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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 13.06.2018
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2018 / Issue 3
Specificity of the fertilizer system in irrigated agriculture
The analysis of the modern approaches to the implementation of the system of fertilizers under irrigation has shown their interaction and interaction, which provide the effect of synergy. Rational methods, terms of application as well as basic rates of fertilizers taking into account the features of nutrition of the root system of plants under irrigation are given in the paper. The efficiency of micronutrients, the necessity of their application, as well as major techniques which provide uniformity of distribution of microelements within the irrigated area are shown. The advantages of the unique opportunities of fertilizers’ application together with irrigation water (fertigation), as well as high technical and economic parameters of the herbigation under sprinkler irrigation are considered. The main features of chemical amelioration on the basis of water-storage-desalinating irrigation which provide prevention and elimination of salinity of irrigated soils, are described. Recommendations on formation of the basic nutrient modes for the leading irrigated crops in the agrophytocoenosis: vegetables, potato, forage and field crop plants were developed. In practice agricultural producers will contribute to the optimization of the system of fertilizer for crop rotations under irrigation, based on specific differences in the nutrition of the irrigated agricultural lands, as well as to the priorities in the area of research on improving the current theories, methods, techniques and technologies.
Keywords: specificity, irrigation, fertilizer, chemical ameliorants, analysis, generalization, recommendations.
Efficiency of hydrogel at fifth year application at ordinary chernozem in conditions of Stavropol region
The results of studies on the effectiveness of the aftereffect of strongly swelling hydrogel on ordinary chernozems of the Central Caucasus are presented. It was found that for the fifth year after application under the influence of the hydrogel there was an increase in reserves of productive moisture in the meter layer of soil depending on its dose, method of soil treatment and phase of development of oilseed radish by 3.3-29.6 mm or 4.3-34.4%, improvement of the structural condition of the soil: the increase in the coefficient of structure from 1.63-1.65 to 2.80-2.95 at SNR = 0.23; and particularly valuable fractions of 0.5-5.0 mm with a 33.6-35.2 to 40.8-40.9% at SNR = 2.79% and 1-3 mm with a 16.8-19.3% to 20.1-21.5% (SNR = 2.79%). For the fifth year after application in doses of 300 and 400 kg/ha the hydrogel had a positive impact on the yield of green mass of oil radish on fertilized background (N60P60K60) and was ineffective without the use of fertilizers. The best results are obtained with the use hydrogel of 400 kg/ha.
Keywords: ordinary chernozem, hydrogel, productive moisture reserves, humus, mobile phosphorus, exchange potassium, yield, oilseed radish.
Perspectives of application of controlled-release fertilizer BASACOTE for growing of planting material in containers
The results of studying the effect of controlled-release fertilizer Basacote 6M in soil composition on the quality of pear seedlings in containers and the yield of marketable products are presented in the article. The soils were characterized by a weak acid reaction. The introduction of Basacote 6M ensured the formation of a higher initial level of mineral nutrition, however, there was no excess of food elements during planting. In conditions of limited capacity of the container and intensive irrigation, leaching of nitrate nitrogen is observed. This leads to a violation of balanced mineral nutrition of plants. The level of mineral nitrogen content when Basacote 6M fertilizer is introduced into the soil is stable and sufficient for plant development. This is reflected in the development of the leaf device. A significant increase in the area of leaves and the content of chlorophyll in them was revealed. Plant survival rate in the variants of the experiments varied from 75 to 95% according to the years of research. A reliable relationship of survival with the application of a controlled-release fertilizer was not revealed. The length of vegetative growth and the diameter of the stem significantly increased with the addition of controlled release fertilizer. Basacote 6M strongly influences the distribution of pear seedlings in height. When fertilizer was introduced into the soil, the yield of commodity seedlings increased from 7,8 to 48,5% in 2016 and from 23,3 to 66,8% in 2017. Fertilizers controlled release Basacote 6M provide a balanced mineral nutrition of the planting material of the pear in containers throughout the growing season. The recommended rate of fertilizer application at the level of 5 g/l of substrate allows increasing the yield of commodity seedlings by 2,9-6,2 times.
Keywords: soilground (mixture), container, controlled-release fertilizer, mineral nutrition, seedlings.
Estimation of systematic application of chemicalization means for winter wheat cultivation
In the long-term field grain-crop rotation on soddy-podzolic loamy soil, it has been established that the systematic use of ground phosphorite and superphosphate against the background of NK with liming with the use of chemical plant protection products ensures a high yield of winter wheat (about 6,0-7,0 t/ha). Both forms of phosphorus fertilizers exhibit almost equal energy and economic efficiency both on acidic unrefined soil and on periodically limed soil.
Keywords: phosphorite, superphosphate, lime, means of plant chemical protection, efficiency, soil, winter wheat.
The substantiation of organic-mineral fertilizer Saprosil application at urban soils
The prospect of applying a new organic-mineral fertilizer Saprosil for cultivating urban soils in the cultivation of lawn grasses is considered. The sorption properties of the organic components of Saprosil sapropel and peat are evaluated with respect to mineral fertilizers. It has been established that colloidal sapropel complexes in the fertilizer fix nutrients on their surface, promoting their effective prolonged use by plants and preventing losses from washing out, improve the agrophysical properties of the soil, which leads to an increase in the phytomass of lawn grasses in the vegetation experience. The protector role of the new fertilizer in relation to heavy metals is shown.
Keywords: peat, sapropel, adsorption, organic-mineral fertilizer, urban soil, lawns, heavy metals.
Spring wheat productivity depending on system of main soil treatment and humic fertilizers in the forest-steppe zone of Volga region
In stationary field experiment, the efficiency of various systems of fallow soil cultivation and humic fertilizers was evaluated in the cultivation of spring wheat. Two-phase dumping of soil, including post-harvest disking and plowing, optimized the soil density and the supply of productive moisture in a meter layer. Minimal small primary tillage reduced the productivity of spring wheat by 0.16, two-phase unedged wheat – 0.12 t/ha. Gumostim humic fertilizer exerted a greater influence on the growth, development and formation of spring wheat yield. Presowing treatment of seeds with this fertilizer contributed to an increase in yield by 0.49-0.52 t/ha. Foliar treatment of crops in the tillering phase provided an increase in yield by 0.21-0.24 t/ha. Joint processing of seeds and vegetating plants increased yield by 0.55-0.58 t/ha. The yield of culture in variants with the use of humic fertilizer of potassium humate was at the level of control, rendering insignificant influence on all variants of the experiment.
Keywords: spring wheat, soil treatment system, humic fertilizers, soil density, supply of productive moisture, elements of crop structure, yield.
The effect of long-term use of fertilizers on crop yields and changes in the properties of permafrost meadow-chernozem soil
Here we studied the effect of long-term use of organic and mineral fertilizers on productivity and plant species composition of natural steppe meadow phytocoenosis. We also investigated changes in physical, chemical and agrochemical parameters of infertile meadow-chernozem permafrost soil formed in the conditions of cryo-arid climate of central Yakutia. All fertilized variants of the experiment demonstrated 1.5-2.6 fold increase in the average yield of plants during the rotation period of 2013-2016. The average maximum yield of hay at the steppe meadow was 15.7-16.1 centners/ha. In addition, an increase in fertility was observed in all fertilized variants of the experiment, which was based on the increase in humus content (maximum up to 4.2-4.3%), the amount of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (up to 17-21 and 3-8 mg/kg), the amount of mobile phosphorus and available potassium (up to 177-245 and 301-337 mg/kg) and also the content of silt and clay particles (up to 6.8-7.0% and 15.6-15.7%). It was also demonstrated, that long-term use of fertilizers caused changes in species composition of vegetation of the steppe meadow. In this case, as a rule, the ratio of cereals increases due to the decrease of herbs and legumes in herbaceous vegetation.
Keywords: permafrost soil, fertilizers, property change, steppe meadow, yield, plant species composition.
Influence of agrotechnical factors on parameters of nitrification possibility of typical chernozem
The results of the dynamics of the nitrifying ability of a typical chernozem after passing through five rotations on different types of crop rotations, various methods of basic soil cultivation, and various levels of fertilization are presented. The greatest potential in the production of nitrates had variants with minimal soil cultivation at all levels of application of organic and mineral fertilizers irrespective of crop rotation. Among the crop rotations, the highest values were obtained in the crop rotation with perennial and annual legumes.
Keywords: crop rotation, tillage, typical chernozem, fertilizers, nitrifying ability, verification.
Optimization of organic matter content and composition in typical chernozem
The research on the influence of by-product of grain crops and manure on organic matter content depending on the terms and depth of soil sampling was carried out on typical medium humic heavy loamy chernozem on carbonate loess loam of the experimental farm of All-Russia Research Institute of Arable Farming and Soil Erosion Control. The results of the experiment showed that irrespective of the factors of the study (terms and sampling depth) for humus content there is a tendency of its increase in the treatment with surface incorporation of straw, but as for the increase of labile humus substances in comparison with the straw application background the advantage remained with the treatment of manure application. That confirms their equivalence as organic fertilizers. According to the data of the variance analysis of the experiment with organic fertilizers it was established that maximum contribution to the varying of labile humus substances in the soil was made by sampling terms, i.e. 46%. The application of by-product directly in the field with its surface composting is the most available and the cheapest method of regular return of full-value fresh organic matter to the soil. The proposed method of organic fertilizer application allows to use effectively the available anthropogenic resource and soil fertility potential to optimize soil organic matter content, increase land productivity and sustainable production of agricultural product.
Keywords: humus, labile humus substances, manure, straw of grain crops.
Dynamics of organic matter content in light-grey forest soil in dependence of different fallows
The results of studies on the effect and aftereffect of green manure and break crops on organic content of the light-gray forest soil are presented. Two-factor experience was conducted in 1999 on the field of Nizhny Novgorod Research Institute of agriculture in four replications. The article presents the data for the fourth rotation of crop rotation (2011-2014). It is established that the use of perennial lupine as green manure crops increases the amount of labile organic matter in the soil by 0.08C% compared to sowing winter wheat on a bare fallow. The plowing green manure mass of perennial lupine and red clover to increase the humus content in the soil under the following crops compared to bare fallow without manure and leads to a positive balance, that contributes to the preservation of light-gray forest soil fertility.
Keywords: fallows (green manure, cropped, bare), break crop, labile organic matter, humus, humus balance.
Influence of the slopes exposition and degree of the erosion on some indicators of chernozem fertility in forest-steppe zone
Researches were conducted in a forest-steppe zone of the Belgorod region. The soil cover has been presented by chernozems typical and chernozem leached. The purpose of researches consisted in studying of influence of an exposition of slopes and degree of a washout of arable soils at a size рН and the content of organic substance. It is established that at by chernozems typical and chernozem leached with increase in degree of erosion it is the strongest, in comparison with watersheds, the content of organic substance on slopes of warm expositions decreases, it is slightly less – on slopes neutral and even less – on slopes of cold expositions. At the same time, values of the sizes pHKCl and pHH2O with increase in degree of an erosion more increase on slopes of warm expositions, and in smaller – on neutral and especially cold slopes.
Keywords: chernozem, erosion, slope, washout of the soil, slope exposition, organic matter, acidity.
PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND MICROFERTILIZERS
Yield wheat cultivation and quality of various wheat depending on seed pregnancy treatment complex microfertilizers and bacterial preparations
The effect of presowing treatment of seeds of spring wheat varieties Tulaykovskaya 108, Kinelskaya 59 and Darya with water-soluble complex fertilizers with microelements in chelate form and bacterial preparations on yield and grain quality was studied. It is shown that the studied preparations on chernozem leached with heavy loam were stimulated the growth and development of plants. The highest productivity of photosynthesis of spring wheat was noted with the use of the preparation Tsitovit: leaf area 44.9 thousand m2/ha, FP – 0.52 million m2/ha per day; ChPF – 6.89 g/m2 per day. The yield of spring wheat grains on the average for three years was T47 at a grade of T47 – 3.47 t/ha, Kinelskaya 59-3.32 t/ha, and Daria – 3.10 t/ha. The highest grain yield of 4.14 t/ha was obtained by processing the seeds of spring wheat of Tulaykovskaya 108 with Cytovit. The reliable yield increase in relation to the control was 0.67 t/ha (19.3%), the protein content increased by 3.2%, gluten – by 3.1%.
Keywords: spring wheat, variety, complex fertilizers with microelements in chelate form, bacterial preparations, photosynthetic parameters, structure, yield and quality.
Development of regulations for the use of Regalis regulator in intensive apple tree plantations
In the Krasnodar Territory, the regal growth regulator has been effectively used in intensive apple tree plantations. The greatest effect in restraining the growth of extension shoots was established with a three-fold treatment of apple plants with Regalis, the smallest average size of shoots continued and the formation of a compact crown of trees. In studying the physiological and biochemical parameters of apple trees, it was found that double treatment promoted a more balanced intensity of metabolic processes and increased resistance to unfavorable environmental factors, and the application of triple treatment led to an almost complete cessation of growth processes of trees after the phase. The size of the fetus was 3-4 cm in diameter «Walnut». An increase in the yield of apple fruits by 3.2-13.9 t/ha was established with the use of two-fold and three-fold treatments with Regalis regulator in comparison with the control. A single application of the drug proved to be ineffective both to contain growth processes and to increase yields of apple tree plantations.
Keywords: apple tree, growth regulator Regalis, growth processes, biochemical indicators, productivity of fruits, quality of fruits.
The efficiency of processing by root formers the planting material of the roseroot (Rhodiola rosea L.)
Golden root (Rhodiola rosea) is of practical interest for use in drugs that increase the resistance of the human body to adverse effects. For creation the industrial plantations of this culture, it is necessary to develop a technology for its reproduction, to study the issues of increasing the bio-productivity. As a result of introduction studies, it was found that the seed reproduction of the crop in the open ground is not promising, since the seeds of golden root are difficult to grow and slowly growing. In this regard, it is important to conduct research on alternative methods of reproduction (seedling and vegetative), on ways to enhance growth processes through exogenous use of growth regulators. There are the results of studies on the effect of exogenous use of bioregulators of growth (Epin-extra, Zircon, Ribav-extra) and root formers (Kornevin and DvaU) on roseroot plants roseroot 1 and 2 years of vegetation presented. The efficiency of processing by root formers (Kornevin and DvaU) on planting material for growth, development and yield of the crop has been determined. There peculiarities of vegetative and seedling methods of reproduction of roseroot in conditions of non-Chernozem zone of the Russian Federation have been shown. The experimental findings show that the treatment of golden root seeds with pink growth bioregulators Epin-extra, Zircon and Ribav-extra promotes the increase of germination energy and the production of high quality seedlings. The most rational method of reproduction is the vegetative method, which uses parts of the rhizomes with roots and above-ground shoots of golden root. The root former DvaU provided almost 100% plant survival and contributed to the strengthening of growth processes in the initial periods of plant growth of golden root. The use of growth regulators Epin-extra and Ribav-extra ensured the strengthening of the growth processes of plants of golden root.
Keywords: Rhodiola rosea L., seedlings, root growers, growth bioregulators.
Plant growth regulator Symbionta as factor for crops yield increase
In the work, a growth regulator, the preparation Symbionta, obtained from the roots of ginseng, developed and patented by closed joint-stock company «Sel'skhopolimer». The use of the growth regulator Symbionta led to an increase in the yield of the studied agricultural crops: cabbage variety Slava 231 by 11-13%; cucumber variety Nezhinsky by 17% in greenhouse and 32% in the field; buckwheat variety Ballad by 10-13% and sugar beet variety RMS-46 by 12-23%. The increase in the productivity of pepper variety Bodrost was 31% after using the Symbionta.
Keywords: growth regulators, presowing seed treatment, cabbage, cucumber, pepper, buckwheat, productivity.
MEMORABLE DATES OF AGROCHEMISTRY
To 175th anniversary of K.A. Timiryazev
Article is devoted the founder of plant physiology to professor Kliment Arkadyevich Timiryazev. Formation of outstanding Russian scientific as researcher and the teacher is shown. K.A. Timiryazev's contribution to development of agrochemistry and agriculture of our country is described. Article is written in connection with 175-year-old anniversary to K.A. Timiryazev.
Keywords: scientist, science, practice, 175th anniversary.
METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH
Particulars of the use of multiple regression equations for forecast of wet gluten content in wheat grain.
Discusses the possibility and particulars the use of regression equations reflecting the dependence of the content of wet gluten of protein content (Ntotal х 5,7) and 1000-grain weight, to forecast its (wet gluten) content in wheat. The algorithm and validation results the predictive possibility of the equations on independent data. For a more precise definition of the indicative content (forecast) of wet gluten (Y, %) in wheat grain, you should use the equation from which the dependence of its content of protein content (РС, %) and 1000-grain weight (TGW, g) characterized by non-linear relationships: Y = –41,928 + 0,081PC2 + 2,548TGW – 0,028TGW2. In the equation, all variables (protein content, wet gluten content and 1000-grain weight) given at 12% moisture content. If the protein content and (or) 1000-grain weight and wet gluten calculated on the dry matter, they are recalculated using a factor of 0.88.
Keywords: wet gluten, multiple regression analysis, forecast of wet gluten content.