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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: Р.М. Алексахин, д.б.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., В.Г. Минеев, д.с.-х.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Панасин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., П.Д. Попов, д.с.-х.н., В.Г. Сычев, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н.
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2018 / Issue 2
LMSU SOIL SCIENCE FACULTY – 45th ANNIVERSARY
Anniversary of Soil Science faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University
A brief presentation of the introductory article of the founder and first dean of the Soil Science Faculty of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, academician G.V. Dobrovolsky (1915-2013) to the handbook on the educational and scientific activities of the faculty is presented. The history of the development of soil science is shown, beginning with the works of M.V. Lomonosov and ending with the work of modern scientists and teachers of the faculty not only in educational laboratories, but also in the field, which always differed the soil scientists of the Dokuchaev scientific school.
Keywords: university, Lomonosov Moscow State University, soil science department, scientific school.
Acculturation of podzolic soils: actual aspects
According to the data of the long-term stationary experience of the Department of Agriculture and Agroecology of the Lomonosov Moscow State University in cultivation process (crop rotations, application of fertilizers and meliorants) for 3-5 years, the fertility of soddy-podzolic soils gradually increases to the equilibrium level. Strongly cultivated soils are more resistant to degradation processes when the factors of anthropogenic impact are removed, which must be taken into account when classifying cultivated soils.
Keywords: soil science, fertility, acculturation.
Changes of morphological formation of chestnut soil due to land planning
The specificity of the formation of heterogeneity of the chestnut soil during the planning work in conditions of irrigation farming is shown. The estimation of their quality and peculiarities of morphological organization of new soil profiles is given. It’s established that their formation is accompanied by emergence of the horizons having in comparison with a virgin variant smaller power, other sequence and structure of the material composing them.
Keywords: chestnut soils, planning, heterogeneity, pedoturbation.
Formation of agrophysical conditions at heterogenic soil surface
Physical properties of soils Vladimir Opolie characterize a complex soil cover as education, «mosaic», nonuniform on functioning, with the difficult agrophysical picture caused by both the pedogenetical and agrotechnological reasons. Results of detailed researches in a transect have allowed to reveal features of their lateral distribution and the main regularities of formation of the water-air mode of soils. Soils with the second humic horizon are authentically allocated from the general massif of the explored soils with the best agrophysical indicators. Noted regularities of a spatial agrophysical picture of a landscape play an important role in processes of redistribution of moisture in a profile and, respectively, its availability to plants. Results of researches have formed the basis of expected calculation of the water-air mode by means of mathematical model. The complex quantitative index based on probabilistic agrophysical assessment of the mode has confirmed that the best conditions are peculiar to gray forest soils with the 2nd humic horizon. They possess the dominating role in formation of a spatial agrophysical picture of the explored territory, their situation in an agrolandscape has the defining value in formation of the water-air mode and, eventually, productivity of cultures.
Keywords: spatial heterogeneity, physical properties, agrophysical conditions, soil cover, water-air mode, productivity.
About formation of deep-humus soils (dedicated to professor L.O. Karpachevsky)
The role of soil formation factors in the accumulation of organic matter in the lower horizons of deep humus soils is considered: soil-forming rock, roots, oxidation and illuviation of humus. The formation of deep humus chernozems, brown forest and gray forest soils occurs as a result of allochthonous transfer of material by wind or water. The soil thus grows upward, increasing the thickness of the humus horizon.
Keywords: deep humus soils, carbon content in soils and rocks, «normal» and «abnormal» soils, plant roots, soil formation on kurums.
«Non-market» essence of market relations in the field of land use
The existing methods and approaches to assessing the market value of land are analyzed. It is found that the relationship between demand and supply in the free real estate market, which is fully implemented only to assess the value of the comparative approach, invariably further adjusted by other approaches and methods independent of the market. Thus, in the market value of land and in the types of land turnover with which they are connected, an essential component is completely «non-market». Proposes a more active promotion in the field of assessment of agricultural land ideas of I.I. Karmanov, which proposed a phased algorithm for the calculation of the market value of the land: through the study of soil agrochemical parameters and climatic characteristics, the determination of the soil-ecological index, tariff categories and rates of the soils, the market value of land.
Keywords: land market value, land market, fertility, soil-ecological index, income approach, cost approach, approach of comparison of market sales.
Application of humic preparations for cultivation of unveiled potato by biologicalized technology
There are presented the results of breeding experience of potato microtubers with the use of potassium humate in the conditions of the Botanical Garden. It was revealed that on constructozems the maximum yield increase (100%) was noted on the variant with preplant treatment of micro tubers with the potassium humate preparation before planting, followed by treatment with the drug on vegetating plants during the budding phase and the beginning of flowering. Yield in this version was 2 times more than in the control and amounted to 16.7 t / ha. It was found that the application of potassium humate in the form of spraying plants led to an increase in the yield of the obtained mini tubers by 72% and amounted to 14.3 t/ha. The use of humate during the potato growing season stimulated tuberization, increased the reproduction ratio from 27.8% to 34.3%, the yield of the seed (standard) fraction from 53% to 65.7%, which led to an increase in productivity.
Keywords: potato, humate, preplant treatment, meristem, minitubers, tuber formation, reproduction rate, yield, tuber fractionation.
Mitigating activity of humic substances in relation to wheat seedlings under unfavorable temperatures
The influence of humic substances (HS) on the germination of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. cv. Moskovskaya 39 under unfavorable warmer (+35 С) and colder (+4 С) temperature was investigated. At elevated temperature we observed a decrease in the length of shoots by 21%, and at colder by 58% compared with the control seedlings. In the case of roots, the influence of temperature was less pronounced: at elevated temperature the length of the roots decreased by 25%, at lower by 42% compared to the control. It was found that the most pronounced mitigating effect of HS under the conditions of temperature stress was observed at a concentration 100 mg/l. When temperature increased to adverse level, the introduction of HS led to partial or complete stress mitigation in wheat, and fulvic acids were more effective than humic acids. Under conditions of lowered temperature, mitigating effect of HS was less pronounced, and the completed stress reduction was noted in only one case. When high temperature stress was facilitated by increasing temperature to +38 С, protective efficiency of HS decreased and was very poor pronounced. The obtained data indicated that HS could partially or completely mitigate stress induced by unfavorable temperature, and the magnitude of the observed effect depended mainly on the intensity of the stress.
Keywords: humic substances, temperature stress, Triticum aestivum L.
Assessment of herbicide Imazamox phytotoxicity in soil using different bioassay methods
The study of phytotoxicity of imidazolinone herbicide imazamox in soils of various types has been performed by means of laboratory bioassay techniques. The accuracy of the method of seedlings in soil did not depend on the used response and was 5% at an average, what allowed characterizing accuracy as good. The accuracy of the laboratory-vegetative method of bioassay related greatly to the used response and varied from 7% to more than 10% when the shoots’ length or fresh biomass were used; in the latter case, the accuracy of the method was characterized as unsatisfactory, and so biomass could not be recommended as an indicator for imazamox bioassay. Based on the comparison of the metrological characteristics of the examined bioassay techniques and taking into account the great labor- and time consumption of pot vegetation experiments, bioassay with seedlings seems can be recommended for the preliminary determination of imazamox in the soils. Phytotoxicity of the imazamox in soils was demonstrated to decrease along with increasing contents of organic matter and clay apparently due to adsorption of the herbicide on these soil components.
Keywords: imazamox, pulsar, imidazolinone, phytotoxicity, bioassay.
Specificity of taxonomic composition of bacterial communities of medicinal plants and their ecological significance
The spectrum of cultures dominating in the composition of epiphytic bacterial communities was determined on 5 types of medicinal plants by analyzing the nucleotide sequences of the 16SpRNA genes. Most of the detected bacterial taxa were first found on medicinal plants. A low proportion of bacteria in the hydrolytic complex is established. This fact is confirmed by the use of the structural and functional method, which made it possible to reveal the closeness of the physiological diversity of the bacterial complex under investigation to that of the phyllosphere of lichens and the algal alga. The ecological functions of bacteria dominating on medicinal plants are analyzed.
Keywords: medicinal plants, epiphytic bacteria, taxon, physiological diversity, ecological functions.
Influence of spectral light on the physiological biochemical parameters of Tagetes patula L
There was studied the effect of lighting in red (max 660 nm) or blue (max400 nm) light from the LED panels the physiological and biochemical parameters of Tagetes patula L. plant. Shown that after the red light supplementary lighting the cell homeostasis was stabilized, level of abscisic (ABA) and salicylic (SA) acids in tissues of leaf increased, stomatal conductance decreased compared to control. After the blue light supplementary lighting the of plants the cell homeostasis was changed, only the ABA level increased. In this variant, an increase in stomatal conductance and a significant change in the component composition of the essential oil of the Tagetes patula L. plants were noted.
Keywords: spectral light, Tagetes patula L., salicilic acid, abscisic acid, stomatal conductance, essential oil.
Assessment of opportunity of lake bottom sediments application for recultivation of technogenically disturbed soils
The possibility of using bottom sediments of the pond for the purpose of reclamation of mechanically disturbed soils, which reduced their fertility, due to construction works, practically on all controlled parameters - the content of humus (organic matter), mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium, the pH of the salt extract. It is established that the application of organic-calcareous sapropel for the recultivation of technogeneously transformed soils contributes to a significant increase in the content of organic matter (53%) in them and a slight decrease in the exchange acidity (0.1 pH); on the content of mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium, the introduction of sapropel did not affect.
Keywords: gray forest light loamy soil, sapropel, pond, agrochemical indicators, recultivation of technogenically disturbed soils.
Dependence of plants development and nitrates accumulation in output on environmental factors and fertilizers
The article presents the research results on the Aquadon-Micro microfertilizer use with the Elf barley variety. The improved system of mineral and a new-generation microfertilizer application on the barley under conditions of the RF North-Western region was under study. The system made it possible to improve the fertilizing efficiency and increase plant resistance to adverse environmental influences. The research was carried out in 2014-2016 in accord with the field experiment methodology. Modern methods to analyze soils and plants were applied based on the long-time multi-factor stationary experience in the field gained since 2006. The results acquired prove it possible to decrease mineral fertilizer doses due to the application of microelemental fertilizers into cultivated soddy-podzolic soils of different cultivation state.
Keywords: barley, microelements, environment, climate, mineral fertilizers, nitrates.
Utilization the ash of organ-containing waste in agricultural production
Field experiments on the study of the efficiency of ash utilization of organ-containing wastes as a fertilizer for crops were conducted on soddy-podzolic soils of the Udmurt Republic in 2013-2017. The object of research was the ashes of flax sheave, bird litters and wood waste. Schemes of experiments included variants with different doses of ash (according to phosphorus P30-90) and with the introduction of a mixture of unilateral mineral fertilizers in similar doses. A significant positive effect of ash on potato yield is revealed. On average, for three years, the use of ashes for potatoes was effective at doses P30-60. Substantial addition yields increase 3.6-3.9 t/ha with respect to control were obtained. The effect of ash is not inferior to the effectiveness of a mixture of mineral fertilizers. Long-stalked flax showed high responsiveness to the ash applying, especially against the background of foliage spraying with carbamide in a dose of N40. Reliable increases in the yield of straw were 1.09-1.45 t/ha. A significant increase in the nutrients content in straw and flax seeds was obtained, and their removal increased with harvest. The statutory indicators of removal were in considerable connection with the use of fertilizers and amounted to: N 29.4-46.4 kg/t; P2О5 12.6-17.6 and K2O 19.9-24.0 kg/t of straw. A significant aftereffect of ash on the yield of clover meadow 1 and 2 years of use was revealed. The efficiency of the ash of organ-containing waste, taking into account its aftereffect, was expressed in a reliable increase in the crops productivity of crop rotation on average by 0.28-0.44 tons of grain units per hectare.
Keywords: utilization of organ-containing waste, energy saving, ash, soddy-podzolic soil, crop rotation, potatoes, long-stalked flax, yields.
Transformation of soils and agrochemical parameters of fertility in conditions of intensive land use (on the example garden non-commercial partnerships)
The results of the primary soil-agrochemical monitoring of a large (150 hectare) garden non-commercial partnership (GNP), founded 25 years ago. Mapping the soil cover at a scale of 1:5000 showed that during the time that has passed since the formation of the GNP, the properties of the dominant initial soils of hydromorphic series have been transformed into anthropogenically transformed and agrozems. The most contrasting changes occurred in soils on sites with intensive development, where mainly organic, as well as mineral fertilizers, siderates are used and an agrogenic (ridge) microrelief is formed, the anthropogenic microstructure of the soil cover. Agrochemical properties of soils are significantly different from background texture-differentiated soils under forest. More than 60% of the territory's soils have pHH2O higher than 6.0. Medium humus soils predominate (3- 5% humus). In the 0-10 cm layer, they are about 85%, and in the 10-20 cm layer about 55%. More than half of the soils (~54%), high and medium are provided with mobile phosphorus, exchangeable potassium is provided only about 5%. The obtained data reflect the current trends in the transformation of the soil cover with intensive development, typical for land use in GNP. These changes characterize the apparent increase in the productivity of soil in land and the feasibility of accounting for these changes in the basic documents responsible for the register of country's soil resources at the local level.
Keywords: monitoring, mapping, anthropogenically transformed soils, agrozems, land use, local level.
New development directions of Natural Specially Protected Areas
In 2017, which was held in the Russian Federation under the aegis of the Year of Ecology, its 100th anniversary marked the first Barguzin state natural biosphere reserve. Within the framework of the Concept for the Development of the System of Naturally Specially Protected Areas of Federal Significance for the Period to 2020, approved by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 2322-r of December 22, 2011, the Scientific and Methodological Center (FSBI «Information and Analytical Center for Protected Areas Support of Ministry for Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation) at once two projects in the field of environmental education «Letters to animals» and in the field of development of ecological tourism and biodiversity conservation «Wild Nature of Russia: to Preserve and to Watch». In the first project more than 100 reserves and national parks are involved. In the course of this project pupils of schools and kindergartens are invited to enter into correspondence with any wild animal of interest to them. Second project involves 27 federal state budget institutions that administer 19 reserves and 13 national parks. The project provides for the implementation of two priorities – «Development of ecotourism» and «Conservation of rare species», while implementing the work plan on priorities through extrabudgetary funds (private investors), with careful compliance with environmental legislation, attendance of natural specially protected areas should increase, conditions for the conservation and growth of populations of rare and endangered species of animals.
Keywords: natural specially protected areas, reserves, national parks, ecotourism, rare species of animals, protection.