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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
Адрес для переписки: 115419, Москва, Шаболовка, 65-1-50.
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Подписано в печать: 28.04.2014
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2014 / Issue 2
MAIN THEME: 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF STATE AGROCHEMICAL SERVICE
Difficult way of the State agrochemical service Ministry for agriculture of the Russian Federation
Monitoring of the basic agrochemical indicators of soil southeast and southern areas of the Voronezh region
The 50-year-old material of agrochemical inspection of soils of agricultural purpose of southeast and southern areas of the Voronezh region is generalized. On the basis of the analysis laws of change of key parameters of soil fertility are revealed: maintenances of organic substance, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, acidity.
Keywords: organic substance of soil, mobile phosphorus, exchange potassium, acidity, monitoring, fertility of soils.
Evaluating the accumulation of biogenic and toxic trace elements in the soils of the tilled fields in the southern-east of western Siberia
Trace elements content in the tilled soils of the cultivated lands in Kemerovo region was evaluated. To evaluate the accumulation of trace elements in the top soil horizon the ecological and geochemical coefficients were calculated. Concentration clarkes of Ni, Cr, Co, Cu and Zn in the soils of all the cultivated lands are equal to less than one. The content of Pb and Mn in the soils is at the level of the clarke of the lithosphere or a little more, that of Cd is 6,9-9,0 times more. All the trace elements under study accumulate in the soils of the tilled fields in a biogenic way in comparison with the parent rock material. The accumulation coefficients of Pb and Cd are particularly high. It is connected both with the absorption by plants and anthropogenic intake. The share of labile (Kn) Cd and Pb in all the cultivated lands is higher than that of the other trace elements – it may be connected with their additional intake due to atmospheric pollution.
Keywords: trace elements, soil, agrolandscape, accumulation coefficient, concentration clarke.
SOIL PROPERTIES AND IT FERTILITY
Total phosphorus in parent rocks and soils of western part Kaliningrad region
The mean values content and laws distribution of total phosphorus in different groups’ parent rocks and soils are established. The areas surplus content of phosphorus and causes this phenomenon is determinate.
Keywords: total phosphorus, parent rocks, soils, mean content, phosphorus fertilizers.
Research of developed peat soil’ fertility increase methods
Summary: In a field experiment the effect of non-traditional based fertilizers waste in the production of seeds (chaff), manure and peat with the addition of mineral fertilizers on the yield of green mass vetch-oat mixture and activity of soils on background of subsurface irrigation
Keywords: organic-mineral fertilizer, crop yields, vetch-oat mixture, soil microbiological activity.
Ecological condition of soils in field and forest-park ecosystems of Moscow City
Megapolis soils and ecosystems suffer rather anthropogenic pressure (physical and chemical), complicated by acid rains and de-icing salts. Results of long-term stationary experiments related to compound water migration in sod-podzolic soil of catena (plakor – hill slope – slope sole) at Field experimental station and Forest experimental station of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University are presented. Fact data for acidity, humus compound and soil genesis is given also.
Keywords: sod-podzolic soil, acidity, compound water migration, humus soil condition, megapolis ecosystems.
Fractional content of heavy metals in sod-podzolic and chernozem soil
There is being suggested the information-energetic assessment of heavy metals condition in soil. There is shown the difference between their fractional content in sod-podzolic soils and that in chernozem soil, which was assessed with the help of competitive complex formation.
Keywords: soil, fertility, fractional content, heavy metals.
Rehabilitation of chernozem soil polluted by heavy metals
Available forms of heavy metals – more aggressive part of total content which can penetrate in the root system. This forms takes part in migration flows including inside profile. So liquid phase is source of heavy metals for plants and biota. Our natural experiments in Ryazan region showed that all fertilizers systems using for sanitation of chernozem polluted by heavy metals decreased accumulation of available Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and decreased level of it’s mobility. Average concentration of heavy metals in acetate ammonia buffer showed that extraction of it rather big in absence of fertilizer.
Keywords: sod-chernozem soil, heavy metals, available forms, agrochemical rehabilitation, acetate ammonia buffer, extraction.
Influence of reclamation in case of dry meadow on 90Sr transfer to grass stand
The efficiency of agrochemical and agrotechnical measures for improvement of a native rough dry meadow with regard to reduction of 90Sr transfer to grass stand has been assessed. It has been shown that disking and plowing in combination with application of a full range of mineral fertilizers made it possible to reduce 90Sr accumulation in perennial seeded grasses by a factor of 1,7.
Keywords: radionuclide, lime treatment, disking, plowing, fertilizers, grass stand.
Agroecological basement for long-term application of the nitrogen fertilizers of different types at grey forest heavy loamy soil
It is established that there is no accumulation of heavy metals under the influence of long-term permanent use of nitrogen fertilizers and potassium chloride in loamy grey forest soil under the analysis. There wasn't established any soil pollution with heavy metals taking into account the current low doses of nitrogen fertilizers usage. The level of their influence on soil is very low. Moreover, chloride (and thereafter that of potassium chloride) and mineral sulfur contents from different nitrogen fertilizers forms do not exceed In addition, the values of the chlorine content (in terms of potassium chloride) and mineral sulfur from the use of different forms of nitrogen fertilizers do not exceed the maximum permissible concentration.
Keywords: loamy gray forest soil, stationary test, forms of nitrogen fertilizers, heavy metals, mineral sulfur, chlorine.
Optimization of nitrogen nutrition of corn at direct sowing
The effect of mineral fertilizers application on nitrogen nutrition of corn under direct sowing and under conventional tillage was researched. Fertilizers application in rate N120P100К100Mg60 significantly increased the content of mineral nitrogen in the 0-15 cm layer at a critical period. However, development delay of plants in the early growth stages under direct sowing provided lower yields for 0,47-1,83 t/ha. Grain protein content was higher at 0,37-1,32% in comparative to traditional tillage.
Keywords: fertilizers, corn, mineral nitrogen, harvest, direct sowing, traditional tillage.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCHES
Influence of microelements on photometric parameters and yield of potato
Features of growth and photosynthetic indicators in potato plants are studied under the influence of various technological methods: application of Micromak, Microel micronutrients, use of rotary cutter and hiller, row spacing of 75 and 90 cm.
Keywords: potato, microfertilizers, rotary hiller, ridging, photosynthetic indicators.
Fertilizers impact on carrot crop formation with the use of different cultivation technologies
There is being studied the fertilizers impact on carrot crop formation while ridge and ridge-less cultivation technologies. It was established that yield formation is largely determined by the conditions and methods of cultivation technologies.
Keywords: carrot, cultivation technology, fertilizers, yield.
Yield and quality of winter wheat crops depending on biologization methods and soil treatment procedures
There are being studied the biologization methods of fertility increase under different soil treatment procedures. It was established that winter wheat crops with blue alfalfa and siderate melilot fallow helps accumulate organic remains in soil, improve nutritive regime and winter wheat grain quality.
Keywords: perennial herbs, siderates, soil treatment methods, plant remains, winter wheat, yield.