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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 13.08.2018
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2018 / Issue 4
JUBILEE OF AGROCHEMISTRY AND PLANT PHISIOLOGY DEPARTMNET OF STAVROPOL SAU
Optimization of nutrition of winter wheat varieties by introducing calculating doses of mineral fertilizers on the planned crop level
Materials on the study of the effect of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers on the planned level of yields of winter wheat varieties are presented. The results of the studies (2010-2014) showed that the fertilizer dose calculation methods studied provided a planned level of winter wheat yield of 4.0 t/ha. The highest reliability (99%) was obtained by applying a dose of N126P80K72 for the planned yield of 6.0 t/ha according to the calculation method of V.V. Ageev and A.N. Esaulko. In 2015-2017 on varieties Vassa and Share, the planned yields were 5.0 and 7.5 t/ha. The yield of 10 tons per hectare was obtained only in 2016 in the variety of winter wheat.
Keywords: winter wheat, mineral fertilizers, method of calculation of fertilizer doses, planned yield, programming, leached chernozem, varieties of winter wheat.
Monitoring of the fertility of soils of the Stavropol region: dynamics of agrochemical indices according to the zone of soil specificities
Data on the dynamics of arable land in the Stavropol Territory with the optimal content of organic matter, mobile phosphorus, exchangeable potassium for the period from 1964 to 2015 are presented. Comparative evaluation of the results of agrochemical survey in the context of municipal formations from 1998 to 2015 is given. The indicators characterizing the agroecological situation in region and recommended ways of stabilization and reproduction of soil fertility of the Stavropol territory.
Keywords: zonal features, soil fertility, agrochemical examination, organic matter, mobile phosphorus, exchangeable potassium.
Contribution of the multi-year stationary «Theoretical and technological foundations of biogeochemical flows of substances in agrolandscape» to fundamental and applied developments of agrochemistry (long-term experience of the Geo-Network of the RAS)
The article presents the results of a long experimental crop rotation, included in the Geographic network of experiments with fertilizers of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in the field of fundamental and applied research of agrochemistry. A comparative assessment of the effect of various fertilizer systems on the content of phosphorus and potassium forms in the meter profile of leached chernozem, on the productivity of crop rotation and the economic efficiency of the application of fertilizer systems within the framework of the multi-year stationary field experiment of Stavropol State Agrarian University. The main results of optimization of fertilizer systems in the period from 1978 to 2015 are given.
Keywords: long-term stationary experiment, fertilizer system, soil treatment methods, leached chernozem, phosphorus and potassium forms, crop productivity, yield forecast, crop rotation.
Influence of phosphogypsum and sulfur-containing fertilizers on yield and quality of winter wheat on chernozem
In the southern carbonate chernozem, a field experiment was established to study the effect of phosphogypsum and sulfur-containing fertilizers on the cultivation of winter wheat. The content of mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium was produced by Machigin in the modification of CINAO, mobile sulfur by the CINAO method, nitrate nitrogen by the potentiometric method during the milky wax ripeness of the wheat. The yield was recorded by the method of continuous harvesting of the plots of the experiment. An increase in the content of mobile phosphorus and sulfur in the use of not only sulphoammophos but also phosphogypsum was found, while differences in the investigated index between different doses of meliorant were not found. The use of sulfoammophos, phosphogypsum and, in particular, joint application of ameliorant with ammophos and ammonium nitrate increases the yield by an average of 20-33%, but does not affect the quality of the grain of winter wheat of the Tanya variety.
Keywords: chernozem, phosphogypsum, sulfoammophos, mobile sulfur, winter wheat, yield, grain quality.
Influence of fertilizers systems and soil treatment methods on the soil reaction of leached chernozem and yield of winter barley
The data of five-year studies on the impact of fertilizer systems and methods of soil cultivation on agrochemical indicators of leached chernozem and winter barley yield in the Stavropol upland are presented.It was found that the methods of soil treatment did not have a significant effect on the reaction of the soil solution. The calculated system of fertilizers significantly exceeded not only the control, but also the indicators of yield of the recommended and biological systems.
Keywords: soil reaction, winter barley, fertilizers system, soil treatment, leached chernozem, yield.
Optimization of nitrogen fertilization of winter barley on chernozem ordinary
In the conditions of a wide range of forms of nitrogen fertilizers offered to agriculture, the question of choosing the form and dose of fertilizer remains relevant. The influence on agrochemical indicators of fertility of ordinary Chernozem in the conditions of unstable moistening of traditional fertilizers – carbamide, ammonium nitrate and unified – ammonium nitrate with the addition of phosphogypsum and lime-ammonium nitrate used in the feeding of winter barley is considered. The efficiency of early spring nitrogen fertilizing of winter barley with different forms and doses of nitrogen fertilizers on the impact on the yield and quality of grain of this crop is shown.
Keywords: winter barley, nitrogen fertilizing, plant nutrients, soil fertility, yield.
Research of mineral nutrition lentils varieties in conditions of the Stavropol upland
The results of studies on the mineral nutrition of lentil varieties in the conditions of the Stavropol upland are presented. It is established that a reliable increase (0.46-0.68 t/ha) of yield of lentil as compared with the control and recommended dose Р40К30 provided a calculated dose of mineral fertilizers N25P45K18. The maximum yield of lentil (2.17 t/ha) provided a variety Wehowsky, significantly higher than the Canadian varieties by 0.43 t/ha. The dependences of lentil yield on the layer content of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen, mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium in the 0-30 cm layer of leached Chernozem during the growing season of the crop were established.
Keywords: lentil, variety, mineral fertilizers, yield, nutrient elements.
Dynamics of plant residues depending on technology of crops cultivation on ordinary chernozem
The results of the influence of traditional crop cultivation technology and direct seeding technology without tillage on the mass of plant residues, their dynamics during vegetation and distribution in the 0-30 cm layer are shown. It is established that in the upper soil layer, in direct sowing, depending on the culture, before Seed is from 59.6 to 71.8% of root and stubble residues. The cultivation of winter wheat after winter rape promotes a more intensive loss of plant residues in the upper 0-10 cm soil layer during the vegetative period. To full ripeness, their mass is 22.0%. In the cultivation of winter rapeseed and maize for grain by the scrap precursors, 34.2 and 34.1% of plant remains remain in the upper soil layer during this time. Traditional cultivation technology leads to more active decomposition of plant residues. In the upper 0-10 cm layer of soil from sowing to full ripeness of maize, according to traditional technology, biomass decreases by 90.9%, and in direct seeding by 66.0%. In the subsoil layer of the soil, 20-30 cm is preserved up to 42.3% of plant residues, and in direct sowing up to 72.2% of the original mass. Cultivation of crops using traditional technologies with the application of recommended solutions for the soil and climatic zone promotes the acceleration of mineralization of plant residues and the enrichment of the soil layer by 0-30 cm. Direct seeding is hampered by the decomposition of organic matter.
Keywords: cultivation technology, plant residues of agricultural crops, ordinary chernozem.
Yield of sugar beet according to the use of different forms of mineral fertilizers in the zone of unstable humidification of the Stavropol region
Data on the effect of calculated doses of various forms of mineral fertilizers on the yield and quality of the sugar beet hybrid Kavkaz in the conditions of the zone of unstable moistening of the Stavropol Territory for 2011-2013 are presented. The most favorable weather conditions that emerged in 2013 are due to the optimal distribution of heat and precipitation during the most intensive increase in the mass of root crops, which is observed in June and July, despite the average annual rainfall exceeded by 40% and the average annual temperature exceeded by 0,6°С. The fertilizer system NAFC N100Р100К100 + Naa70 in conditions of ordinary chernozem ensured the maximum yield of the sugar beet hybrid Kavkaz – 91.2 t/ha. Addition to the control was 51%, compared to other fertilized options from 28 to 48%. On average, the largest collection of sugar – 16.6 t/ha, marked on the options with the use of NAFC N100Р100К100 + Naa70.
Keywords: zone of unstable humidification, sugar beet hybrid, fertilizer system, yield, sugar content.
Effect of long-term use of fertilizer systems on the species composition and abundance of phytophagous insects and their entomophages in winter wheat crops on leached chernozem
Long-term studies on the effect of various fertilizer systems on the development of phytophages and entomophages in winter wheat crops have been carried out. Balanced nutrition has a direct impact on the development of culture, and indirectly affects pests by strengthening immune plant barriers. The results of the surveys showed a decrease in the number of cereal aphids by 12.3-25.3%; wheat thrips by 7.4-24.7%; grain sawflies by 4.3-13.6%. In this experiment, the change in the population size of the bug of a harmful turtle has not been established. During the years of research, the system of applied fertilizers had no effect on the number of populations of entomophages, both parasites and predators in the agrocoenosis of winter wheat, in any phase of the crop development.
Keywords: winter wheat, leached chernozem, phytophages, entomophages, fertilizer system, immunity.
Dynamics of zinc content in soils of the Stavropol region
The presents the results of studies on the content of zinc in various types and subtypes of soils in the agricultural lands of the Stavropol Territory, shows the effectiveness of the use of zinc salts as fertilizers. The features of the spatial distribution of mobile zinc in arable land, pastures, hayfields of various regions of the region are considered. It can be seen from the research results that more than 99% of the entire area of Stavropol Territory farmland has a low content of mobile forms of zinc (less than 2 mg/kg of soil), and the efficiency of using zinc microfertilizers depends not only on the biological characteristics of the crop, but also on its content in the soil.
Keywords: zinc, microelements, dynamics of zinc content, types of soils.
Application of microfertilizers in the vegetation of protected ground
The data of two-year research on the effectiveness of microfertilizers, which have biologically active substances in their composition, are presented in the technologies of growing cucumber and tomato in conditions of protected soil. Cultivation of fertilizers facilitated the activation of metabolism, increased stress tolerance of plants, which was reflected in the increase in leaf area, the yield of standard products, the degree of fruit tie, the average weight of the fetus, the yield and the decrease in the degree of death of the ovaries. The highest productivity of cucumber and tomato provided joint application of MC Cream, MC Start, MC Set.
Keywords: cucumber, tomato, protected ground, microfertilizers, yield.
Dynamics of agrochemical indicators of soil fertility at cultivation of agricultural crops for no-till technology in conditions of the Stavropol region
The article presents the results on the impact of no-till technology on the dynamics of soil fertility in different soil and climatic zones of the Stavropol territory. Regardless of the observation period and the study zone, a large difference between soil layers 0-10 and 10-20 cm was provided by the reaction of the soil solution by 0.13-0.20 units, humus content by 0.18-0.45%, mobile phosphorus by 4.1-11.2 mg/kg and exchangeable potassium by 26-124 mg/kg soil, whereas in versions with traditional technology this difference is leveled within 0,01-0,07 units, 0,02-0.12%, 0.2-2.4 mg/kg and 1-23 mg/kg soil, respectively. It was found that the no-till technology has increased crop rotation productivity in the dry zone and the zone of unstable moisture relative to the traditional technology by 0,63 and 0,49 t/ha of grain units, respectively, whereas in the zone of moderate moistening the no-till technology has reduced the productivity of 0.73 t/ha of grain units.
Keywords: the no-till technology, soil treatment, soil fertility, crop rotation, Stavropol territory.
Techniques for reduction of pesticide residues in the grain in the cultivation of spring wheat on saving technologies
Data on residual quantities of active substances of pesticides in wheat grain are analyzed in the article. The risks of chemical pressure in the conditions of transition to resource-saving cultivation technologies are estimated. Field experiments and laboratory studies have established that the amount of active substances of herbicides Tornado 500, Magnum, Laren pro, Mortira, Banvel and Scorpio super used in the cultivation of spring wheat did not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations in the grain, which gives reason to consider this grain safe for use for food purposes. The use of preparations containing 2,4-D ester and tebuconazole is a cause for concern. To minimize the risks of obtaining a grain yield with residual quantities, it is possible to use instead of 2,4-D herbicide based on dicamba or sulfonylurea group preparations. Fungicidal protection of crops is most often re- quired from the phase of the output of the flag leaf, and in compliance with this regulation, the risk of contamination of grain with tebuconazole was not noted. In case of need of later application of fungicides it is safer to use for this purpose preparations on the basis of propiconazole.
Keywords: spring wheat, resource-saving technologies, herbicides, fungicides, residual quantities of pesticides in grain.
Influence of fungicides and agrochemicals on yields and quality of spring wheat grain
The biological and economic efficiency of fungicides (Маxim Plus 1.2 l/t, BisolbySun 1 l/t), plant growth regulators (Меlafеn 10 ml/t, Stimmunol 10 ml/t) and humic acid-based fertilizers added with macro- and microelements (Humilux 5 l/t) was studied in the course of pre-sowing spring wheat seed treatment of Buryatskaya ostistaya cultivar in pure form and in tank mixtures. The investigations were conducted in FSBSE «Irkutsk SRIA (Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture)» in 2016-2017. The fungicide Маxim Plus and its tank mixtures with the studied preparations reduced seed infestation down to 6-11% when initial infestation is 70-100%. They also restrained root rot propagation in spring wheat at 2.4-4.6 times than in the control. On the average for two years of the research, with application of tank mixtures Maxim Plus + Stimmunol, Maxim Plus + Меlafеn, Maxim Plus + BisolbySun, Plus + Humilux the yielding capacity exceeded the control by 27.8-34.8%. In case of combined application of chemical treater Maxim Plus with growth regulator Меlafеn and biopreparations BisolbySun and Stimmunol the profitability was 68.3, 88.2 и 92.2% in 2016, correspondingly. In 2017 the use of fungicide Маxim Plus mixed with Меlafеn, Stimmunol and Humilux provided wheat grain production efficiency 36, 71 and 116%, correspondingly. Application of fungicides and agrochemicals positively affected the grain quality. Stimmunol has been specially distinguished: on grain test weight when used in pure form and in tank mixtures with Maxim Plus it is higher than the control by 3.6-3.8%. On grain hardness and wet gluten content Stimmunol exceeded the control by 33.9% and 16.0%, correspondingly.
Keywords: spring wheat, fungicides, plant growth regulators, humic acid-based fertilizer added with macro- and microelements, seed infestation, root rot, yielding capacity, profitability, grain quality.
METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH
Инструмент для проведения исследований по биологии почвы
Soil fertility depends on many factors and, in particular, on biological activity, the indicator of which is cellulose-destroying ability. The existing methodology for its determination is based on placing a flax cloth into the soil for the period of exposure. Proteolytic activity of the soil is determined in a similar way, but photographic paper instead of cloth is placed into the soil. According to these methods the material under investigation is laid into the soil with the help of a shovel. This method is inadmissible in small-scale experiments and in the study of plowless primary tillage. A search for a tool more in line with the tasks of studying biological activity of the soil was carried out. It is considered that Kolesov's sword, used in forestry, is most suitable for this purpose. But it also requires improvement. This tool creates a slot with an uneven vertical wall. In addition, easy immersion of this tool into the soil is provided only on sandy soils. Other more modern tools are also considered. They also have drawbacks. Therefore, a tool is proposed, in the design and manufacturing of which these drawbacks were taken into account. The proposed tool is a sword of a T-shaped cross-section and consists of a handle and a rectangular plate attached to it. On the plate chamfers are made along the lower and lateral edges which ensure easy penetration of the steel plate into the soil to the required depth. The plate carries marks to control the depth of the immersed tool in the soil. The tool is placed vertically on the surface of the soil. When you press the handle with both hands, it goes down to the desired level. At the same time, forward-backward movements are performed simultaneously, which facilitates the immersion of the plate into the soil and increases the size of the slot into which the sample of the cloth or photo paper under study is placed. This tool simplifies and facilitates the execution of the work. It is highly demanded, reliable and durable.
Keywords: cellulose-destroying ability of soil, proteolytic activity, tool, laying samples of cloth into the soil.