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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.

Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева

Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.

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Подписано в печать: 04.12.2017
Формат 60х90/8.

Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.

ACTUAL TOPICS

Yield of spring wheat and profitability of fertilizers

The calculation of the recoupment of organic and mineral fertilizers relative to the yield of spring wheat according to statistical materials of the Republic of Tatarstan for 1964-2016 is presented. With the joint use of ferti- lizers, their organic counterparts have a payback of 13.33-18.75 kg of grain, mineral – 10.62-15.38 kg, and the amount of NPK varies from 5.34 to 7.02 kg of grain per 1 kg of fertilizers.

Keywords: fertilizers, profitability, yield of spring wheat.


Prospects of cultivation of northern ecotype soy grades in conditions of Kostroma region

The analysis on the key agrochemical indicators of arable soils of the Kostroma region for scoping of perspective sites with optimum indicators for cultivation of grades of soy of northern ecotype is provided. Need of use of boron and molybdenum at cultivation of this because of deficiency of maintenance of the specified minerals in cespitose and podzolic soils. Recommendations for the considered grades which are most fully realizing the potential in agroclimatic conditions of the Northwest region with productivity within 2-3 t/ha with high coefficient of their adaptation and saving high-quality characteristics of protein content and fat in seeds are made.

Keywords: soy of northern ecotype, soddy-podzolic soil, agrochemical indicators, boron, molybdenum, growth regulators, Kostroma region.


AGROECOLOGY

Features of heavy metals distribution in soils of agricultural lands in exposure zone of Lipetsk industrial agglomeration

The regularities of distribution of heavy metals in the snow cover and soils of agricultural lands of the impact zone of enterprises of the Lipetsk industrial agglomeration were studied. It is established that the main fallout occurs at a distance of 2-3 km from industrial enterprises. The content of heavy metals in the soil varies significantly depending on the source of pollution, the direction and nature of the underlying surface. Most of the heavy metals are concentrated in soil layers 0-2 and 2-5 cm, the content of which is 1.2-8.5 times higher than in the parent rock.

Keywords: heavy metals, soil samples, snow cover, atmospheric deposition, industrial enterprises, Lipetsk region.


Regularities of region at hayfield ecosystems and efficiency of protective measures in conditions of radioactive pollution

The regularities of the behavior of artificial radionuclides (global and Chernobyl fallout) in meadow ecosystems of the Moscow Region, their migration along food chains, and the effectiveness of agrotechnical and agrochemical protective measures in the conditions of radioactive contamination are considered. The multiplicity of the decline in the annual intake of 137Cs into the human diet due to consumption of livestock products obtained in meadows after surface and radical improvement was 1.7 and 3.0 times, respectively. The highest rates of reduction in the radionuclide content in the human diet (2.2 at surface and 8.0 times at root) are achieved when wetland meadows are replanted with organogenic soils.

Keywords: radionuclides, global deposition, pollution, soil, plants, migration, meadow ecosystems, Moscow region.


Returning of farmlands previously withdrawn from agriculture due to Chernobyl NPP accident back to it’s agricultural use in Belarus

Proposes crop rotation schemes developed based on multi-year experiments studying cultivation of agricultural crops on soddy-podzolic soils withdrawn from agricultural use due to their radiation hazard in the first years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. It was established that in order to return previously withdrawn lands back to their agricultural use it should be mandatory to implement a complex of agrochemical and agrotechnical protective measures (e.g. lime treatment, application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, selection of crops with low radionuclide uptake characteristics). In view of the high levels of accumulated radionuclides (90Sr in particular), the use of agricultural products from such lands should be restricted (it should be used exclusively for feeding purposes as forage or be further processed for technical purposes).

Keywords: radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr, soddy-podzolic soils, crop rotation, radiation hazard, Belarus Republic.


Estimation of increased dozes of poultry manure and vermicomposts on agrochernozem fertility and yield of wheat

The problem of utilization of industrial poultry wastes is one of the most urgent environmental problems, as the accumulation of poultry manure causes pollution of the environment and raises the alarm of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and environmental authorities. The effect of increased doses of bird droppings and vermicompost on agrochemical indicators of agrochernozem and wheat yield was studied in the field stationary experiment (2012-2014) in the conditions of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe. A decrease of their quantity is connected with transformational processes in soil and their expenditure for the purpose of forming wheat yield. A maximum quantity of easily hydrolyzable nitrogen in fallow soil accumulates under the influence of vermicompost and is spent in wheat agrocoenosis. All the organic fertilizers under study ensure a positive phosphorus balance, and double and triple doses of fertilizers do the same with regard to nitrogen. The study shows the dependence of wheat yield on total and easily hydrolyzable nitrogen in soil, which allows us to make a high-precision prediction of wheat yield.

Keywords: agrochernozem, agrochemical properties, bird droppings, vermicompost, wheat, yield.


Influence of complex fertilizer Suprodit-M on yield and quality of agricultural crops at the application of sewage sludges

The paper presents the dates of studies on the effect of a new complex fertilizer SUPRODIT-M with a ratio of N:P:K = 1:1.1:1.6, having the properties of a sorbent containing humates of potassium and enriched with Mg, B, Mo, on the productivity of spring barley and oat, grain quality and content of the heavy metals (HM) when using dehydrated sewage sludge (DSS) on soddy-podzolic sandy soil. It is established that the combined use of SUPRODIT-M and DSS increases the grain yield by 1.5 times, and oats – in 3.8 times in comparison with the control. Making DSS in the dose of 10 t/ha for barley allows you to get a grain of barley with the contents of the HM corresponding to sanitary norms 2010. Using of DSS in the cultivation of oats ensures the production of grain only for forage. In a joint soil SUPRODIT-M and DSS the HM content in barley grain reduced 1.1-1.4 times, and in grain of oats – 1.4-2.1 times in comparison with the introduction of some DSS.

Keywords: SUPRODIT-M, sewage sludge, soddy-podzolic soil, barley, oats, productivity, heavy metals, grain quality, efficiency.


BIOPREPARATIONS AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

Influence of biologically active growth regulating compositions on yield and quality of winter garlic

The results of presowing treatment of air bulbs and two-fold treatment of garlic plants during vegetation with growth regulating substances are presented. An increase in the mass of a single-tooth bulb was found to be 1.2-1.8 times, an increase in yield by 13-43%, a decrease in the concentration of lead and cadmium by more than 2 times, copper and zinc by more than 20%, and an increase in the content of polysaccharides to 70,6% and a decrease in the infection of single-tooth bulbs with bacterial diseases. The most promising compositions are Germatranol + Krezacin + Asyak in a concentration of 0.15 g/l and Kufecin + Energia-M in a concentration of 0.1 g/l.

Keywords: biologically active substances, growth regulating compositions, garlic, bulbs, yield.


The study of the action of potassium humate in combination with mineral fertilizers on carrot roots

There has been studied the effect of the potassium humate – and organomineral drug based on humic acids in combination with fertilizers on carrot. Foliar application of potassium humate in doses (8-20 kg/ha) against a background of azofoska is recommended to be carried out in the phases of development of the rosette and the formation of corpuscles. The share of the yield increase due to the potassium humate obtained from 6 to 23%. The potassium humate not only improves the quality of table roots, but also the preservation of production.

Keywords: chestnut sandy loamy soil, plant growth regulators, potassium humate, fertilizers, carrots, yield, quality.


Influence of soil-climatic conditions on efficiency of biopreparations and nitrogen fertilizers for barley cultivation

It was discovered that there’s a connection between the agrochemical properties of sod-podzolic soil, weather conditions of the growing season and the efficiency of biopreparations on spring barley. The study is based on the results of 43 field experiments. The mathematical model of the low-order of the forecast increase of the spring barley’s grain yield during the process of the microbial preparations’ inoculation based on associative rhizosphere diazotrophs has been developed. The use of this model will allow to identify the application efficiency of biologics, depending on the availability of soil humus, the reaction of the soil solution and meteorological conditions during the vegetation period. It has been established that the greatest spring barley’s grain yield increase from the biopreparations’ inoculation on the background of PK-fertilizer can be obtained when the humus content is equal 2.5-2.7%, the neutral soil environment (pHKCl 6.1-6.7) and hydrothermal coefficient of Selyaninov (SCC) in May-June period 1.3-1.8.

Keywords: biopreparations, associative rhizosphere microorganisms, yield, spring barley, humus, the soil environment’s reaction, hydrothermal coefficient of Selyaninov (SCC).


Influence of drugs with microelements on morphobiometrical indicators and yield of maize

The influence of foliar treatment crops of early maturing maize hybrid organic-mineral fertilizers with microelements and water-soluble complex fertilizers with microelements in chelate form on morphobiological parameters and yield of green mass. It is shown that on leached heavy loam black soil of the studied drugs stimulated the linear growth of plants and the formation of ears of corn. The largest increase of generative organs obtained from the use of organic and water soluble complex fertilizers with microelements on the background of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers under cultivation, number of cobs increased by 15.5-27.2% of. It is established that the highest yield of phytomass obtained from the processing of plants Cytovit, EkoFus and Humate+7: increase was 3.4 to 7.3 t/ha or 9.9-17.7%. The dry matter yield the best was these same options, and the increase in dry biomass was 10.8-28.3%.

Keywords: maize, fertilizer, organic fertilizer, integrated water-soluble fertilizer, trace elements, biometrics, productivity.


Application of plant growth regulators on soya bean crops

There is shown the influence of foliar treatments with plant growth regulators on yield and quality of soybean on mineral and organic backgrounds. Application of plant growth regulators and humic fertilizers in the technology of soya bean cultivation led to increase in grain yield by 20-50% due to the large foliage, strong bushes, number of pods and grain in them, and also to increase grain protein by 4-5% body fat to 7-8%, fiber 10-12%, sugar by 6-9% and starch in 11-19% of dry weight. The highest grain yield of soya bean and its quality was observed with the two single treatments of plants during vegetation period with silicon-organic preparation Energy-M in a dose of 15 g/ha on mineral nutrition background – 1,45 t/ha of organic and in – 1,79 t/ha. Humic fertilizers also contributed to the increase in grain yield of soya by 15-25% and improved product quality compared to soil fertility.

Keywords: plant growth regulators, humic fertilizer, silicone-organic preparation Energy-M, yield, quality of soybean.


Hypothesis of humic substances physiological activity demonstration in aspect of humification process

A hypothesis is presented explaining the manifestation of the physiological activity of the various humic substances formed during the transformation of organic matter into humus. The structural and physiological similarity of different fragments of humic substances with natural phytohormones, which have as their basis a single aromatic matrix, originating from the most resistant to decomposition of lignified plant remains, is analyzed. It is shown that the transformation of organic matter into humus can be conditionally divided into three stages. At the first stage, during the oxidation-hydrolytic transformation, lignin structures are aromatized, carboxylated and demethoxylated, acquiring the properties of analogues of humic acids. The resulting lignohumic acids (LGA) are structurally and physiologically similar to natural gibberellins. At the second stage, when nitrogen is included, indole type compounds are formed in the structure of LGA – they are close to natural auxins. The final stage is characterized by saturation of the aromatic matrix with nitrogen, while nitrogen is not only included in the periphery, but is also built into the heterocycle, forming structures close to natural cytokinins.

Keywords: organic matter, transformation, physiological activity, humic substances.


INVESTIGATION METHODS

Experience of application of plant tissues electrical conductivity method for determination of viability of winter crops

In a series of experiments were set critical temperature zoned in the Kaliningrad region varieties of winter oilseed rape and winter wheat. Studied conductometric rapid method for assessing the survival of crops of these crops. A gradation relative conductivity to evaluate the viability of winter crops. Based on the results, it is possible to plan organizational and economic measures to eliminate the consequences of plant death and damage.

Keywords: winter rape, winter wheat, frost resistance, plant tissues electrical conductivity method.


FERTILIZER SYSTEMS AND SOIL TREATMENT

Efficiency of various ways of mineral fertilizers seal into soil in conditions of Central chernozem region

Three years' researches showed that when forming efficiency of sugar beet batteries differently influenced this indicator: the greatest importance was shown by nitrogen, then phosphorus and potassium, and in case of superficial seal of mineral fertilizers since fall phosphorus and potassium didn't provide reliable increases of crops. The maximum exit of sugar from unit of area was provided by pair combinations with nitrogen (6.28 t/ha), and also threefold fertilizer (6.44-6.64 t/ha). As for types a basis of processing of the soil, on option without fertilizers more big harvest (33.2 t/ha) crop is received on plowing, though distinctions on productivity don't go beyond the 95% level of probability. Distinctions in productivity on full fertilizer are reliable on the significance value accepted in biological researches, the greatest efficiency (42.3 t/ha) was provided by introduction of mineral fertilizers under a plow. On average in three years the best economic results were provided by a method of calculation of doses of fertilizers on a crop increase.

Keywords: mineral fertilizers, plowing, unedged loosening, minimum treatment, sugar beet, yield.


Content of main nutrients in ordinary chernozem and productivity of field crops in crop rotations at Middle Transvolga area

The importance of long-term use of mineral fertilizers, plant residues, soil treatment systems in the accumulation of basic nutrients in ordinary chernozems of the Middle Transvolga, and the high efficiency of the application of mineral fertilizers in the transition to savings systems for their use has been established. The introduction of siderates and perennial grasses into crop rotation, as well as the use of straw as fertilizers, increases the content of nitrate nitrogen by 32-35%, the mobile phosphate by 7.0-7.6% and stabilizes the potassium regime in comparison with the cereal crop rotation. This makes it possible to increase the payback of fertilizers, which must be taken into account when developing systems for the reproduction of soil fertility. With the long-term application of modern technological systems for tillage and sowing, the supply of soils with nitrogen is stabilized, the content of mobile phosphates in it increases by 14.1-17.8%, the exchangeable potassium content by 14.9-22.7%. The highest productivity of crop rotation (1.82 tons of feed units/ha) was established with differentiated tillage, which is 2.8- 5.2% higher than other options.

Keywords: chernozem, mobile compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, crop rotation, fertilizer, processing system, yield.


Influence of long-term application of fertilizer systems on balance of nutrients in grain-row crop rotation

In long-term field experiment the influence of mineral, organic and organic-mineral fertilization systems on the productivity of grain-crop rotation and the nutrition balance. The efficiency of organic-mineral system of fertilizers (10 t/ha of manure + N50P25K60) was higher, it provided a productive grain crop rotation 10th rotation of 34.5 C grain unit/ha with a payback of 1 kg NPK of 7.4 kg of grain units, when the intensity balance for nitrogen 230%, phosphorus – 185 and potassium 214%.

Keywords: fertilizer system, soddy-podzolic soil, crop rotation, balance, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, productivity.