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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
Адрес для переписки: 115419, Москва, Шаболовка, 65-1-50.
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Подписано в печать: 12.02.2015
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2015 / Issue 1
Agrochemical aspects of mobile phosphorous content dynamic in soil at agroecosystems in Kaliningrad region
This article presents the dynamic of mobile phosphorus content in soils of the agrolandscapes in Kaliningrad region over the period 1965-2014. The results show that the change in content of mobile phosphorus content is mainly determined by the volume of fertilizer application for the period 1970-1990. The rate of mobile phosphorus content decrease during last period depends on several factors: acidity dynamic, granulometric composition and types of land uses. It’s necessary to conduct agrarian measures stimulating soil biological activity for regulation of soil phosphorous regime.
Keywords: dynamic, mobile phosphorus, soils, Kaliningrad region.
Changes of leached chernozems properties under influence of agricultural use
Tendencies and regularities in change of agrochemical parameters of leached chernozem are revealed on the basis of the made observations. It is revealed that during 18 year period humus concentration in arable layer decreased by 4,0-22,8% to the initial contents. The humus mineralization most intensively proceeded in 50-100 cm layer of a soil profile where humus losses in compare with the initial made 1,46-2,96% a year. Introduction of perennial herbs within 2-3 years doesn't prevent humus losses. There was an acidulation of soil solution reaction to 0,2-0,8 units, decrease in the absorbed bases content in 0-100 cm layer on 3,0-8,2 mg-eq/100 g during studied period. Results of researches require it’s usage for land management.
Keywords: leached chernozem, agrochemical properties, projects of intraeconomic land management.
Cobalt’s forms and concentration in leached chernozem under agrogenesis conditions
Results of cobalt concentration and transformation of it compounds in leached chernozem during three rotations of grain-grass-tilling crop rotation research are presented. Established that during agrogenesis process character of cobalt forms distribution in soil doesn’t change. Applied fertilizing system of agricultural crops doesn’t provide non-deficit cobalt balance in leached chernozem.
Keywords: leached chernozem, crop rotation, gross cobalt, cobalt forms.
Strontium migration in soil layers of leached chernozem
As a result of long-term researches, in natural field conditions on the leached chernozem low-humus heavy-duty borders of vertical migration of the radionuclide 90Sr located on a surface of the soil and when deepening on 50 cm are established. Investigations are conducted in a fruit coenosis – an apple-tree garden. The layers of earth having the greatest accumulations 90Sr are noted.
Keywords: soil, chernozem, radionuclide, migration, accumulation 90Sr.
Shallow lie peat soil fertility increase under influence of mineral additions
Results of research about properties and fertility improvement of shallow lie peat soil by application of mineral additions (loam and sand) are presented. Improvement of water-physical, agrochemical and biological properties, temperature regime and increase of yield are shown. Established that loam’s application for peat soils increased oat yield for 8% (average) in compare with sand’s application.
Keywords: shallow lie peat, mineral fertilizers, lime, sand, doze, properties, yield, oat.
FERTILIZER AND HARVEST
Efficiency of fertilizer systems in crop rotation chain at grey forest soil of Vladimir Opolye
The article highlights the effects of different fertilization systems on the productivity of a crop rotation of winter wheat – barley – oats on gray forest soil Vladimir Opolye. Found a significant increase in productivity of 1,28-1,32 times of the total mineral, in the 1,14-1,16 – from some organic fertilizers and 1,24-1,29 – from their combination with NK and NPK. In a favorable year, the loss of moisture of the spring-summer period to create 100 kg of winter wheat ranged from 4,9 to 5,5 mm, and in the worst year for barley – from 10,9 to 17,4 mm. 3 year payback of unit of nutrient elements of organic fertilizers compared with organic and mineral fertilizers was 46-52%.
Keywords: gray forest soil, fertilizer system, the yield of winter wheat, barley, oats, profitability of fertilizers.
Particularities of fiber flax nitrogen nutrition for precision agriculture
Analysis of nitrogen nutrition role for fiber flax cultivation is presented. Results of nitrogen content in plants at main development stages of new varieties are presented. Availability of precision agriculture use for fiber flax cultivation taking into account results of nitrogen nutrition research is discussed.
Keywords: fiber flax, development stages, nitrogen nutrition, harvest, precision agriculture.
Influence of ploughed tree and shrubbery vegetation and fertilizers on efficiency of cereal herbs
Influence of tree and shrubby (a birch, an aspen, a willow) biomass ploughed into the sod-podzolic loamy soil on productivity of the sowed cereal herbs is determined. Established that after biomass ploughing into the soil decrease of sowed herbs has been noted during first years. The sowed herbs yield shortage for 3 years (2011 - 2013) in compare with arable land (control) (SV c/hectare) was: 2,7 – at seeding of willow and 11,4 – of aspen on not fertilized background, and against NPK – at seeding of willow – 9,6, birch – 8,2.
Keywords: soil, deposit, willow, birch, aspen, fertilizers, cultivated herbs.
Efficiency of complex application of fertilizers and plant growth regulators for spring grain crops at sod-podzolic light-loamy soil
It’s shown that microelements and growth regulators along with macroelements have important role in modern technologies of grain crops cultivation. Growth regulators Epin and Ecosil at N70P60K90 background provided grain harvest at 46,4 and 48,3 c/ha with profitability of 1 NPK kg for 8,0 and 8,9 kg of grain. The highest yield of brewery barley (55,2 c/ha) and profitability of 1 NPK kg (11,4 kg of grain) with permissible concentration of albumin in grain had reached after treatment of sowings by complex preparation based on copper and growth regulator MikroStim copper L at N60P60K90 background + N30 as top-dressing.
Keywords: spring wheat, barley, fertilizers, growth regulators, yield, quality, profitability.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Tests of biological preparation Azofobacterin-AF for radish and lettuce cultivatio
The results of researches the influence of different techniques and methods of use biofertilizer Azofobacterin-AF on radish and lettuce are represented in the article. The positive effect of applied biofertilizer into the soil with heightened and high content of phosphorus and potassium on the yield of radish, and complex use of Azofobacterin-AF on mineral background on some indicators of quality and safety of roots radish and lettuce leaves.
Keywords: biofertilizer, vegetative experience, radish, lettuce, yield, quality, nitrates, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
Influence of fertilizer system with straw use on soil biological activity and barley production
To the article the results of study of influence of the fertilizer system are driven on biological activity of soil, nourishing mode of soil and productivity of barley. Established that straw use promotes microorganisms activity in soil and provides yield addition for 1,03 t/ha (31%).
Keywords: barley, straw, fertilizers, soil, biologic activity, harvest.
To 140th anniversary of the birthday M.A.A. Micherlih