plowing by 29 mg/kg. Traditional plowing and zero technology on the background of the use of mineral and organic fertilizers together with ammonium nitrate (10 kg per 1 ton of straw) provide an increase in the content of exchangeable potassium. The use of mineral and biofertilizers promotes an increase in the yield of mustard and soybeans relative to the unfertilized variants in all methods of soil cultivation. The StiMiX®Niva biopreparation had no significant effect on the formation and filling of winter wheat grains on all studied options for soil treatment systems.
Keywords: cereal crop rotation, soil cultivation system, biological preparation, mineral fertilizers, field experience, agrochemical properties of soil, productivity, Nizhniy Novgorod region.
Influence of minimalization of main chernozem soil treatment on chemical composition and yield of annual herbs
The results of field research on the study of the minimization of basic soil cultivation in crop rotation, the application of the fertilizer system with the purpose of developing methods for increasing the yield and quality of annual grasses in leached chernozem of the Republic of Tatarstan are presented. It has been established that two-tier plowing combined with subsequent fine processing and using the organomineral fertilizer system increases the yield of green grass of annual grasses and its quality, gives a significant (0.84 t/ha) yield increase compared to the traditional annual dumping of plowing.
Keywords: minimalization, basic tillage, organomineral fertilizer system, annual grasses, chemical composition of grasses, yield.
The effect of lead, cadmium and selenium on grain crops at early stages of spring wheat ontogeny
The influence of lead, cadmium and selenium on growth of the varieties of spring wheat during the initial stages of development (05-20 stage of development on the BBCH-scale). The negative effects of heavy metals mainly manifested on the development of the root system – reduce the number of primary roots, their length, weight and absorbing surface, reduce the activity of root cell division. Selenium applied together with lead and cadmium, reduced stress in plants. The influence of heavy metals and selenium depended on the wheat varietal features.
Keywords: lead, cadmium, selenium, spring wheat, root system, stress.
Influence of lime on biological movement of 137Cs in soils of various types
The influence of lime on the accumulation of 137Cs in barley and oats was studied in vegetation and field experiments on soddy-podzolic sandy loam and marsh-peat soils. Biological mobility of 137Cs significantly decreased in all variants of experiments. It was revealed that the transition of 137Cs to plants on marsh-peat soil is 7 times higher than on soddy-podzolic sandy loam. It was found that the effect of meliorant increases with increasing dose and time of its aftereffect, the maximum effect was observed on the 3rd year after the introduction of lime into the soil. When lime was applied at a dose of 2.0 Ng, the accumulation coefficient of 137Cs decreased by 1.5-2.0 times on soddy-podzolic sandy loam and marsh-peat soils. The maximum efficiency of reducing the accumulation of 137Cs in plants was observed with the complex use of lime and mineral fertilizers.
Keywords: почва, 137Cs, радионуклид, биологическая подвижность, известь.
Influence of organomineral fertilizer SUPRODIT-M on accumulation of 137Cs by corn in the conditions of radioactive soil pollution
There was studied the influence of organic-mineral fertilizer SUPRODIT-M on the reduction of 137Cs accumulation in maize plants under the conditions of vegetation experience on the experimental basis of the All-Russian Research Institute of Radiology and Agroecology on gray forest soil. Foundings show that the content of exchange 137Cs in the soil in variants with mineral fertilizers is 44-53% lower than in the control. The introduction of SUPRODIT-M contributed to a decrease in the amount of exchangeable 137Cs by 27-35% compared to the use of Azofoska and simple forms of mineral fertilizers. The share of mobile forms of 137Cs when applying mineral fertilizers is 8.0-8.6%, and SUPRODIT-M – 6.8% of the total content in the soil. The total amount of 137Cs available for plants when applying SUPRODIT-M is reduced by 70% compared to the control, and by 33-34% when applying mineral fertilizers. The amount of acid-soluble 137Cs in versions with mineral fertilizers is on average 2.0 times higher than on unfertilized soil. The use of SUPRODIT-M had a noticeable effect on the fractional composition of 137Cs, the amount of exchange and mobile 137Cs in the SUPRODIT-M variants was 26.7% lower than in the variants with Azofoska. The use of SUPRODIT-M leads to a more stable fixation of 137Cs of PPC due to the complex sorbent that is part of the fertilizer: the content of the fixed form increases in comparison with the variant with the Azofoska. The fixation strength of 137Cs when applying SUPRODIT-M is 9.3% higher than in the case of Azofoska. The application of the SUPRODIT-M fertilizer allows obtaining corn yield with the lowest content of 137Cs. It was established that the efficiency of SUPRODIT-M in reducing the accumulation of 137Cs in maize yield is 1.8 times higher than in the case of Azofoska.
Keywords: SUPRODITE-M, mineral fertilizers, 137Cs, gray forest soil, corn, yield.
Estimation of phytotoxicity contaminated by diesel fuel of peat soil in rehabilitation by complex meliorant Saprosil
The results of long-term field experience on the study of the effect of the complex meliorant Saprosil on the phytotoxicity of peat soil contaminated with diesel fuel are presented in the process of its rehabilitation. It has been experimentally established that a complex ameliorant provides a reduction in the phytotoxicity of soil contaminated with diesel fuel. At a pollution level of 2.5%, the use of a dose of a complex meliorant of 5 tons/ha eliminates the phytotoxic effect: the difference in yields in the control and in the experimental variants is not significant. An increase in the dose of introducing a complex ameliorant into the soil increased the neutralization of the phytotoxic effect from the action of petroleum products, the best result was reached when using Saprosil at a dose of 10.0 tons/ha. The complex ameliorant, in addition to the pronounced effect of reducing phytotoxicity, provides a fertilizing effect: when applying a dose of 10 tons per hectare, the yield increases by 1.36 times in comparison with the control.
Keywords: composite ameliorant, oil products, soil, rehabilitation, sapropel, peat, phytotoxicity.
Efficiency and quality of hay the radioactive polluted inundated meadow during the remote period after accident on the CNPP
Results of researches on influence of fertilizers and ways of processing of the soil for a harvest and quality of hay of long-term herbs are presented. As a result of researches it is revealed that the efficiency of natural herbage is low. Use of mineral fertilizers increased a harvest of hay of long-term herbs of a natural meadow to 5,39 t/hectare. Carrying out only radical processing of the soil slightly increased productivity of hay. The mineral fertilizers introduced against the background of radical improvement were used by plants more fully. As a result, the productivity increased, and indicators of quality of a forage in comparison with natural herbage improved. The greatest productivity of hay in three years of researches is noted in N60P60K90 option. The increasing doses of mineral fertilizers positively influenced indicators of quality of hay. Nitrogen fertilizers promoted increase in specific activity of hay of long-term herbs. Decrease in concentration 137Cs in hay caused use of potash fertilizers in consistently increasing doses.
Keywords: natural herbage, radical improvement, mineral fertilizers, 137Cs, hay quality.
PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND PLANT PROTECTION MEANS
Biological and chemical protection of potato from diseases
A comparative estimation of the effectiveness of the schemes of fungicides and chemicals permitted for use in agricultural production is shown. The assessment was carried out on the following indicators: seed germination energy, growth stimulation; impact on the reduction of the spread and degree of development of major diseases; increase in yield; improvement of product quality; reduction of chemical load on the agro-crop without reducing the yield. It was found that in agro-climatic conditions of 2015-2016 the profitability of chemical (146.91%) and biological (140.01%) treatment schemes was almost the same.
Keywords: potatoes, pesticides, biopreparations, late blight, early blight, black scurf.
Flax cultivation in the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation with the rational application of growth regulators, fungicides, herbicides and their compositions
On the basis of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Flax there were carried out studies on flax fiber to study the effect on the phytosanitary condition and yield of new growth regulators of the Avibif series and their compositions with fungicides and herbicides for pre-treatment of seeds, and also for use on vegetative plants. It has been established that when treating flax seeds with a new preparation of Avibif C allows reducing the application rate of TMTD disinfectant by 50% without decreasing and even with the effect of increasing the overall phytosanitary effect against bacterial diseases. Seed germination was more amicable and complete (in laboratory and field conditions) when treated with Avibif C at a dose of 150 ml/t and its half rate together with TMTD (2.0 l/t) – in comparison with the control (without seed treatment) and the standard option – TMTD (4,0 l/t). In the treatment of crops, the addition of a new preparation Avibif P (150 ml/ha) to the herbicidal mixture (Harmony, 10 g/ha + Cortez, 5 g/ha + Targa Super, 1.5 l/ha) accelerated the growth of plants, increased their survival rate in the harvesting period by 1.6-3.8%. Application of Avibif (C and P) contributed to the formation of a larger (6.6-10.6%) technical length of the stem and flax best quality. The application of Avibif C for seed treatment both in pure form and in combination with TMTD resulted in an increase in the yield of flax straw by 36.0-36.6%, flaxseed by 39.6-40.7% in relation to the standard variant. Addition of Avibif P in herbicidal mixture increased the yield of flax salt by 13.5-39.1%, flax seed – by 12.9-38.9%. The cost of additional flax products obtained from the application of Avibif S and P exceeded the cost of its implementation by 11.19 times.
Keywords: flax, growth regulator, fungicide, herbicide, efficiency, crop preservation.