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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 13.11.2015
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2015 / Issue 6
Influence of basic soil treatment minimization on physical-chemical properties of leached chernozem
Foreign and domestic experience allows to relatively articulate the basic soil requirements where it’s possible and feasible, to minimize basic soil treatment. The data of studies on the minimization of basic soil treatment, application of fertilizer system in order to develop methods of spring wheat yield increasing, preservation and reproduction of soil fertility of a leached chernozem in Tatarstan Republic are presented. At two backgrounds of fertilizer system (mineral fertilizer system and organic-mineral fertilizer system) in crop rotation was studied following basic soil treatment: 1) annual moldboard plowing (control) by 25 cm; 2) moldboard plowing followed by treatment with an annual fine of 10-12 cm; 3) blade loosening at 32 cm, followed by treatment with an annual fine of 10-12 cm; 4) tier plowing at 25 cm, followed by treatment with an annual fine of 10-12 cm; 5) chisel tillage at 40 cm, followed by treatment with an annual fine of 10-12 cm. Mineral fertilizers in the system variant with bunk plowing yield of spring wheat was 2.3 t/ha, with a chisel – 2.1 t/ha. Application of organic-mineral system in comparison with mineral system contributed to higher yields of spring wheat on options to 0.19-0.35 t/ha. It was found that the bunk and chisel treatment combined with subsequent fine processing and the application of organic-mineral fertilizer system significantly increases the yield of spring wheat (0.64 and 0.49 t/ha) in comparison with the traditional annual moldboard plowing. Minimization of basic soil treatment for spring wheat cultivation has provided cost savings of main products compared with conventional moldboard plowing at 10-12%, increase of productivity by 15-18%, increase in net income from 1 hectare of 12-15% and profitability by 20-22%.
Keywords: basic soil treatment, minimization, fertilizer system, physical-chemical soil characteristics, spring wheat, productivity, profitability.
Influence of cereal and legume straw on carbon content, agrochemical properties and nutrient balance in soddy-podzolic soil
Involvement of natural biogeocoenosis in agricultural production accompanied by the rupture of nutrients cycle due to the disposal of the harvest not only the primary but also the incidental production. The decline of organic matter flow entering the soil is the reason for the humus stocks reduction. Therefore necessary to define the effect of cereals and legumes straw with repeated her introduction during 2 cycles in 5 fields grain-row crop rotation (winter wheat, lupine, potatoes, barley, annual grasses) on the organic carbon content and balance of nutrients in sandy soddy-podzolic soil. Long-term field experiment of All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute for Organic Fertilizers and Peat (Vladimir region) has following experience treatments: 1. No fertilizers. 2. N54P51K57 (on average per year); 3. N54P51K57 + straw (winter wheat, lupine, barley) – total 18 t/ha; 4. Straw (winter wheat, lupine, barley) – total 18 t/ha. During 2 cycles in grain-row crop rotation with straw introduced about 7000 kg of organic carbon, which amounted to 35% of its initial reserves in the soil. In treatments with dose of straw (18 t/ha) against the background of mineral fertilizers established significant increase of organic carbon content at 0.065% in arable soil layer, which corresponds to 1950 kg of organic carbon per 1 ha. Use of total volume of post-harvest residues of grain and leguminous crops as fertilizer provides r epeated involvement in the biochemical nutrients cycling: 148 kg nitrogen, 59 kg phosphorus and 198 kg of potassium or 21-29, 24-31, 39-52% of the total removal of the harvest, and about 7 tons of organic carbon. Threefold introduction of straw whole grains and legumes crop rotation was accompanied by the increase of available potassium content (to the end of the 2 cycles in grain-row crop rotation at 21-22 mg/kg in compare to the initial), has allowed to achieve positive nitrogen balance values with the intensity of 104%, potassium – with the intensity of 153%.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, straw of cereals and legumes, organic matter, agrochemical properties, balance of nutrients.
Study of main soil treatment types and fertilizers for spring wheat cultivation
In modern conditions to improve the efficiency of soil fertility, improve its agrophysical and agrobiological properties necessary scientifically-based tillage systems in combination with the right crop rotation and system of fertilization. Carried out in Tatarstan republic study on the various methods of basic soil cultivation and supply of different nutrient backgrounds revealed a positive effect of chopped straw and green manure use after subsurface loosening. Field studies conducted in 2012-2014 at leached chernozem soil in Zakamsk experimental breeding station Aksubaevsky area. The object of research was zoned variety of spring wheat Ester. It is established that the cultivation of spring wheat economically and energetically effective when making N60P60K60 together with chopped straw and predecessor as green manure after subsurface loosening. This net income was 2369.6 rubles/ha and the level of profitability – 34.3%.
Keywords: soil treatment, fertilizer, spring wheat, green manure, straw, yield.
Effect of long-term fertilizer application on nutrient balance in soil
In the long-term stationary experiment studied the influence of fertilizer systems on agrochemical properties of soddy-podzolic loamy soil and productivity of crop rotation. Balance of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were calculated. It was shown that long-term use of organic-mineral and calcareous-organic-mineral fertilizer systems provides increase of mobile phosphorus (395-418 mg/kg), mobile potassium (165-175 mg/kg) and humus (2.78- 2.87 t/ha) content, slows down the process of soil acidification, resulting in increased productivity of crop rotation. The use of quality manure in the fertilizer systems has led to unnecessarily high levels of nitrogen balance. Phosphorus optimal level of intensity balance has achieved by the application of mineral fertilizers in doses of 10-40 (178-229%), potassium – 20-60 kg/ha (102-127%).
Keywords: fertilizer systems, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, balance, soddy-podzolic soil.
ECOLOGY PROBLEMS AND IT’S SOLUTION
Nitrogen losses reduce during storage of poultry fertilizers
A significant reserve for increasing soil fertility and productivity of agriculture is poultry manure. In recent years the Russian poultry industry has been significantly changed. Adopted by the Russian Federation Government measures supported the development of the poultry industry contributed to the growth of poultry production. From 2010 to 2013 total head of poultry livestock in Russia increased by 14%, egg production – by 3%, meat – 37%. Production of poultry meat and eggs is carried out mainly at large specialized companies, where every year 13.4 million tons of manure, which contains 3.0 million tons of organic matter and 317 thousand tons NPK. The cost of the nutrients contained in the litter, at current prices for fertilizers is 8.9 bln. rub. The organization of production on the basis of manure, compost, using straw, sawdust, peat, sapropel and other biogenic materials poultry farm can deliver to customers up to 15.0 million tons of high-quality organic fertilizer with 19-23 kg of NPK per 1 ton. Long-term storage of manure on the farm near the ground floors in soil 0-240 cm contains 4685 kg/ha of mineral nitrogen, including 2446 kg/ha of nitrate nitrogen or 28 times, so the abatement of nitrogen losses are particularly relevant. The results of studies to reduce ammonia emissions to the atmosphere and nitrogen losses during storage of comet fertilizers. It is found that the best sorbents that contribute to the emission of ammonia during storage of organic fertilizers by 15-20 times, sorbents are based on peat, clays and zeolites. Effectively the use of black polyethylene film.
Keywords: poultry manure, ammonia emissions, organic fertilizers quality, organic fertilizers storage.
Effect of phytoremediation on leached chernozem contaminated by liquid hydrocarbons
Soil systems are most susceptible to chemical contamination, as petroleum hydrocarbons are absorbed in soil horizons and are capable of vertical migration through the profile with a current of water. Because they have low solubility for long periods in the soil remain as a separate phase and degrade very slowly, creating serious problems for the environment due to toxicity and secondary pollution of surroundings (air and ground water). The problem of land pollution by hydrocarbons is particularly acute in Tatarstan Republic, where the square of the oil-producing areas is 3492.8 thousands ha, or 51.5% of the total area of the republic. In pot experiments at growing corn and sainfoin on leached chernozem polluted by liquid hydrocarbons, the effect of phytoremediation was identified: found the inhibition of the accumulation of biomass plants corn and sainfoin depression above-ground and root air-dry biomass was – 18-97%. The mixture of hydrocarbons (1-metilnatalin and n-tridecane) was more toxic than the kerosene. When growing corn and sainfoin effect of phytoremediation was detected: content of hydrocarbons at pollution of leached chernozem by kerosene decreased by 55-90% (18 days), by mixture of hydrocarbons – by 15-95% (50-100 days). It was established that one of the basic mechanisms of phytoremediation is the stimulation of microbial activity in the soil (rhizoremediation).
Keywords: leached chernozem, hydrocarbons, corn, sainfoin, phytoremediation, rhizoremediation, microbial activity.
Vermicomposting technology as one of the solutions to environmental problem
Presents vermicultivation technology and vermicomposting, which provide the basis for the production of organic fertilizer vermicompost is the product of the bioconversion of animal waste. Due to the cycle of composting using vermiculture occurred mobilization of nutrients, substrates, disinfected from pathogenic microorganisms, detoxification and loss of germination of weeds. The results of vermicomposting showed the advantage of the final product before the original manure. The organic matter content in the vermicompost on the basis of cattle manure increased by 15.61% relative to the source of raw materials, and mineral nutrition elements potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen increased in 2-4 times. Vermicompost from cattle manure the organic matter content exceeded equine and swine vermicomposts in 28-43%. As a result of processing manure worms technological and partial accumulation salts of heavy metals fell: cadmium by 15%, zinc by 56%, lead by 69% and copper by 79%.
Keywords: animal wastes, biotechnology, bioconversion, vermicomposting, vermiculture, vermicompost.
MICROFERTILIZERS AND BIOPREPARATIONS
Chelated micronutrient fertilizers brand JUSS in the resistance of spring wheat to combined stress
Extreme conditions of plant growth in 2010 (drought, heat, darkness) led to a sharp decrease in the yield of spring wheat in comparison with multiyear averages. Under the treatment of vegetative plants by different multiplicity of micro fertilizers containing zinc, iron and manganese, there was an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase, and catalase and peroxidase activities in the case of iron-containing micronutrient fertilizers. Activation of antioxidant enzymes was accompanied by a decrease in lipid peroxidation, increase plant resistance and, at last, increase the yield of spring wheat in these conditions. Thus, the obvious need for treatment of vegetative plants with micro fertilizers containing copper, zinc, iron and manganese, in the suppression of the absorbing capacity of roots in the extreme growing conditions.
Keywords: drought, wheat, yield, foliar treatment, chelated micronutrient fertilizers, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, antioxidant effect.
Influence of foliar top-dressing by JUSS-2 preparation on efficiency of nodule bacteria activity at soya sowings
Soya, along with sunflower, canola and flax, is considered one of the leading oil producing plants (concentration of fat
in seeds 18-22%) and among legume crops, cultivated in the world, reaches 1st place (albumin concentration in seeds 38-42%).
The environmental and economic values of the soybeans are not limited to the cost of harvest, and addresses issues of
fixing nitrogen from the air, thus saving expensive nitrogen fertilizers. Therefore, the development of techniques to
increase the nodule bacteria productivity on soybeans crops is very urgent. Field experiments were carried out in 2012-2014
in the fields of Sabinsky municipal district of Tatarstan Republic, heavy loamy grey forest soil.
Article presents effect of foliar application of liquid-fertilizing stimulating composition (JUSS-2) during the phase of plants budding formation on the nodule bacteria effectiveness is presented. It was found that JUSS-2 on soya increases the number of common and active nodules on soybean roots (27.9-29.7 tubers/plant in compare with 25.4 tubers/plant in control). The increase in the number of active nodules increased and their weight, which simultaneously helped to increase the intensity of nitrogen fixation. The optimal dose of JUSS-2 is 4 l/ha, at which the soybean grain yield increased by 0.25 t/ha as compared to the control is determined, while also increased the number of pods per plant.
Keywords: soya, nodule bacteria, nitrogen fixation, JUSS-2 preparation, harvest.
Study of herbicides of new generation for barley at different nutrition levels in Chuvashia Republic
Due to the weediness of crops harvest losses worldwide are estimated at over $20 billion annually. Weeds compete with agricultural crops in the struggle for light, moisture and nutrients. Therefore, the search for new effective herbicides that can be used to prevent the harmful effects of weeds in crops of cultivated plants and keep nutrients for them – an important task. The results of studies of the weediness dynamics of barley by annual and perennial weeds in soil-climatic conditions of Chuvashia Republic are presented. It’s shown that depending on the level of mineral nutrition and quantitative changes the species composition of weeds and herbicides phytotoxicity test on a set of weeds agrocoenosis. Set the sensitivity of the species of weeds to herbicides, depending on the level of supply.
Keywords: nutrition background, herbicides, toxicity, weeds, yield.
Influence of perspective herbicides on weediness and yield of spring wheat at different nutrition levels in Chuvashia Republic
Efficient use of nutrients by crops from soil is difficult due to the increased number of resistant weeds in agrophytocoenosis. In this, come to the fore issues of fertilizers rational use and the application of regulations establishing the most effective new herbicides in technologies of crops cultivation. The results of studies of the dynamics of quantitative changes in species composition of weeds in crops of spring wheat depending on mineral nutrition level in Chuvashia Republic. It was found that depending on the mineral nutrition can change the test phytotoxicity of herbicides to weeds. Set the sensitivity of the species of weeds to herbicides, depending on the level of supply.
Keywords: spring wheat, nutrition level, herbicides, toxicity, weeds, varieties, quality, yield, addition.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Harvest properties of spring barley seeds in dependence of foliar top-dressing by microfertilizers
Production of high-quality competitive agricultural production aimed at ensuring the country's food security. In this regard, Tatarstan Republic increased interest in scientific research, contributing to higher yields of spring barley. Foliar top-dressing of spring barley by JUSS-3 provided better plant growth and development, which in turn was accompanied by increase of yields (addition was from 2.4 to 3.2 t/ha). Analysis of seeds obtained on the embodiments with foliar top-dressing by JUSS-3 at a dose of 2 l/ha in the phase of spring barley tillering, showed that it has relatively high crop quality and yield.
Keywords: spring barley, seed germination, microfertilizers, foliar top-dressing, yield.
The efficiency of magnesium fertilizers on soddy-podzolic soils in Tver region
Magnesium – macronutrient for plants, not only performs the function increasing the yield, but also helps improve the food and nutritional value of crops. The application of magnesium fertilizer is as important an event as the application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers in addressing food security. In the Non-chernozem zone in acidic soils where long used pure calcium form calcareous materials, the use of magnesium fertilizer is particularly necessary. One of the reserves for produce of magnesium-containing fertilizer can be a natural mineral serpentinite. The article presents chemical composition of the agrochemical, the main factors of its influence on soil properties, yield and quality of plant products, the most efficient technology and ecologically based methods of its usage. Indicated methods of calculation of doses of agrochemicals and features of its use in crop rotation are presented.
Keywords: fertilizers, crop yields, soil liming, ameliorant, soil acidity, magnesium, winter wheat.
Influence of poultry manure on spring soft wheat and soil fertility in Altai region
Lawns contribute greatly to the improvement of the ecological state of the urban territories. Set of herbs, which are characterized by high strength sod requires for their creation. The research on estimation of the quality of the sod one-specific and mixed crops on the lawn on the tensile strength of soddy-podzolic soils of the Ryazan region is presented. Investigations were carried out in 2012-2014. It was found that the greatest strength of the sod on the tensile strength had a single-species crops: red fescue red, red fescue, Kentucky bluegrass and bent-grass runner-forming, and among the mixed crops – three-component grass mixture (red fescue red, Kentucky bluegrass, bentgrass runner-forming) and a four-grass mixture (bentgrass runner-forming, red fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, red fescue red). The lowest strength of the sod on the tensile strength was recorded from perennial ryegrass and ternary mixtures (red fescue, sheep fescue, perennial ryegrass).
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, lawn, sod quality, tensile strength, single-species crops of herbs, grass mixtures.
Influence of poultry manure on spring soft wheat and soil fertility in Altai region
The article presents the research results of influence of different doses of poultry manure in pot experiments on spring wheat productivity in the green and air-dry mass. In our experiments we used bird droppings of chickens of different ages, aged for 12 months in a field collar. It is established that the maximum yield increase of green mass (4,34 to 6,66 t/ha) in the experiments showed the variant with the introduction of 17,1 t/ha poultry manure, which is equivalent to making 300 kg of nitrogen per 1 ha. the Introduction of increased doses of fertilizers to 22,8 t/ha with a nitrogen content of 400 kg/ha resulted in reduction of green mass yield of 3,05 t/ha and lodging of plants. The influence of the aftereffect of poultry litter: yield increase, total tillering, height of plants in the experiment No. 2 due to optimal accumulation of nitrogen in the soil and reduction of all parameters in experiment No. 3 due to the surplus made from the droppings of nitrogen. The results of the chemical analysis of the soil showed an increase in soil total and available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Keywords: Altai region, poultry manure, organic fertilizer, growing experience, the application rate, spring wheat, productivity, chemical analysis of soil.
To 150th anniversary of D.N. Pryanishnikov
Article is devoted the founder of a agrochemical science to academician Dmitry Nikolayevich Pryanishnikov. Formation of outstanding Russian scientific as researcher and the teacher is shown. D.N. Pryanishnikov's contribution to development of agrochemistry, agriculture and fertilizers industries of our country is described. Article is written in connection with 150-year-old anniversary to D.N. Pryanishnikov.
Keywords: scientist, science, practice, 150th anniversary.