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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.

Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева

Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.

Адрес для переписки: 115419, Москва, Шаболовка, 65-1-50.

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Подписано в печать: 11.12.2013
Формат 60х90/8.

Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.

ACTUAL THEME

Influence of the prolonged application of the mineral fertilizers on the physical chemistry properties of the leached chernozem

The results of three rotations of grain-grassy-cultivated crop rotation did not determine the negative action of the application of a fertilizer on the physical chemistry properties of the chernozem of lixiviated Western Ciscaucasia.

Keywords: chernozem lixiviated, physical chemistry properties, the mineral fertilizers.


Influence of agricultural use on leached chernozem properties of Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe

On the basis of generalization the results of years of research (1995-2012) in the system of local agro-ecological monitoring studied direction and intensity of changes of morphological, agrochemical and physic-chemical properties of leached chernozems of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe. Agrogenic transformation of the topsoil, which consists in the reduction of its capacity up to 14 cm is revealed. It is shown that trends of changes of the agrochemical and physic-chemical parameters are the weakly expressed.

Keywords: chernozem leached, agricultural use, morphological traits, agrochemical and physic-chemical properties.


FERTILIZERS, CROP ROTATIONS, HARVEST

Predecessor and fertilization of grain crops in crop rotations of Central Non-chernozem region

Differences in efficiency of field crop rotations in dependence of it content (forage winter wheat and oat) are established. Parameters of soil and plants supply by nitrogen at the beginning of vegetation in spring for harvesting of forage grain from 5,0 till 7,5 t/ha and from 4,5 till 5,5 t/ha with concentration of albumin 10 -12%, and normative of nitrogen consumption from fertilizers are established.

Keywords: grain crops, crop rotations, perennial grasses, soil, fertilizers, harvest.


Efficiency of technologies of cultivation soft summer wheat in conditions of Central Non-chernozem region

In long-term supervision efficiency of technologies of cultivation of perspective grades of summer soft wheat is shown. The given technologies allow to use effectively mineral fertilizers and means of protection of plants from wreckers, illnesses and weeds which provide productivity at a level 3,6-5,0 t/ha on sod-podzolic soil in conditions of the Central Non-chernozem Region.

Keywords: summer wheat, varieties, technologies, fertilizers, means of plants protection, efficiency.


The dynamics of spring wheat yield and quality during prolonged use of plowland

Carried out researches revealed that the leached black soils are characterized by favorable physical and chemical properties such as reaction of sub-acidic soil, a relatively high amount of absorbed bases, high content of mobile potassium and phosphorus. In dry and very dry years (SCC 0,5-0,9) grain yield was 2,51 t/ha, in ordinary years (SCC 1-1.3 – 3.06), in the wettest years (SCC greater than 1,4) – 2,46 t/ha. The greatest influence on the grain yield had the weather of the third tenday period of May, and the grain quality of second and third week of July.

Keywords: spring wheat, soil, agrochemical properties, yield, grain quality.


ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND IT’S SOLUTION

Accumulation of 90Sr by barley from sod-podzolic soil in case of natural and artificial sorbents application

The influence of various artificial sorbents and rates on 90Sr mobility in sod-podzolic soil and its biological mobility has been studied. The application of tripoli, diatomite and complex agricultural sorbents KC-10CX and KC-20CX has led to change in soil characteristics and, therefore, decrease in 90Sr uptake by barley plants.

Keywords: 90Sr, radionuclide, sod-podzolic soil, diatomite, tripoli, artificial sorbents.


Radioecological regulation of permissible concentration of 137Cs in agricultural lands of Ukraine, polluted in case of Chernobyl accident

In the remote period after the Chernobyl accident the main dose of the population of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus living in radioactively contaminated areas, formed by 137Cs, contained in foods. The stabilization of the parameters of the biological availability of the radionuclide in the soil, enabled a radio-ecological regulation of its contents in the main types of soils contaminated agricultural land in Ukraine, subject to exceedance of state health standards of the radionuclide content in food. Using the experimentally obtained coefficients of proportionality and Radioecology known laws of behavior of 137Cs in the links of the food chains of human calculated numerical values of the norm «Permissible content of 137Cs in agricultural land in Ukraine contaminated after the Chernobyl accident», which can be used for safe conduct of crops and livestock on the radioactively contaminated land.

Keywords: Chernobyl accident, agriculture, soil, radioactive pollution, 137Cs, radioecological regulation.


Research of fertilizers based on sewage sludge

According to results of field experience (2010-2012) at sod-podzolic soil fertilizers based on sewage sludge for dozes optimization and combinations with the mineral fertilizers provides high efficiency as for long -fibred flax as for aftereffect for seed potato increasing yield of flax straw (16-39%), flax seeds (17-48%), potato tubers (11-15%). Application of this fertilizer type doesn’t lead to pollution of soil and plant production.

Keywords: sewage sludge, fertilizers, dozes, heavy metals, soil, yield.


Comparative characteristic of plant-extraaccumulators of nickel for phytoremediation

Presentation of comparative characteristic of plants-extra-accumulators Alyssum murale and Alyssum bertolonii (Brassicaceae), growing at sod-podzolic soil and vertisol with high concentration of natural (geological) and anthropogenic nic kel. Established that extra-accumulators actively transferred nickel from roots to surface biomass, accumulation of nickel in plants at vertisol with higher background concentration was 13-20 times intensively in compare with plants growing at sodpodzolic soil.

Keywords: extra-accumulators, nickel, accumulation and distribution, phytoremediation, roots, surface phytomass.


Soil genesis research in Central forest state nature biosphere reserve

Present data about morphology, physical-chemical properties, water migration of organic ligands and heavy metal ions in sod-podzols at binomial parent rocks in forest ecosystems of Central-forest state natural biosphere reserve (CFSNBR) in Tver region are described in article. Ecological-geochemical investigations as background as operative monitoring are occurring by authors in CFSNBR and in Karelia republic and Arkhangelsk region in accordance with scientific grants of RSBR from 2002 till modern time.

Keywords: taiga ecosystems, sod-podzols, fulvic acids, low-molecular organic acids, sorption lysimeters, compounds migration, ecological-geochemical estimation of ecosystem pollution.


Estimation of total and fractional carbon content in leached extracts from humified flax sheave

This article is devoted to evaluation of the efficiency of humic substances extraction from humified flax sheave by the following parameters total carbon content and carbon humic and fulvic acids. The highest content of organic substance was obtained using as extractant 0,1M sodium hydroxide.

Keywords: humic and fulvic acids, flax sheave, extraction.


Study of connection between transient inwardly soil vertical flow of water and accumulation of nutrients in grey forest soils in autumn-winter-spring period

This study is lead to series of studies of less nutrients restoration in soil after agricultural crops cultivation before spring of following year. This problem has as theoretical as practical meaning for calculation of fertilizer dozes.

It has been shown that the magnitude transient inwardly soil vertical flow of wafer exerts considerable influence on the accumulation of nutrients in grey forest soils in autumn for spring sowing.

Keywords: grey forest soils, transient inwardly soil vertical flow, accumulation, nutrients.


INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

Effect of different sowing time on red clover dry matter yield and weed content

A three-years study (2007-2010) was organized to examine the effect of two red clover (RC) varieties (K-17 and UNA) with the aim to find optimal time of establishment for high production and sustainable management with competitiveness against weeds. Modern trends in Europe promote clover crops to produce more farm grown proteins and to decrease the use of mineral fertilizers. The trial was established by the method of randomized complete block design of plots (3 х 4 m) with 3 replications, sown in the autumn of 2007 and spring of 2008 at Institute for Animal Husbandry, Belgrade. The highest total dry matter yield was obtained by autumn sowing of variety K-17 (15,7 t/ha). The low development rhythm of RC with spring sowing in the first year of vegetation (dry spring) permitted the installation of weeds, the crops were harvested twice without the assessment of production. Weeds content decreased in the botanical composition at the first cut by the production years, while at the second cut their ratios decreased by less than 5% in the both varieties. Red clover varieties gave the highest forage yield in the second production year and they had good regrowth and reached high yield in the second cuts during seasons 2008-2009. It could be concluded that high forage yield could be obtained without N fertilization, using suitable legume species.

Keywords: botanical composition, dry matter, red clover, time of establishment.