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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 08.04.2016
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2016 / Issue 2
CHERNOBYL – 30 YEARS
The road is long 30 years: from Chernobyl to Fukushima
Protective and rehabilitation countermeasures in agriculture: to the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl NPP accident
The analysis of the protective and rehabilitation countermeasures performed from 1986 to 2015 in crop, livestock and feed production on territories of the Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula and Oryol regions affected from the Chernobyl accident, is submitted. Periodization of the application of protective measures in agriculture at different stages of liquidation of consequences of the accident is carried out. High efficiency of rehabilitation measures in agriculture is shown.
Keywords: Chernobyl NPP accident, agricultural, protective and rehabilitation countermeasures
Radioecological aspects of mineral fertilizers application at radioactively contaminated feeding fields
In the context of the Bryansk (Russia) and Gomel (Belarus) regions from 1994 to 2012 studied the efficacy of mineral fertilizers in the rehabilitation of natural grassland on different backgrounds tillage to increase yield and reduce income 137Cs from the soil in the hay. It was found that the climate and culture of agriculture have a direct effect on productivity and thus on the biological dilution of 137Cs in the stern. The use of technical measures to improve forage lands, perennial grasses allows better use of fertilizers and the natural fertility of the soil. Nitrogen fertilizers are the main source increasing productivity phytocoenosis considered, with forages doesn’t correspond to the normative indicators. Potash fertilizers negate the nitrogen effect while identifying opportunities to obtain high and stable yields of hay responsible veterinary requirements. Superficial and radical improvement of forage land without fertilizer use does not ensure high yields and quality of forages. Considering hay 137Cs transition in animal products, it should be noted that for meat, regulatory compliance, necessary to use no more than 5 kg of hay per day and apply a complete fertilizer in the cultivation of perennial grasses for hay in N90Р60К150 dose. The main factor reducing 137Cs transition is the use of potash fertilizers that reduce radiation exposure to farm animals. Agrotechnical measures provides low influence on 137Cs transition from soil to plants.
Keywords: mineral fertilizers, natural feeding fields, 137Cs, hay, milk, meat, doze.
Cultivation of perennial bean-cereal grass mixtures on peat soils contaminated by radionuclides
The following article presents the results of stationary field research held in the period of 2011-2014. Optimum variants of cultivation were selected based on the following factors: the yield level, components of herbal mixtures with other perennial grasses, radionuclide uptake level. The study established that the highest yields with the smallest 137Cs and 90Sr uptake were observed in non-nitrogenous background with background fertilization P60K240 applied. It is also worth mentioning that nitrogen fertilizers should be applied during the first years of plant life and must not exceed 30 kg/ha.
Keywords: radionuclides, lowland peat soils, soil agrochemical parameters, cereal and legume grass mixtures.
Influence of increasing dozes of potassium fertilizers on yield and accumulation of 137Cs by agricultural crops
The results obtained on the effect of increasing doses of potassium fertilizers on the yield and the accumulation of 137Cs by cereals and fodder crops. Studies have shown that for the studied crops on the different backgrounds of organic fertility dose of potassium can’t be the same, because the potassium in a dose of 150 kg/ha (compared to 40 t/ha manure) reduced the 137Cs content in the beet roots by 2.7 times, the control background in the same embodiment by 1.8 times. For standard «pure» green mass of lupine optimal doses of potassium fertilizers – 90-120 kg/ha to produce rye grain containing 137Cs below the acceptable level necessary to make potash at least 90 kg/ha, further increasing potassium doses a significant impact on accumulation of radionuclides is not provided.
Keywords: yield, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, 137Cs accumulation, beat, barley, oat, lupine, winter rye.
Computer code for efficiency assessment of rehabilitation actions on radioactively contaminated agricultural lands
Program code for decision-making support on plant cultivation management on radioactively contaminated areas was developed. The program is designed for assessment of the efficiency of actions that provide the reduction of radionuclide accumulation in crop products. The assessment is made on basis of a set of radiological and economic criteria. The results of calculations for test farmstead situated on the territory of Bryansk region contaminated after the Chernobyl accident are given.
Keywords: Chernobyl accident, radioactive contamination, agricultural lands, rehabilitation actions, computer code.
Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation in agricultural complex of Tula region
30 years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, as a result of which the radioactive contamination struck parts of the Tula region. Over the years, we developed a system of radiation-ecological rehabilitation of polluted agricultural land, including organizational, agrotechnical and agrochemical measures that provide multiple reduction of radionuclides in agricultural products. Installed dose of radionuclides and size of contaminated territories, the criteria and levels of contaminated soils. On 11 soil profiles have been observing the vertical migration of cesium.
Keywords: radiation pollution, gamma-background, production quality, rehabilitation activity, Tula region.
Radiological control of agricultural lands in Kaluga region polluted in case of Chernobyl accident
The generalized data of radiation monitoring of agricultural land in Kaluga region for 30 years after the Chernobyl accident. The detailed description of the rehabilitation activities undertaken in the three most polluted districts. The problems associated with the conduct of agricultural production in areas affected by radioactive pollution as a result of the Chernobyl disaster are still relevant in the remote period after the time of the accident. State Center for Agrochemistry and Radiology «Kaluzhskiy» constantly conducts radiation monitoring of agricultural land of the Kaluga region.
Keywords: radioactive pollution, radiation monitoring, radiocesium, rehabilitation measures.
Russia Ural region is one of the ecologically unfavorable, including, and radiation environment that has developed in connection with the long-term activity of the «Mayak». The article analyzes the current state of the radiation situation and recommendations on agricultural production.
Keywords: soil, radioactive pollution, ecological state, agriculture, Chelyabinsk region.
Condition of pastures of the Kalmyk region
The article is devoted to the present state of soil fertility of pastures and their degradation problem in the Republic of Kalmykia. Presented and analyzed the results examination agrochemical of soils rangeland Republic. In the course of the agrochemical examination of rangeland of the republic, are revealed of pasture area of with easy and clayey granulometric structure, inadequate security by organic matter, mobile phosphorus, trace elements, unfavorable majority of plant and highly alkaline alkaline environments. Shows the necessity conducting of the soil, agrochemical, geobotanical of surveys and of use of remote sensing of satellite imagery of pasture.
Keywords: pasture, soil and agrochemical inspection, pasture digression of, phytomelioration, pasture rotation, remote sensing.
Application of Azorizin biopreparation – effective measurement for increase of barley productivity and harvest quality
Results of biopreparation Azorizin influence on yield and quality of barley grain at different backgrounds of mineral nutrition are presented. Established that barley seeds inoculation by biopreparation provided positive nitrogen concentration in plants for 5-10%. Azorizin use increased grain yield for 0.33-0.39 t/ha (14-17%). Tendency of wet albumin content increase (0,7-0,8%) in barley grain has been determined at all fertilizing backgrounds. Profitability of mineral fertilizers increases by yield addition from 1.42 to 8.93 kg/kg due to biopreparation use. Efficiency of biopreparation increases also at primary application of N30.
Keywords: Azorizin, yield, barley, fertilizers, profitability, quality of grain and straw, nutrients.