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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: Р.М. Алексахин, д.б.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., В.Г. Минеев, д.с.-х.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Панасин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., П.Д. Попов, д.с.-х.н., В.Г. Сычев, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н.
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2017 / Issue 4
JUBILEE OF SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF STAVROPOL STATE AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY
Modern problems of soils fertility in Stavropol region
The main problems of the soil fertility of the Stavropol Territory are the drainage, flooding, secondary salinization, deterioration of the composition, properties, depletion of soils with organic matter and accessible forms of nutrients, as well as the development of water and wind erosion. It is established that in the plowland in 70-100 years of agricultural use, there was a significant decrease in the organic matter content by an average of 1.5-2.0%. The soil cohesion is developing, which is caused by the joint action of the newly formed swelling minerals of the montmorillonite group and the cementing action of mobile colloidal silicon compounds. Mass construction of modern irrigation systems, without proper waterproofing and improper, excessive irrigation led to the fact that more than 2 million hectares. In the province are considered flooded. The most strong processes of wind erosion are developed in the regions of the east of the region and in the zone of the Armavir wind corridor. Water erosion was developed in the areas located on the Stavropol Upland and its spurs. Over the past 50-60 years, the soils have been depleted in terms of the content of available forms of macro- and microelements of nutrition and only on plowed fields. No such phenomenon was found on virgin lands.
Keywords: soil, fertility, organic matter, slip, underflooding, salinization, erosion.
Material-energy cycles in living and biocidal systems
Material-energy cycles in living systems of phototrophs and heterotrophs, as well as in inert systems of the mineral basis of soils, are considered. Soils are open biocosic bodies and lose a part of biogenic elements annually as a result of moisture removal from the gravitational current, and in agriculture also with the commodity part of the crop. As a result, the soils are depleted, their aging and a decrease in fertility. Soils form three groups of minerals: inherited maternal, newly formed and organogenic. As the soil grows older, the proportion of newborns grows, and the residual maternal and organogenic, that is, the humus proper, is ultimately reduced to almost zero levels. Soil, like any other system, cannot be in an equilibrium state, if there is an influx of energy from the outside. It is established that the staginess of soil formation includes the evolution of soils from rock to mature soil and to neo-pore. Time, in this case, acts as the main factor of soil formation.
Keywords: phototrophs, heterotrophs, soil formation, proton hydrolysis, rock, neo-rocks, proton, electron.
Organic matter transformation in chernozems of arable and virgin lands in Stavropol region
The content of organic matter in the main subtypes of chernozems of the Stavropol Territory is investigated: ordinary carbonate, ordinary ordinary (not effervescent from the surface), leached and solonetsous-fused on the virgin soil and plowland. It is established that all the studied chernozems are characterized by a significant variation in the amount of organic matter, both in key areas and within them. For 70-100 years of soil exploitation in the system of agrobiocoenoses, the content of humus in the upper horizons is reduced by 16-38% in carbonate, 25-33% in normal, 6-21% in leached and 8-24% in solonetsous-ferruginous chernozems. The amount of organic matter in sub-plow horizons is higher than in arable horizons, or does not differ significantly. In the composition of humic acids, a marked decrease in the content of fulvic acids and the ratio of humic acids to fulvic acids (HA/FA) increases on arable land in comparison with the virgin soil except for chernozems of solonetsous-fused.
Keywords: organic matter, chernozem, humic acids, fulvic acids, virgin soil, arable land.
Changes of physico-chemical indices of chernozems of the Central Ciscaucasia in agricultural use
The influence of agricultural use on the change in the physicochemical parameters and pH of the chernozems of ordinary carbonate, leached and solonetzic Central Ciscaucasia was studied. It has been established that anthropogenic influence leads to a decrease in the amount of exchange bases and pH in all subtypes under study, as well as the appearance of hydrolytic acidity on leached and ordinary solonetsous chernozems. PPK chernozem ordinary carbonate under the plowing undergoes minor changes due to its high buffering. Changes in the studied indicators on the other studied subtypes of chernozems are more significant and indicate their radical transformation.
Keywords: virgin soil, arable land, chernozem, agricultural use, physico-chemical indices.
Changes of physical-chemical parameters of leached chernozem due to application of parent rocks
Results of application of different parent rocks on physical-chemical parameters of leached chernozem are presented. Remineralization of leached chernozem was made by applying apatite, limestone-shell rock, phos- phogypsum. It is established that when adding rocks, the amount of exchange bases increases, the share of ab- sorbed calcium decreases, and hydrolytic acidity decreases. The pH of the medium changes: when acidic rocks are introduced, acidification of the soils is poor, and substantial alkalinization is introduced when the main rocks are introduced.
Keywords: soil-absorbing complex, hydrolytic acidity, pH, leached chernozem, rocks, apatite, limestone-shell rock, phosphogypsum.
Increase in the content of nutrients in leached chernozem during the introduction of various rocks
Increase in the content of nutrient elements of leached chernozem was carried out by the joint and separate application of such rocks as limestone-shell rock, apatite, phosphogypsum. As a result of the research, it was revealed that the content of macro and microelements of nutrition increased with respect to control. It has also been established that when the rock is introduced, the yield of sunflower rises.
Keywords: macroelements, microelements, leached chernozem, apatite, limestone-shell rock, phosphogypsum.
Reasons and consequences of blocking of chernozems of loaded left shore of the Kuban river
Watering large areas of the Stavropol Territory has led to an increase in the level of groundwater. By the key method, a flooded area was selected, 3 sections were laid in automorphic and hydromorphic conditions. It is established that the main reason for the underflooding of the economy is the features in the geological and geomorphological structure of the territory. The farm occupies the left-bank foothill part of the Kuban River. There are five above-flood terraces. According to the geological structure, the soils of the terraces have the following structure: the 1st layer is a basin, composed of indigenous, clayey, very dense rocks of the Maikop suite, which is a regional water body on the way of infiltrating atmospheric precipitation; The second layer is sandy-pebble, which is an aquifer; The third layer is a stratum of alluvial-eolic carbonate loams, which overlap the aquifer sandy-pebble layer; 4th layer – soil cover. Flooding of soils mainly occurs on the first and second above-floodplain terraces. Together with the complex lithological structure of soil and soil, the second cause of soil underflooding is the presence of irrigated systems on the upper terraces of the river. The flooding of chernozems leads to their salinization, alkalinization and alkalization.
Keywords: leached chernozem, flooding, salinization, solonetzation, exchange sodium.
Soil salt regime dynamics at rice fields in delta of Kuban river
The dynamics of the solar regime of alluvial meadow-bog soils is considered. Currently, three irrigation tracts have been formed in the delta of the Kuban: Mariano-Cheburgo, with an area of 109.4 thousand hectares; Mezhdurechensky (88.9 thousand hectares) and Zakubansky (53.9 thousand hectares). In the paper, the seasonal and long-term salt regime of the Azov rice irrigation system (AROS) of 10,000 hectares is considered in more detail. To study the seasonal salt dynamics of soil soils on two types of rice maps, wells were laid along three sections and soil samples were taken at standard depths. Each of the alignments was located in a certain area of the rice map: in the zone adjacent to the drainage and drainage network, occupying 20% of the area of the map (target 1); In the zone adjacent to the channel-distributor, occupying 20% of the area of the map (target 2); In the central zone occupying 60% of the area of the rice card (target 3). Comparison of soil content of soils in autumn 2002 and autumn 2009 Showed that on maps of the Krasnodar type in the thickness of 0-1 m there was an increase in salt reserves by 30% from the initial, and in the thickness of 0-2 m they increased by 40%. The indicator of salt accumulation intensity was plus 0.5, which according to the corresponding scale is estimated as expressed secondary salinity. The movement of salt masses within the map was uneven. In zones of active water exchange, salt reserves of 0-2 m thickness remained practically unchanged; In the central stagnant part of the maps, the salt content of the 0-1 m layer increased 1.6 times, and in the two-meter layer it increased more than 2-fold.
Keywords: Delta of the Kuban, rice irrigation system, salt regime, soil-grounds, salt accumulation.
Changes of carbonates concentration and pH in soils of Kislovodsk parks under variation of vegetation
The content of carbonates and acid-base potential of soils of virgin lands and soils of artificial plantings of Kislovodsk parks on various parent rocks has been studied: eluvium of calcareous rocks, deluvium of sandstones, eluvium of dense calcareous rocks, dominated by dolomite and calcite. It is established that the growth of woody vegetation in more than 100-120-year period leads to the destruction of carbonate material and its removal to the lower part of the profile. Most actively, these processes occur under coniferous species. The involvement of soil in agricultural production also leads to a depletion of the upper part of the profile by carbonate material and its illuviation into the lower lying horizon. Both pure and mixed pine plantations lead to acidification of the upper part of the profile. Some deciduous species such as ash and maple also cause acidification in the upper part of the soil profile, and such as birch and oak, although they lower the pH values, but less significantly than the rest Studied rocks.
Keywords: Kislovodsk parks, carbonates, pH, virgin soil, arable land, tree plantations.
Influence of agricultural use of chernozems of The Central Ciscaucasia on amount and diversity of micromycetes
The influence of the agricultural factor on the abundance and diversity of micromycetes of the main subtypes of chernozems in the Central Ciscaucasia was studied. It has been established that on chernozems formed on loess-like loam the number of micromycetes on arable land exceeds similar indicators on virgin soil. The number of microorganisms in the soil of Maikop clays formed on eluvium is considerably higher in the virgin areas than in agrobiocenoses. In the studied subtypes of chernozems, the variety of microscopic fungi on plowland decreases in comparison with the virgin soil, but to a varying extent.
Keywords: chernozems, virgin land, arable land, micromycetes, winter wheat, biodiversity.
Influence of agricultural use of chernozems of the Central Ciscaucasia and the seasonal dynamics of numbers of ammonifiers
Study of influence of agricultural use of lands on seasonal dynamic of ammonificators amount. The object of study was virgin soil and arable land of basic subtypes of chernozems of Central Ciscaucasia: southern, ordinary (carbonate, ordinary, alkaline and solonetsous-fused) and leached. Sampling of soil samples on arable land was carried out in seasonal dynamics in the main phases of the growing season of winter wheat: shoots, spring tillering, tube exit, flowering, milk ripeness, after harvesting. On the virgin soil selection was carried out in the same time as in the arable land. It has been established that on chernozems formed on loess-like loams (southern, ordinary carbonate, ordinary and leached), the number of microorganisms on the arable land exceeds the similar parameters on virgin land by an average of 1.5-2.0 times. The investigated index in chernozems formed on the eluvium of Maikop sediments (solonetsous and solonetsous-fused) is higher in virgin areas. Seasonal dynamics of the number of ammonifiers on the virgin soil of all studied subtypes of chernozems is weakly expressed. On the plowed field there are significant differences in the indicator under study for the phases of development of winter wheat. The minimum values are in the early spring period, the maximum for the flowering phase at a difference of 3.9-10.8 times higher.
Keywords: Central Ciscaucasia, chernozems, virgin land, arable land, ammonifiers, winter wheat.
SOIL CONDITIONS AND FERTILITY IN REGIONS
Chernozem phosphate regime changes in south-western forest-steppe zone
Two rotation thermowelding five fields crop rotation on Chernozem typical the contents kislotorastvorimuu phosphorus and its mobility remained almost at the initial level. The content of mobile phosphorus in arable and subsurface soil layers in the absence of fertilizer increased slightly and is biased, as it does not satisfy the indica- tor of verification at 5% significance level. With the application of mineral fertilizers increases the content of mo- bile phosphorus in the soil: significant (51 to 107 mg/kg) increase observed in the layer of 0-40 cm N120P120K120. Since the depth of the soil profile to 60 cm, the content of mobile phosphorus in fertilizer varies significantly less (20-22 mg/kg), in comparison with the original data, and in the layer of 60-100 cm is just 3-8 mg/kg the Degree of mobility of phosphorus in the arable layer of soil with fertilizers is increased to 0.19 mg/l at N120P120K120, and deeper drops dramatically and in the layer of 60-100 cm is 0.05 mg/l. Without application of fertilizers over two rotations thermowelding crop rotation in the soil layer of 0-60 cm observed decrease in all fractions of soil phos- phate with the exception of the phosphates of iron. Introduction N120P120K120 in 2 times increases the content of loosely bound phosphates and phosphates of aluminum.
Keywords: typical chernozem, mineral fertilizers, degree of mobility of phosphates, phosphate regime.
Impact of agrogenic affect on morphological profile and agrochemical characteristics of chestnut soil in dry steppe of Byraytia
The influence of crop rotation, permanent fallow and output to fallow land on changes of morphological profile and agrochemical properties of brown soil in conditions of long-term experiment are discussed. Under the influence of 29-year various agrogenetic influence following genetic horizons in chestnut soil profile has been formed: Aar, AB, B1, В2к, ВСк, Ск. Basic morphological changes characteristic for the humus layer width and the level of carbonates occurrence. The highest values are marked at fallow lands. In soil of the permanent fallow carbonates are pulled to the surface and a carbonate layer becomes more concentrated. The output of arable land to fallow restores the potential fertility of chestnut soils, but permanent fallow leads to deterioration of soil agrochemical properties. In the arable horizon of 29-year fallow best agrochemical indicators determined: humus content (2.13%), sum of absorbed bases (16.1 mg-eq/100 g), available phosphorus content (274 mg/kg) and available potassium (126 mg/kg).
Keywords: chestnut soil, crop rotation, fallow land, permanent fallow, morphological profile, agrochemical soil characteristics.
Agroecological condition of brown forest soils on peach cultivation in Krasnodar region
A comparative analysis of the complex agrogenic changes of the brown forest lowsaturated soil in the cultivation of peaches (Persica Mill.) in the humid subtropics of Russia. By genetic horizons of the soil profile studied: soil particle size distribution, content of basic nutrients, heavy metals, humus, soil enzymatic activity and functional biodiversity of microbial communities (by multisubstrate testing) It is shown in comparison with the natural soils that long-term cultivation of peach (more than 12 years), accompanied by the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, has led to depletion of the soil profile humus, nitrogen, calcium and magnesium. The tendency of growth of the gross content of the soil zinc and copper in 1.3-1.5 times. A decrease of invertase activity in the surface layer of soil, urease – the soil profile to a depth of 17 cm. Catalase activity remained at a level of natural biocenosis soil, the state of the microbial community on a range of indicators described as stable.
Keywords: brown forest soils, peach culture, mineral fertilizers, grain size distribution, enzymatic activity.
Ecological estimation of soils in forest and agrarian ecosystems of Yuriev-Pol’skoe Opolye
Genetic and ecological characteristics of soils of the forest and agrarian ecosystems in Yuriev-Polskiy opolie at the Educational-experimental farm «Druzhba» in Yaroslavl region are discussed. The field mapping, model experiments, agroecological analysis of soil samples and water migration research at catenas in 2010-2017 are summarized. Soil podzol- and gley-formation processes, contributing to the formation in soils of the southern taiga subzone primarily soddy and soddy-podzolic soils developed at cover loamy and binomial deposits, are settled. Soil podzol formation process stops at arable land, but acid hydrolysis of minerals penetrate through profile to under arable layer. Soils characterize by high acid pH and deficit of available phosphorous.
Keywords: forest and agrarian ecosystems, podzolic, soddy-podzolic, soddy and grey soils, erosion, acidity, water migration, ecological risks.