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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.

Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева

Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.

Адрес для переписки: 115419, Москва, Шаболовка, 65-1-50.

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E-mail: agrochem_herald@mail.ru

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Подписано в печать: 22.06.2015
Формат 60х90/8.

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Свидетельство № 011095.

AGROCHEMICAL SERVICE

Agrochemists of Tomsk region are celebrating the golden anniversary

Development of State Station of Agrochemical Service in Tomsk region, history of formation which is typical for many regions of our country is considered. For 50 years specialists of Agrochemical Service examined the soil fertility of the agricultural enterprises in region, each household has a cartogram on the content of nutrients, organic matter (humus) and acidity on each field, hayfields and pastures. This makes it possible to calculate the demand for mineral and organic fertilizers for different crops in specific fields. In the Tomsk region was born and developed a KAKHOP method – Integrated agrochemical cultivation of fields, which was then implemented in all regions of the country. All soil-climatic zones of Tomsk region on the main types of soil, a network of reference stations (20 stations), which monitors the status of soil fertility has been formed. In 2011, State Station has successfully passed the accreditation process and has been accredited in the GOST R system (accreditation certificate No RU.000121 ПЯ 58, valid until 06.07.2016).

Keywords: agrochemical service, Tomsk region, periods of development.


Soil conditions at arable lands in Central chernozem regions of Russia

The article presents a survey of arable soils agrochemical inspection at Central chernozem regions and statistical information on the dynamics of the use of fertilizers and holding liming of acidic soils. The current state of soil fertility on the basic parameters is presented. It is found that the highest weighted average content of organic matter (6,6%) characterized soils of Tambov region, mobile phosphorus (137 mg/kg) and potassium (145 mg/kg) – soils of Belgorod region. The lowest weighted average organic matter content (4,63%) and mobile forms of potassium (96 mg/kg) was observed in soils of Kursk region, mobile forms of phosphorus (90 mg/kg) – in the soils of the Tambov region. The lowest proportion of acid soils (27,98%) is set in the soils of the Voronezh region, and the highest (75,41%) – in the soils of the Tambov region.

Keywords: arable lands, agrochemical inspection, fertilizers, soil liming, chernozem fertility.


Chemical means application and soil fertility in Kostroma region

The analysis of the main agrochemical indexes of arable soils of the Kostroma region since 1964 and their dynamics for 50 years period is given. The dependence of the humus content, acidity, mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium from the use of chemicals are presented. Reduction in their use leads to a reduction of soil fertility. For prevention of its falling, it is necessary to resume lime application, phosphoriting and application of mineral and organic fertilizers.

Keywords: agrochemical inspection, soil fertility, fertilizers, lime application, phosphoriting.


On the question of the application of essential soil fertility decrease criteria for agricultural lands

The change in indicators of soil fertility for agricultural purposes (humus content, mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium, the reaction of the soil solution) on average over five years and in some farms of the Ulyanovsk region, as well as problem application of the criteria a significant reduction of soil fertility are presented.

Keywords: arable lands, criteria of essential decrease in fertility of lands.


CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGIES

Efficiency of straw and green manure use for lupine cultivation

The article results experimental research in the field experiment to study the effect of winter wheat straw, separately and in combination with green manure crop biomass indicators on biological condition of soddy-podzolic sandy soil and yield of lupine in grain row-crop crop rotation. Compliance with cultivation technology represented in the article will allow to receive an increase of lupine productivity 2,2-3,0 t/ha.

Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, straw, stubble green manure, microorganisms, mortmass, nitrification capacity.


Technological features of formation of big crops winter wheat in the Central Non-Chernozem regions

Best predecessors for winter wheat of modern varieties providing harvest of high quality grain of 6-8 t/ha at middle-loamy soddy-podzolic soils with high available phosphorous rate and middle available potassium in Central Non-chernozem are stratum of perennial legume and legume-cereals of 2-3 years and fallows of annual legume-cereal mixtures of pea and maple pea. It’s recommended to use combine system of ploughing (20-22 cm) before perennial grasses and surface loosening (10-12 cm) next year at fallow. Doses of nitrogen top-dressings are calculated by the results of soil diagnosis based on the actual content of N-NO3 in the layer 0-60 cm.

Keywords: crop rotation, predecessor, soil treatment, fertilizers.


Winter wheat varieties reaction to artificial stresses for estimation of it adaptation at early stages of onthogenesis

Experimental data on the evaluation of winter wheat seedlings adaptability to salinity and acidification on the background of artificially simulated stress is presented. Studies conducted in the years 2009-2013 with 9 varieties and 9 breeding lines of winter wheat of Moscow Scientific-Research Institute for Agriculture «Nemchinovka» and 30 collection varieties of N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR) and the International Center for Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT). In toxicants used as sodium chloride (NaCl) and aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3]. The reaction was determined by the growth of varieties feature – length of seedlings under salinity and the length of the main root of the embryo during the acidification. For the final results using the ratio of percent of indicators advanced options to control (water). Defined varietal differences in the level of reaction to stress factors studied. Genotypes with a wider range of adaptability to the toxic effects of stressors were obtained. Differences varietal salt tolerance indicators ranged from 34 to 65%, and aluminum sustainability - from 41 to 84%. In total sustainability indicators (Sustainability Index), characterizing adaptability, leading varieties Memory Fedin, Moscow 39 and 17 and two Nemchinovskaya collection numbers from Romania, which are recommended to use in the selection process to further improve the created forms.

Keywords: winter wheat, variety, stress resistance, adaptation, sustainability index.


Influence of turkey droppings on harvest and oil content of sunflower seeds at ordinary chernozem

The paper presents the results of studying the effectiveness of turkey litter droppings applied in autumn under a sunflower with conductor plow on ordinary black soil in 2011-2013. The optimal dose of droppings 10 t/ha. Seed yield increased by an average of years of research at 49,3%, oil – by 4,7%. The close inverse correlation with the ratio of oil content Nmin. and available phosphorus in soil r = -0,797 ± 0,147. The fat content in seed yield from 1 ha in making 10 t/ha droppings increased by 305 kg/ha or 67,8%.

Keywords: turkey litter droppings, chernozem, sunflower, oil content, harvest.


YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCHES

Influence of fertilizers on barley productivity and cellulolytic activity of soddy-podzolic soil

Results of studying of influence of fertilizers in long field experience on biological activity of soil and productivity of barley are presented. It is shown, that degree of decomposition of cellulose depended on entering of mineral and organic fertilizers, humidity and a temperature mode of soil. Productivity of grain of barley differed on years that was defined by deviations of weather from norm average temperatures.

Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, fertilizers, biologic activity, barley, harvest.


Influence of fertilizers system on fractional composition and balance of humus in soddy-podzolic soil of Komi Republic

The efficiency of organic and mineral fertilizers and their combinations for humus accumulation and balance, group and fraction composition has been studied in application to soddy-podzolic light-loamy soil in field conditions. Established that combined application of organic and mineral fertilizers in six-field crop rotation provided significant humus accumulation and improved humus quality: fraction of humic acids No 2 increased from 3,1 till 7,8%, ratio of C from humic acids and from fulvic acids increased from 1,02-1,16 till 1,23-1,50.

Keywords: soil, humus, humus balance, humus fractions, organic fertilizers, mineral fertilizers.


Optimization of mineral fertilizers application for sugar beet in dependence of agrochemical properties of chernozems in Central chernozem region

The assessment of influence of agrochemical properties of chernozem soils of Central Federal District on efficiency of use of mineral fertilizers under sugar beet is given. At increase in the maintenance of available forms of nitrogen in the soil the crop increase from nitric fertilizers decreased. Efficiency of phosphoric fertilizers decreased in process of increase of the maintenance of mobile forms of phosphorus in the soil. The content of mobile potassium in the soil had no impact on an increase, only the dose of potash fertilizers significantly raised an increase of a crop of sugar beet.

Keywords: chernozem soils, agrochemical indicators, mineral fertilizers, sugar beet.


Assessment of heavy metals content in soils of Penza region

In this article authors give the environmental assessment of heavy metals content in soils of Penza region. They also discuss the usage of selenium as a mean to reduce the toxicity of some metals in the early stages of spring wheat’s ontogenesis.

Keywords: heavy metals, chernozem, selenium, plants antioxidant protection.


Study of soil solution reaction in «Pokrovskoe-Streshnevo» park

For the most part of plants the most favorable is neutral or weakly acid reaction of soil solution. It depends both on weather condition and on different soil types and magnitude of environmental fallout. Research conducted in the Park «Pokrovskoye-Streshnevo» from 2012 to 2014 showed that an area of 192 hectares and 46,8% of soils had pHKCl from 6,1 to 8,0 or more units, 50,9 percent weakly and middle and 2,3% – strongly acidic reaction. Anthropogenically disturbed and anthropogenically transformed soils have a high pH. Levels of soil solution reaction and maps allows to determine spatial-temporal changes.

Keywords: soil solution reaction, ralozam typical light loam, middle-fine sandy loam, postagrogenic low-power sandy loam, low-power sandy loam, sandy loam medium power, park, anthropogenic impact.


Change of agrochemical properties of chernozems in conditions of intensive agriculture in Krasnoyarsk region

In the system of local agroecological monitoring (1996-2011) studied the direction and intensity of changes of agrochemical properties of chernozems of the Nazarovskaya forest-steppe in Krasnoyarsk region. With attraction of modern methods of statistical analysis reveals the significance of the trend component of the time series of mobile phosphorus and exchangeable acidity. It is shown that the change trends of humus and exchangeable potassium are weakly expressed.

Keywords: leached chernozem, agrochemical properties, time series, intensive agriculture, Nazarovskaya forest-steppe.


Integral estimation of erosion in Tajikistan

Article presents erosion assessment in time and space taking into account properties and soil formation processes occurring. It is shown that under the action of soil factors determining erosion manifest synergy and antagonism, including and joint manifestations and wind erosion at different seasons. The mathematical patterns of erosion advancing in explored soils of Northern Tajikistan are cited in the work. It has been established that the environmental damage in the development of erosion determined not only by the loss of crops and reduction in soil fertility, but also by decrease in the number of degrees of freedom of the agricultural use of soil, environmental changes, system entropy increasing.

Keywords: Tajikistan, soil erosion, estimation, mathematical particularities.