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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: Р.М. Алексахин, д.б.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., В.Г. Минеев, д.с.-х.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Панасин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., П.Д. Попов, д.с.-х.н., В.Г. Сычев, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н.
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2017 / Issue 2
OUR GUEST – NIZHNIY NOVGOROD STATE AGRICULTURAL ACADEMY: to 100th anniversary of foundation of Higher agricultural courses in Nizhniy Novgorod
Achievements and prospects of scientific activity of The Nizhniy Novgorod State Agricultural Academy in competitiveness ensuring of agricultural production
The article gives a brief characteristic of the basic directions of scientific and innovative activity of the Nizhniy Novgorod state agricultural Academy, aimed at improving the competitiveness of agricultural production, including in the framework of the tasks designated in the decree of the President of the Russian Federation from 21.07.2016 No 350 «On measures on realization of state scientific and technical policy in development of agriculture».
Keywords: scientific and innovation activity, increase efficiency, import substitution, food security, crops, livestock, research directions.
Notion agrochemicals, modern trends of its application in agricultural sector of Russian Federation
The article gives a brief history of the formation range of mineral fertilizers at the turn of XX-XXI centuries. It was noted that in the beginning XXI. There was a significant expansion of the production of complex mineral macro- and micronutrients, as well as microbiological preparations. In the agrochemical market there was a group of special complex fertilizers to include in their composition of amino acids, growth regulators, humic substances, etc., which greatly expanded the concept of «fertilizer» to the concept of «agrochemicals». A review was presented to the regulatory documentation and publications of individual authors, containing the interpretation of these concepts, and noted their inconsistencies. Attention is drawn to the weak ability to control the validity of the application of fertilizer funds based on the use of existing standards for maximum allowable concentrations of chemicals in the soil. Presented by the judgment that in the area of interest agronomic chemistry evidence-based should be included not only the fertilizer and chemical meliorants, but also chemical substances of natural or synthetic origin having an indirect fertilizing effect and/or influencing the soil and the process of plant nutrition.
Keywords: fertilizer, agrochemicals, soil, normative document, maximum permissible concentration.
Agroecological problems of organic fertilizers use in agriculture
The article presents an overview of approaches to classification of organic fertilizers, selected groups with a similar impact on components of the environment. On the basis of experimental data there were revealed the main trends of transformation of soils under the influence of organic waste of poultry farming (increasing the content of organic substances and biogenic elements up to abnormally high quantities, the increase in the content of mobile forms of heavy metals to excess levels and microbiological pollution of soil). The article provides recommendations for reducing the negative impacts of livestock (poultry) complexes of the industrial type, including the correct choice of site for placement of such objects taking into account requirements of the territory in which waste disposal is planned.
Keywords: organic fertilizer, waste, livestock farms of industrial type, soils, components of the environment, negative impact, nutrients, heavy metals.
Evaluation of silicon-containing minerals effectiveness for field crops cultivation
Currently becoming increasingly relevant in the practical use of plant natural minerals. Siliceous rocks are characterized by a porous structure, contain in their composition of plants need silicon and other plant nutrients and can be used as fertilizer and natural sorbents. In conditions of pot experiment 1 the diatomite in the background, NK has raised maize yields by 5% (direct effect), mustard 27% (aftereffect). The use of diatomite increased accumulation in plants NРK on average 7-12%, and silicon − 1.3-1.6 times. Application of different doses of zeolite and bentonite clay in the experiment 2 increased the grain yield of wheat in direct action and of oats in the after-effect and a clear dose → effect was not observed. The average for the study years (2010 - 2013) zeolite increased the yield of wheat by 35%, oats – by 44%, bentonite clay 20 and 33%, respectively. The introduction of the minerals had an ambiguous influence on the content of NРK in the obtained products.
Keywords: zeolite, diatomite, bentonite clay, doses, estimation, yield.
Biopreparations: significance in modern agriculture and experience in Nizhniy Novgorod region
The effect of biopreparations Azotovit, Baktofosfin, Baikal and micronutrient Mikromak in the forest-steppe zone on the yield of spring wheat variety Kurskaya 2038 and properties of dark gray forest soils were studied. Studies have shown that the use of biopreparations at dark gray forest soil increases yield by 7.8-13.2% in com- parison with control and improves the condition of organic matter due to the increase in its composition readily degradable component. Experimentally established changes in the number of soil bacteria cultivated on meat-peptone and starch-ammonium using biologics. The greatest number of bacteria-aminoheterotrophyc found in combination Azotovit, Baktofosfin and Mikromak (39.2 million/1 g soil), bacteria-aminoautotrophyc – using Mikromak, Baikal and N70P50K50 (34.9 million/1 g soil). It means that the degree of relationship yields of spring wheat with readily degradable organic matter (r = 0.56) and strong with number of soil microorganisms (r = 0.68-0.80). The largest contingent net income obtained in the experiment No 2 in the embodiment 7 in a joint application Baikal preparation, microfertilizer Mikromak and fertilizers in N70P50K50 dose.
Keywords: Azotovit, Baktofosfin, Baikal, Mikromak, spring wheat, soil, microorganisms, efficiency, yield.
Chelated microfertilizers: experience and prospects of use
In conditions of high culture of agriculture increases significantly the role of trace elements, which determine the qualitative characteristics of crops, their resistance to adverse environmental conditions. In this regard, much attention is paid to the choice of the forms of micronutrients, among which the increasing role of chelate compounds. Given that in Russia the production of such fertilizers is in the development stage, and assessment of prototypes is the main condition of promotion them on the market. The object of the research in this paper was chelating compounds HEDP zinc, copper, manganese and iron developed by the Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic RAS. In conditions of pot experiment were studied for their effect on the yield of spring rape, white Lupin and oats. For comparison used the traditional forms of the studied trace elements – sulfate of the respective metals. The obtained results show that the chelated trace minerals had an advantage over their saline counterparts when growing spring rape and oats. The best effect of foliar fertilization of cultures had substance, the structure of which was present in the promoter of solubility. There were also identified individual characteristics of the plants in the study of trace elements. So the treatment of the spring rapeseed chelates containing zinc and copper, contributed more to the development of generative organs.
Keywords: trace minerals, chelating compounds, sulfates, zinc, manganese, copper, iron, rapeseed, white lupine, oat, growing experience, biomass.
Vermicomposts characteristics and its impact on agrochemical indicators of light gray forest soil, yield and production quality
An agrochemical characteristics of composts and vermicomposts is given. It was found that the agronomical value of vermicompost is determined by the «nutritional value» of organic material, which is processed by earth-worms. It is noted that the nitrogen and potassium contents in vermicompost is reduced, and the concentration of phosphorus remains at the original level of the substrate. The results of studies on the effectiveness of vermicomposts are presented in the red beet Pablo F1 and Eagle heart tomatoes, conducted in the field and in the protected ground. Vermicomposts application under microfield experience provided a reduction of the exchangeable and hydrolytic acidity and increase of the total absorbed bases of the light gray forest loam soil. Significant growth (29.1%) of the red beet root crops has been reached by application of vermicompost based on chicken manure, and the most high-quality product has been obtained by using vermicompost based on cattle manure. Studies conducted in the conditions of the protected ground showed that the application of vermicompost based on litter cattle manure increased the yield of tomatoes by 52.4-82.1% compared to the control variant.
Keywords: agrochemical characteristics, composts, vermicomposts, soil, protected ground, red beet, tomato, yield.
Influence of fertilizers systems on ability of microfaunistic complex in technogenic disturbed soils to regenerate
The article presents the features of changes in the number and structural components microfaunistic complex of technogenically disturbed soils in the conditions of the agricultural landscape. The main aim of this work was to estimate the influence of mineral fertilizers and organic-mineral system of fertilizers on the regeneration pro- cesses in the small community of soil invertebrates mechanically disturbed soils. Research on the restoration of the size and structure of microarthropod carried out on gray forest light loamy soils in Nizhniy Novgorod region. Has been monitored on two plots of farming, which in the spring period of 2010 was construction on the main pipeline, resulting in soils that have been disturbed. To estimate the total number of small soil invertebrates – of oribatid mites. and spring tails for 2010-2012 were selected and analyzed 2160 soil monoliths, each with a volume of 125 cm3. A direct account of the small soil invertebrates conducted in the laboratory according to the method Tullgren-Berlese using electric lamps. Revealed that the mineral system of fertilizers applied on the mechanically disturbed soils, has a beneficial effect on the complex microscopic invertebrates, helping to increase their population. The maximum number – 354 units/m2 microarthropod in the variant with application of P60K60 was noted in 2012 emphasizes the fact of positive influence of joint application of peat-manure compost (60 t/ha) and mineral fertilizers P60K60 on the abundance of small soil arthropods. It was found that organic-mineral system of fertilizers in comparison with mineral, provides the most rapid and effective regeneration of the size and structure of the complex microarthropod.
Keywords: system of fertilizers, soil disturbance, agrocoenosis, biota, microfauna.
Some ecologicallegal and economic aspects of improper use of agricultural land for intended purpose
In the Russian Federation as a whole and the Nizhniy Novgorod region in particular, there is the problem of misuse of agricultural land, expressed in the appearance of fallow (abandoned), uncultivated lands. At the same time, despite the existence of rather elaborated ecological and legal base to combat the phenomenon of the withdrawal of agricultural land from active use and their return to the arable fund, there are a number of uncertainties related to the involvement of technology such lands in active agriculture use and compiling the minimum required, but sufficient the list of agrotechnical events. Deserves special attention the problem of economic justification of such technology. The article identified the main risks associated with non-use of agricultural landscapes for agricultural purpose and made a tentative calculation of the cost of translation of this category of land to cropland, depending from the stage of successional processes on uncultivated areas studied. Recommended sowing green manure crops with short vegetation period on the newly used in the agricultural production lands to accelerate the mineralization of crop residues and forming of the arable horizon with a satisfactory phytosanitary characteristics. Eventually in the conditions of the Nizhniy Novgorod region the destruction of trees and shrubs and the subsequent plowing will cost more than three times more expensive than plowing fallow lands and will amount respectively 21330 rubles and 6330 rubles/ha.
Keywords: agricultural land, improper use of land, secondary succession, the cost of measures for the introduction into circulation laylands.
Actualization of approaches to selection of agricultural lands types and kinds
The paper presents and justifies an approach to the structuring of agricultural land. There was proposed selection of the types of agricultural land depending on the intensity of their use, the degree of mechanization of production, and also taking into account the need of the formation of reserve funds and the availability of statutory environmental constraints of nature use. The allocation of types of land is based on the conventional approach, in which the lands are subdivided, depending on their suitability for use as arable, forage and other areas.
Keywords: types of land, intensive agricultural production, land conservation, environmental constraints of nature use, land of industrial farming.
SOIL FERTILITY IN REGIONS
Tambov region soil productivity dynamics
Soil covering of the Tambov region is represented by many soil varieties. Black soils (chernozem)occupy the most part (85,8 per cent) of agriculturally used areas; leached black soils make 58,6 per cent, typical chernozem makes 27,2 percent, grey and dark grey forestall chernozem makes 2,4 per cent, meadow chernozem makes 3,9 per cent, inundation meadow chernozem makes 3,3 per cent and other varieties make 4,6 per cent. Soils of loam and heavy clay loam character prevail as for their grain-size distribution. According to the results of Tambov region soil productivity monitoring up to 2015 year as on 01.01.2016 it is found that a part of acid soils makes 74,0 per cent of tillable lands, humus content is average (6,6 per cent), phosphorus content is also average (90,1 mg/kg) and potassium concentration is increased (104,2 mg/kg). Other Tambov region agrochemical parameters drop is also observed. All these observations serve as factors limiting arable crops stable and heavy yields; therefore it will be difficult to maintain soil productivity without fertilization and ameliorants using.
Keywords: Tambov region, soils fertility, monitoring, agrochemical indices.
State of arable soils fertility in Tomsk region
It was established fertility of arable land used for agricultural production is reducing. Low and poorly provided with humus 58.9% of arable land, 25.3% of middle and only 15.8% of the humus content higher than 4.5%. Low acidity (up to 5.0) observed by 47.9% of the area of 32.8% has a slightly acid reaction (5.5), soil acidification occurs. Is dominated by soils with high (151-250 mg/kg) and very high (above 250 mg/kg) content of mobile phosphorus – 40.5% and 25.8%, in 19.2% of the square marked by labile phosphorus content of less than 100 mg/kg. Low and very low content of exchange potassium (to 80 mg/kg) has 23% of an arable land, 27.3% of the medium secure exchange of potassium and only 49.7% of arable land are high (121-170 mg/kg) and very high content of exchange potassium (above 170 mg/kg). In the Tomsk region agriculture NPK balance is negative and amounts to 76.25 kg/ha, including on nitrogen 34.1 kg/ha. In this connection it is necessary to introduce crop rotation in biological systems fertilizers.
Keywords: agrochemical inspection, soil fertility, Tomsk region.
Microelements in soils of Minusinsk forest-steppe in Krasnoyarsk region
The article presents the results of agrochemical soil survey on microelement content. The quantity of a mobile form of minerals in soils depends on conditions of their soil formation, agrophysical and agrochemical properties, concentration of elements in the parent rock materials, use of fertilizers and biological features of crops. In zone soils deficiency of zinc (99,8%), manganese (99,2%), cobalt (98,6%), copper (96,2%), molybdenum (79,7%) is noted. Increased humus content of soil (weighted average content is 6,7%) and neutral reaction of the environment (weighted average pH 6,1) reduces the bioaccessability of microelements to plants. In a harvest of crops the lack of minerals is noted. For improvement of microelement structure it is necessary to apply complex use of micro- and organic fertilizers.
Keywords: soil, microelements, content, deficiency, harvest, Minusinsk forest-steppe, Krasnoyarsk region.
Monitoring of agricultural lands in Transbaikalian territory
Description of features and climatic conditions of soil cover of the Transbaikalian Territory is given. Monitoring of agricultural land state in region has been carried out since 1966. Average weighted content of organic matter in plowed land is 4.4%, humus balance is negative and amounts to 311.1 thousand tonnes. More than 70% of soils have a low content of phosphorus from 42 to 55% mg/kg. Average weighted amount of potassium in soils increased from 110 to 121 mg/kg. Arable land has a close to neutral reaction of the soil acidity. No changes in soil acidity occurred, average weighted indicator is 5.8. Over the past 20 years, volume of fertilizers application has declined sharply from a maximum of 67,600 tons in 1986-1990, up to 0.4 thousand tons in 2011-2015. Work on chemical land reclamation has ceased altogether. Results of experiments with grain crops show that nitrogen fertilizers are effective in areas where the cryogenic meadow-forest and soddy-forest soils are distributed (increments from application of 40 kg d.v/ha are 6 c/ha). At soils of chernozem type phosphorus fertilizers are leading (increments from application of 40 kg d.v/ha at chernozems amounted to 2-3.5 c/ha, at dark gray and chestnut soils, respectively, 2.8 and 2.5 c/ha).
Keywords: agrochemical research, soil, climate, content of humus, phosphorous, potassium, acidity, nutrients balance, fertilizers, Transbaikalian territory.
Agroecological soil monitoring of agricultural territory in Tuva republic
The exposure of such changes of soil fertility as containing of organic substance, extractable phosphorus and exchange potassium is based on the total agrochemical survey data analysis. In order to improve the arable land fertility one should use the local resources: zeolites, composts and ploughing of siderates cultures and straw.
Keywords: monitoring, soil organic matter, fertility, mineral fertilizers, chernozem, chestnut soils, Tuva republic.