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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева, М.В. Царева, к.с.-х.н.
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., И.И. Дмитревская, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., С.Ю. Зайцев, д.б.н., д.х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., М.Г. Мустафаев, д.с.-х.н. (Азербайджан), С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., к.х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Р. Рыспеков (Казахстан), к.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н., О.Х. Эргашева, к.б.н. (Узбекистан)
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Подписано в печать: 07.04.2011
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Свидетельство № 011095.
2011 / Issue 2
ANNIVERSARY OF THE DEPARTMENT AGROCHEMISTRY AND AGROECOLOGY OF THE NIZHNY NOVGOROD STATE AGRICULTURAL ACADEMY
Study of phosphorous fertilizers and the phosphate condition of soils
There has been examined the study of phosphorus problem in agriculture. Special attention is paid to the phosphate state of soils with hyper-high content of mobile phosphates, adjacent to cattle-breeding and poultry-breeding enterprises. It was established that the gross content of phosphorus and the portion of its accessible forms increases on the background the long-standing utilization of the high doses of organic fertilizers. There has been proposed the methodological way of evaluation of anthropogenic soil phosphatization.
Keywords: phosphorus, ground phosphate rock, phosphate state, the content of mobile phosphates, the fractional composition of phosphates according to Chang-Jackson, anthropogenic soil phosphatization, sod-podzolic soils.
Dependence of crop productivity from fertilizers
It has been revealed during a long-term stationary field experiment that carrying out an experience for 46 years without applying of fertilizers provides sufficiently high (1,90 t/ha) productivity of crop rotation; liming has raised it on average by 0,1 t/ha, applying of N50Р51К52 on soil without previous liming –by 0,54 t/ha and with liming – by 0,57 t/ha. The recoupment of 1 kg of NРК varied within 4,8 – 10,1 kg of grain units/kg a.s.
Keywords: fertilizers, liming, saturation, crop rotation, productivity, recoupment.
Influence of potash fertilizers on yield of agricultural crops and potash condition of soils in Nizhniy Novgorod region
There is given the information on the maintenance of exchange potash in soils of Nizhniy Novgorod region in the article. It is established, that against scarce balance security of soils accessible forms of an element remains stable. The analysis of a potash condition has shown, that long application of average doses of potash fertilizers basically promotes increase in the maintenance not exchange potash in soil, single entering of high doses – water-soluble калия. Results of field and vegetative experiences testify that application of potash fertilizers on light grey wood soil and leached chernozem is effective: crop increases reach 70% and more.
Keywords: doses of potash fertilizers, yield, potassium regime of soils.
Evaluation of wastes utilization impact on agro-ecosystem and the problem of the rate setting
There are examined the history and the basic directions of the work of Nizhny Novgorod chemistry and agro-ecology department on the utilization of wastes in the plant growing complex. It was established in course of long-term studies that prolonged utilization of bird dung and wastes of pig-breeding complex gutters’ cleaning promote the increase in the content of mobile phosphates in sod-podzolic soils up to anomalously high values. The utilization of afteralcohol grains of light- and dark-gray forest soil leads to worsening of its physical chemistry properties, zinc accumulation, and also to a considerable increase in the content of the mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium. Grains works as a god fertilizer, increasing the yield of experimental crops by 65- 155% in comparison with the control.
Keywords: wastes, bird dung, pig manure, afteralcohol grains, soil characteristics, yield, high doses, the rate setting.
Devices for improvement of organic wastes quality used as fertilizers
It is established, that the usage of waste sludge depositions with the standard maintenance of polluting substances as fertilizers allows to receive production, which is meeting the specification requirements and raises the cultures yield by 20-27%. Chemical clearing of waste waters depositions reduces significantly the concentration of heavy metals in them. Vermicompost based on waste sludge depositions excels in its action by 5-15% not only a deposition, but also traditional organic fertilizer (manure or dung), applied in doses equivalent in a dry substance. Application of the effluent fertilizer, formed at anaerobic fermentation of bird's dung, increases the yield depending on a dose, device of the usage and the culture within 5-90%.
Keywords: recycling, fertilizer, waste sludge depositions, chemical clearing of waste sludge depositions, heavy metals, vermicomposting, soil-ground, sanitary-and-hygienic requirements, methane fermentation.
Influence of anthropogenic factors on an ecological condition of water objects of the Nizhniy Novgorod region
There are presented the results of groundwater qualitative state in the areas, situated in the zone of the industrial enterprises of pig and poultry production influence, the results of the analysis of efficiency of various industrial sewage’ treatment, changes in the quality of surface water sources as a result of discharges of treated sewage.
Keywords: groundwater, river ecosystem, the efficiency of sewage treatment, self-purification capacity of water basins, agricultural enterprises.
Special features of soil anthropogenic transformation in Nizhniy Novgorod
There have been analyzed the findings concerning city soils changes. There has been examined the nature of accumulation of different functional zones of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium) and organic toxicants (petroleum products, 3,4-benz(a)pyrene) in soil. It has been concluded on the basis of obtained data that the greatest intensity of this process can be observed in the industrial zone, where the value of summary contamination factor Zc is about 62,6 units. There are showed the results of studying the physic-chemical transformation of urban soils and their humus state.
Keywords: urban soils, heavy metals, anthropogenic transformation, petroleum products, functional zones, acidity, buffer capacity.
Estimation of possibility of use of grasses for preservation of the degraded arable lands and re-cultivation the mechanical disrupted soils
There are being analyzed in the article the reasons occurrence of disrupted and non-arable lands of an agricultural purpose in Russia and possibility of their introduction in active use. It is ascertained, that mechanical infringements of a soil cover lead to physical degradation, deterioration of soil agronomical properties and sharp decrease in productivity of cultivated cultures. Creation of meadows on degraded soils can be considered as a way of increase of their fertility, and on occasion – as possibility of temporary or prolonged preservation of lands for the purpose of restoration of soil’ productivity and its stability to adverse conditions of environment.
Keywords: degradation, technogenic disrupted soils, fertility, productivity, crop grasses and grass mixes, preservation of lands, biological re-cultivation of soils.
Study of silicon containing preparations
The article is dedicated to the results of two-year microfield experience with applying of preparations containing silicon on the background of mineral fertilizers. It is established that zeolite and diatomite with the introduction into the soil possess positive action on the first culture (potatoes) and essential aftereffect on the second one (spring wheat), increasing the yield by 30-45% in the direct action and by 20-22% in the aftereffect with their positive influence on the basic indicators of cultures’ quality. Nanocomposite complex with silicon appeared to be effective only on potato in the first year of introduction.
Keywords: zeolite, diatomite, silicon, nanocomposite complex, potato, spring wheat, yield, quality of cultures, light-grey forest soil.
Influence of complex fertilizers and fertilizer mixtures on spring wheat yield
There are presented the results of field experiences on the study of the influence of complex mineral fertilizers and fertilizer mixtures, applied while sowing and for the basic soil treatment, on the yield and some indicators of quality of winter wheat grain. It is established that applying of low doses of fertilizers wasn’t inferior to the efficiency of the basic applying on hot and dry weather. The maximum addition of the harvest (more than 30%) is obtained while applying of a NPK- fertilizer. Fertilizer mixtures with the increased content in their composition of nitrogen and potassium on the background of unfavorable weather conditions did not have any advantage over traditional complex fertilizers.
Keywords: complex fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, spring wheat, basic applying, yield, quality.
Study of microbiological and growthstimulating preparations for forage crops cultivation
There are examined the results of vegetative experiments on the study of mineral fertilizers’ influence (microbiological preparations Bisolbifit and Extrasol, obtained on the basis of rhizobacteria, and also the systemic preparation Nartsiss, which consists of chitosan and food organic amino acids) on the productivity of maize and fodder beans, cultivated for foliage. It is established that Bisolbifit isn’t inferior in its efficiency to other microbiological preparations (Extrasol, Nartsiss); moreover it exceeds them in a number of cases. The addition of harvest from seeds and vegetating plants processing on Bisolbifit reaches 20%. The preparation gives the greatest output on the background of complete mineral fertilizing and the addition of harvest increases in this case also from fertilizers.
Keywords: Bisolbifit, Extrasol, Nartsiss, mineral fertilizers, maize, fodder beans, vegetative experiments, light-grey forest soil.
Agrochemical and microbiological condition of the winter rye rizosphere at diatomite application
There are being considered the results of influence of diatomite various doses on the agrochemical condition light grey forest soil and its microbiological complex after composting with ameliorator and growing of winter rye sprouts. There has been established some positive affect of diatomite on the culture yield as well as agrochemical, microbiological and biochemical indicators of soil.
Keywords: , winter rye, silicon, saprotrophus and litotrophus populations of microorganisms, rizosphere.
Cooperation with industry – important chain for education of experts
On an example of long-term cooperation of department of agrochemistry and agroecology of Nizhniy Novgorod state agricultural academy and Center of State agrochemical service «Nizhniy Novgorod» it is shown the role and influence of industrial and educational practice on formation and preparation of young experts of agriculture.
Keywords: students, work and educational experience, experts, cooperation.