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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 11.02.2013
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2013 / Issue 1
SOIL PROPERTIES AND FERTILITY
Change of sod-podzolic soil properties in postagrogenic period
As a result of long-term researches attributes of degradation humus, deterioration of physical, chemical, biochemical properties of the sod-podzolic soil removed from an agricultural turnover are revealed. Negative changes of quality humus were showed in easing an attribute humate and strengthening fulvate character. The greatest information in an estimation postagrogenic changes of soil properties is noted concerning parameters of acidity and of characteristics humus.
Keywords: soil properties changes, humus degradation, acidity, catalase activity.
Effect of Pseudomin biopreparation on the biological activity and ecological state of oil contaminated cultivated sodpodzolic soils under different soil moisture
Laboratory experiments showed that Pseudomin biopreparation was capable to stimulate efficiently the natural microbiota of uncontaminated and especially oil contaminated sod-podzolic soils. The soil moisture condition is the important factor influencing the population of the introduced species of Pseudomonas (RTSAU strain) in the process of bioremediation. The carried out researches established the best survival rate of bacteria introduced into the cultivated sod-podzolic soil with Pseudomin in condition of around 60% of soil total moisture capacity.
Keywords: soil ecology, soil bioremediation, oily contamination, bioremediation conditions, moisture factor, microbial metabolism, microbial coenosis stability.
Effect of components on the fertility indexes of typical chernozem soil while applying by-product as an organic fertilizer
By the results of the studies the efficiency of the application of calcium-and-phosphorus containing compounds, i.e. lime, ordinary and double superphosphate, gypsum, on the fertility of typical chernozem soil has been proved, as well as the appl ication of the classical component (nitrogen of ammonium nitrate or carbamide) while fertilizing with straw and other plant residues.
Keywords: plant residues, surface composting, soil properties, antidepressing additives.
The role of scientific-intensive technologies in innovational development of melioration
Problem of food safety of country is closely related to development of agricultural lands development. It’s shown that only application of complex melioration means can provide increase of production potential of soil. Productivity management based on energetic approach in dependence of input energy for agromeliorative and hydrotechnic meliorations. Innovation concludes in application of new fertilizing-meliorative mixtures for increase of soil fertility.
Keywords: melioration, management, meliorative regime, production potential, fertility, fertilizing-meliorative mixtures, sapropel, wastes.
Optimization of barley nitrogen nutrition due to precision agriculture
In field experience on the sod -podzolic loamy cultivated soil in Non-chernozem zone of Russia 40 q/ha of grain of barley are received. Action of phosphate and potassium-fertilizers was weak. The greatest increases of a crop (9,5-17,6 q/ha) are received from application of nitrogen fertilizers. An optimum rate of nitrogen under barley in these conditions of 60 -90 kg/ha under preseeding cultivation.
Keywords: nitrogen fertilizers, barley, top dressing, recoupment.
Differentiated application of herbicides of new generation for triticale cultivation
Data about efficiency of multicomponent herbicides, dozes and periods of application for cultivation of new variety of winter triticale Nemchinovskiy 56 is presented. Recommendations to production are given.
Keywords: winter triticale, herbicides, dozes and periods of application, weeds.
Efficiency of double fungicide application for winter wheat
As a result of scientific researches optimum consumption rates and frequency rates of application of fungicides of JSC Syngenta in crops of winter wheat are established. Efficiency determined by distribution and extent of development of sheet mushroom diseases, and also by an increase of a crop of winter wheat depending on experience option.
Keywords: winter wheat, fungicides, biological effectiveness, septoria spot, oidium.
Efficiency of herbicides on the background of different methods of main soil treatment for soybean cultivation in conditions of mountainous zone in Kabardino-Balkaria republic
In the stationary experience on leached chernozems of the effect of herbicides and soil treatment methods on the yield of soybean. To identified optimum dose of herbicides in conjunction with the methods of soil processing, to ensure the stability of yields of soybean and decisive questions of ecological safety.
Keywords: soil, herbicides, treatment methods, yield.
Appraisal of landfill influence on soil in condition of North lands
Results of physical-chemical and toxicological research of soil close to landfills in Apatity and Kirovsk towns in Murmansk region are presented. Comparative analysis of researching parameters of these soils with natural soils of Kola beyond the Arctic circle is presented.
Keywords: landfill, solid household wastes, pollution, soil.
Perfect system of water consumption as factor of soil fertility safety and sustainability of agricultural production in irrigating agrolandscapes
Considered the problems of modernization of water management for conditions guaranteed the equitable water allocation based on the stability and uniformity of water supply eliminating unproductive water consumption, soil d egradation and a threat to the lives of people in the irrigated agricultural landscapes.
Keywords: fertility, water use, management efficiency, automation, inter-farm irrigation system maintenance.
Formation of zoocoenosis of mechanically destructed soil during it’s rehabilitation
In work the comparative characteristic of formation zoocoenos is the broken soil is presented at its natural meadowing and at realization biological recultivation. It is noticed, that on the degraded soils the specific faunistic structure of th e soil population, which cardinally differs from a complex pedobiontes of natural coenosis is formed. Thus that fact is especially underlined, that biological recultivation promotes gradual restoration saprotrophic a complex of soil animals, which play a multipurpose role in processes of soil genesis.
Keywords: mechanically broken soils, biological rehabilitation of soils, fallow lands, the meadow coenosis, the faunistic complexes, micro- and mesofauna, the saprotrophic complex.
The problems of the system of organic waste treatment in the pig breeding enterprises of industrial type
The article considers the problems of normative documents regulating the estimation of the area of agricultural land, necessary for the recycling of organic wastes of pig-breeding enterprises of industrial type. The authors made an analysis of the major mistakes admitted at the design stage farms, and leading to non-compliance with veterinary and sanitary requirements in the preparation and utilization of manure. The influence of the multi-year drain of liquid wastes of livestock on the basic properties of the soil was considered.
Keywords: pig breeding enterprise, organic waste, pig’s dung, design, standards, dose of nitrogen, dung-yard, the properties of the soil, pollution.
Appraisal of poultry litter on condition of soil, air and water
Informational-energetic appraisal of organic fertilizer relations with soil is presented in article. Toxicant contamination limits in local area and modern pollution of soil, air and water are taken into account. Soils after high doze of litter application transfer to higher energetic level that needs change of soil fertility and maximum permissible concentrations model. Elaboration of optimization ways needs regulation of effect but causes of agrophytocoenosis degradation.
Keywords: soil, fertility, poultry litter, ecological condition.
90Sr transfer to plants from sod-podzolic light-loam soil in case of nitrogen fertilizer application
The influence of various nitrogen fertilizer types and rates on 90Sr mobility in sod-podzolic soil and its biological mobility has been studied. The application of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate has led to change in soil characteristics and, therefore, increase in content of available 90Sr forms in soil, which has caused increase in radiostrontium accumulation in barley germs.
Keywords: 90Sr, radionuclide, sod-podzolic soil, nitrogen fertilizers, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, sodium nitrate.
Change of radionuclide content during long-term use of plowland
The monitoring of 137Cs contamination level, 90Sr on reference areas of Mordovia Republic did not reveal their excess over the set background for Russian Federation territory. The ending products are safe for the content of radionuclides.
Keywords: radionuclides, accumulation factor, black soil, gray forest and alluvial soils.
Change of chemical composition and yield of forage bean under lead contamination of soil
There has been studied the contamination with lead of sod-podzolic soil and leached chernozem. It has been established that lead contamination of sod-podzolic soil has a greater negative impact on productivity, chemical composition and lead accumulation in field bean plants, compared to leached chernozem pollution. Lead application into soil reduced the nutritional value of field bean plant biomass, with this fact being reported at higher concentrations on leached chernozem than on sod-podzolic soil.
Keywords: lead, soil pollution, sod-podzolic soil, leached chernozem, harvest, chemical composition, forage bean plants.
Copper, zinc and nickel content in soil and plants in Arkhangelsk region
Dynamic of available forms of copper, zinc and nickel accumulation in soil and plants at 20 agricultural control plots in Arkhangelsk region for period 2000-2008 was analyzed. Low contents of elements, not exceeding permissible limits, was established. Vegetation, sprouting on hayfields and wasted meadows, accumulates well over heavy metal s, in compare with soil, and in row of the events contents of copper, zinc and nickel reaches permissible limits, but is not a fitotoxicity.
Keywords: soil, copper, zinc, nickel, plant, concentration, pollution.