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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.

Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева

Редколлегия: Р.М. Алексахин, д.б.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., В.Г. Минеев, д.с.-х.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Панасин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., П.Д. Попов, д.с.-х.н., В.Г. Сычев, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н.

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SOIL PROPERTIES

Dynamics of decomposition of vegetable residues in chernozem typical

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00001

In the regulation of the fertility of chernozems an important role is played by plant residues entering the soil after harvesting the cultivated crops. Their value is determined not only by biomass, but also by the rate of its decomposition, which affects the supply of nutrients to the plowing soil. The purpose of the work was to establish the degree and nature of the decomposition of plant residues in pure form and in a mixture with other crops along the soil layers of chernozem soil under the conditions of a micro-field experiment (laid in the fields of the Ertil district of the Voronezh region). It was found that the intensity of decomposition of a mixture of plant remnants of cultures was greater than in pure form. By the rate of decomposition of plant remains of cultures in their pure form, they can be arranged in the following descending order: sugar beet – 72.8%, sainfoin – 69.9, clover – 68.2, alfalfa – 67.7, barley – 54.7, winter wheat – 54.0, sunflower – 50.6%. The intensity of decomposition of plant residues in the mixture was higher than in pure form: sunflower with lucerne blue by 19.1%, with sainfoin by 16.3, with a sweet clover by 14.6, straw of winter wheat with alfalfa Blue by 6.5, with a sweet clover by 5.0, with a sainfoin by 3.8%.

Keywords: plant residues, typical chernozem, decomposition, perennial grasses, crop rotation.


The evolution of chestnut soils in the Holocene

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00002

The problems of soil formation occupy a leading place in modern theoretical soil science. To determine changes in chestnut soils over a 5-thousand year period, studies of buried soils and their modern analogues were carried out at the border of the Turkmen region of Stavropol and the Republic of Kalmykia. Thanks to the method of burial, the soil was not disturbed and preserved intact. Modern soils have been studied in the immediate vicinity (80-100 m) of the mound. Mineralogical, granulometric and salt composition, state of the soil sorption complex of buried and modern chestnut soils were studied. It is established that within 5-thousand years in the composition of clay minerals there has been a reorganization in the smectite-hydromica system with neoplasm of the latter. The content of kaolinite does not undergo special changes. According to the salt composition, the buried soils are medium solonchakous, modern soils are not saline. According to the composition of the exchange bases, the buried soils are classified as solonetzes, modern ones are non-solonetsous. The study of acid-base potential indicates a decrease in alkalinity in modern soils by 0.2-0.7 units at slightly alkaline pH, consequently, the soils have evolved from solonetzic solonets soils to zonal chestnut soils.

Keywords: evolution, smectites, hydromica, salt composition, solonetses, chestnut soils.


RESEARCH METHODS

Granulometric composition of soils: methods of laser diffraction and sedimentometry, their comparison and use

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00003

The granulometric composition of soils (GCS) is widely used both as the basic fundamental property and as the main predictor to calculate the necessary soil properties in the form of a predictor in pedotransfer functions (PTF). Currently, the traditional sedimentometric methods (the pipette method, hydrometer) are used, and a new method of laser diffraction begins to be actively used. The aim of the study is to compare the GCS obtained by different methods and to estimate of the possibility of using the results by laser diffraction to calculate the filtration coefficient (Kf). Despite the fact that the methods give systematic errors in different soils, the dispersion of GCS fractions, measured by both methods, was insignificant and did not change the type of soil texture. The results of the investigation of GCS by laser diffraction methods and the pipette method can be used for the predictive calculation of Kf with the use of PTF, without any modifications or recalculations for loamy soils of soddy-podzolic soil formation.

Keywords: granulometric composition of soils, laser difraction method, sedimentometry, pedotransfer functions, filtration coefficient.


Assessment of the effects of fertilizer based on sewage sludge by the bioassay method

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00004

Ecotoxicological assessment of aftereffect of compost application on the basis of sewage sludge in soils with different properties is given. The composting provided a reliable increase in the yield of cultivated crops. However, based on the results of soil biotesting by test cultures of different taxonomic groups, and also on the indicators of vital activity of microflora, chronic toxicity is established for soil organisms that limits their reproduction. Soil biotesting from the experience in the Vologda region has shown that chemical analysis is not suitable for predicting ecotoxicological risks when introducing waste, since the toxicity does not correlate with the amount present in the pollutant waste.

Keywords: soil, sewage sludge, heavy metals, chronic pollution, bioassay.


ECOTOXICOLOGY

Copper in agrocenoses of the forest-steppe of Central chernozem federal district

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00005

On results of local agroecological monitoring, carried out at reference sites, and a continuous agrochemical survey of arable soils of the Belgorod region has been conducted assessment of copper content in soils and crop production. It was established that the average gross copper content in the arable layer of chernozems in the forest-steppe zone is 13.1mg/kg. With an increase in the depth of the soil profile the total copper content decreases. According to the results of the continuous survey of 2010-2014, it was found that 96.8% of the arable soils of the Belgorod region are characterized by low availability of mobile forms of copper. Exceeding the MAC for mobile element forms was not observed. The main source of microelement supply to agrocoenosis is organic fertilizers. On average for 2010-2013 the dose of organic fertilizer application was 3.9 t/ha, and 92.1% of copper came from agrocoenosis to the agrocoenosis. The highest content of this metal was observed in sunflower seeds (14.5 mg/kg) and in soybeans (11.7 mg/kg), and the lowest in sugar beet roots (2.13 mg/kg) and corn kernels (2.56 mg/kg).

Keywords: copper, microelements, monitoring, soil, plants, chernozem.


Agrochemical aspects of mobile vanadium distribution in the alluvial soils of the Kaliningrad Region

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00006

Determined the content of mobile compounds of vanadium in soddy-alluvial and alluvial-marsh organic soils. A direct relationship between the content of particles of physical clay and rolling of vanadium in alluvial sod soils. Revealed a nonlinear relationship between some characteristics of acid-base properties of the soil absorption complex and a content of mobile vanadium in soddy-alluvial and alluvial-marsh soils. The assumption is made about the difference of mechanisms of sorption of compounds of vanadium in the mineral and organogenic soils.

Keywords: vanadium, alluvial soils, correlation, acid-base properties, Kaliningrad region.


PLANT NUTRITION

Quality of flax seeds and oil at different backgrounds of the mineral nutrition

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00007

Field experiments with flax-flax varieties Voskhod in 2013-2015 on the territory of a long-term stationary experiment in the Moscow region on soddy-podzolic soil. Agroclimatic conditions of vegetation periods during the years of research did not adversely affect the growth and development of flax fiber: the SCC in 2013 was 1.1, in 2014 – 1.05 and in 2015 – 1.5. It was found that, with the observance of crop rotation and the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers, high yields of flax were obtained for fiber (18.5-18.9 centner/ha) and for seeds (7.9-8.3 centner/ha). In seeds, the protein content was 16.9-19.5%, lipids 33.5-39.4%. The yield of linseed oil from seeds varied from 19.5 to 35.7% on average according to the variants of the experiment. The peroxide index had a value of 2.5 to 1.5 meq O2/kg, and an acid value of 1.1 to 1.9 mg KOH/g, which corresponds to the production of high-quality flax oil in accordance with the standards for all variants. In the fatty acid composition of linseed oil, the content of the sum of saturated fatty acids was 9.0-14.1%, the sum of unsaturated fatty acids was 85.9-91.0%, a high content of essential α-linolenic acid was also found 46.9-60.9%.

Keywords: flax-fiber, fertilizers, seeds, chemical composition, flaxseed oil.


Nanopowders of microelement metals for fodder beet quality and yield increase

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00008

The presents results of investigations on beet fodder «Ekkendorfskaya yellow», held in 2014-2016 in the context of the Ryazan region. It shows the influence of biologically active preparations on the basis of nanopowders of metals of iron, cobalt, copper and their combination on the physiological, biochemical and productive indexes of the beet plants in the field. All nanopowders were used the optimal concentration (0.1 g) per hectare norm of seeding determined in laboratory conditions. The best result was observed when using the drug with cobalt nanopowder (NP Co) – increased the root yield of 25.8 C/ha or 30.2% relative to the control.

Keywords: beet fodder, nanopowders of iron, cobalt, copper, yield, quality.


Nitrogen fertilizers application for sugar beat cultivation under various supply of mineral nitrogen and available phosphorous in chernozem soils

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00009

The issue of the influence of the degree of provision of chernozem soils with accessible forms of nitrogen and mobile phosphorus on the yield of sugar beet is considered. With increase in content of available nitrogen and mobile phosphorus the productivity of sugar beet, both without introduction, and with use of nitrogen fertilizers increases. The productivity of sugar beet increases upon transition of soils from low degree of security with available forms of nitrogen and mobile phosphorus in higher category.

Keywords: chernozem soils, agrochemical indicators, mineral fertilizers, nitrogen, mobile phosphorus, sugar beet, productivity.


ECOLOGY QUESTIONS

Agrochemical events in adaptive-landscape agriculture in the contaminated territories

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00010

In many years of research studied the influence of chemical events in the biological mobility of radionuclides. It is established that uptake of 137Cs by plants from marginal soils to 5.5 times higher compared to cultivated soils. The complex application of ameliorants and mineral fertilizers helps to reduce the accumulation of 137Cs in the crop of grain crops up to 3.7 times. It is shown that for the organization of the land use of radioactively contaminated agricultural grounds in the adaptive landscape agriculture it is necessary the grouping lands not only in agroecological and radioecological parameters, but also on the degree of cultivation of soils, which determines the mobility of radionuclides in the soil-plant system.

Keywords: system fertilizers, radionuclides, agriculture, countermeasure, soil fertility, crops.


Influence of quail manure and straw contaminated by 137Cs on admission of radionuclides in sprouts of wheat and pea

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00011

The article considers the influence labeled with radioactive cesium (137Cs) quail manure and straw cereals on receipt of this radionuclide in the spring wheat and pea plant seed for growing it on soddy-podzolic soils of different particle size distribution. It is shown from different sources cesium: mineral form, tagged and labeled straw quail droppings quantitative radionuclide transfer in sprouts of spring wheat and peas depends primarily on the size distribution of the soil composition. Adding quail manure decreased the 137Cs activity in the studied plants on sandy and heavy soils in 4.2 and 1.6 times, respectively.

Keywords: wheat sprouts, pea sprouts, radionuclides, quail droppings, 137Cs, labeled straw, soddy-podzolic soil.


Assessment of soil exposed to high-temperature effects in the accident at the main gas pipeline

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00012

One of the negative options for human influence on the soil cover is the effect of fire on it. This method of preparing soils for agricultural needs has been used by mankind since ancient times to effectively destroy the natural phytocoenosis. The disadvantage of using this method was a much high speed of depletion of soils, which ultimately eradicated this technology. However the problem of the negative impact of open fire on the soil cover of agricultural land has not disappeared over time and is relevant even today, although it is of a casual nature associated with man-made accidents and catastrophes. One of the options for this kind of impact are accidents on high-pressure gas pipelines accompanied by flaring of natural gas. The effect of high-temperature flame on soil cover leads to specific changes in physical, mechanical and agrochemical indicators within a radius of several hundred meters from the site of the accident. The article gives an assessment of the nature of changes in the main indicators of soil fertility in dark gray forest soils, depending on the degree of remoteness from the epicenter of the accident. It is established that as a result of exposure to high temperatures in the zone with the most severe damage, organic matter burns out, resulting in a threefold decrease in its content. Sintering and melting of soil minerals leads on average to a decrease in mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium by 38% and 58%, respectively. In addition, the effect of high temperatures causes a decrease in the content of mobile iron forms by more than 4.5 times. Detected features should be considered when planning for soil recultivation with a partially or completely a burnt fertile layer of soil.

Keywords: main gas pipeline, pyrogenesis, dark gray forest soils, humus, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, recultivation.


RESEARCH OF HUMIC PREPARATIONS

Evaluation of humic products application as ameliorants for degraded post-pyrogenic reclamation soils

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00013

Forest fires is an important factor that disturbs natural processes in the forest. Today, soil properties which have undergone significant changes and not for the better are not taken into account when restoring post-pyrogenic territories. It is necessary to carry out melioration measures to restore forest ecosystems and soil fertility. It is recommended to use Life Force Humate Balance product as a soil ameliorant and to compare its effect with humates Na obtained from cow manure by the oxidative-hydrolytic destruction method (the author's earlier studies). The experiment was conducted on Stavropol pine forest of Togliatti city, Samara region. In 2010 the territory has been exposed to surface and crown forest fires. At the beginning of June 2017, there were carried out 5 experimental plots 10 m2 each. Life Force Humate Balance fertilizer was applied in the quantity of 100, 300, 500, 800 and 1000 grams during the experiments. It was established that the application of fertilizers complex positively effects of optimal dosage of fertilizers on microbial condition of post pyrogenic soils especially after crown fires. It was also shown the importance of application – 300-500 g per 10 m2. Both reduction and excess of the doses lead to a leveling of positive effects.

Keywords: soils, wildfires, post-pyrogenic successions, reclamation of forests resources, complex fertilizer Life Force Humate Balance, humic acids, microbial soil status, soil microbial biomass, basal respiration.


Application of soil conditioners of life force company in the technology of green propagation of cherries and apple quince

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00014

The application of Life Force products in the technology of green propagation are presented. The article shows that when rooting green cuttings of the cherry rootstock VP-1 and apple quince in an artificial fog, it is effectively to add a Natural Humic Acids soil conditioner to the substrate at a concentration of 30 g/10 l of substrate with preliminary treatment of the basal part of the cuttings with an aqueous solution of IBA at a concentration of 50 mg/l. Soil conditioner Humate Balance when rooting the rootstock VP-1 also showed its effectiveness in a concentration of 6 g/10 l of substrate with preliminary treatment of cuttings with an aqueous solution of IBA (50 mg/l).

Keywords: green cuttings, rooting, substrate, indolyl-butyric acid, soil conditioner.


Impact of humic substances on the light reactions of photosynthesis in green microalga Scenedesmus Quadricauda

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00015

Assessment of the influence of humic substances on the light reactions of photosynthesis in microalgae Scenedesmus quadricauda using the parameters of fluorescence conducted for the first time. It is found that humic substances have a stimulating impact on the growth in microalgae only in stressful situations. Analysis of the induction curves of fluorescence showed that humic substances have some positive influence on primary processes of photosynthesis. Measurement of changes in the efficiency of photosynthetic processes by the parameters of fluorescence induction is a sensitive method that can be proposed to evaluate humic preparations developing for agriculture.

Keywords: humic substances, potassium dichromate, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, microalgae, biotesting, JIP-test.


The influence of alkaline extracts of weeds and organic fertilizers on the system soil-plant

DOI: 10.24411/0235-2516-2018-00016

The work shows the biological effects of alkaline extracts from waste of agricultural production influence on the biotests on the development of potatoes and peppers during the growing season. The change in their application of the properties of soils has been established: pH, Hh, M0, COx, indices of infrared spectra. On soddy-podzolic soil treatment seedlings of cress alkaline extract from manure with sawdust + Si increased the size of the roots of 4.41±0.8 to 5.31±0.3, and black earth - with a 2.71±0.2 to 5.21±0.4. When the pH in soddy-podzolic soil varies from 7.0 to 5.6, Eh – from 326 to 424 mV, CO2 – from 1445 till 1560 ppm, NO3 – from 12 to 14 mg/kg. In the experiment, the biological activity of alkaline extracts from agricultural wastes differed depending on the quality of the waters in which they were bred. An integral evaluation of the biological activity of the drugs is proposed.

Keywords: alkaline extracts from agricultural wastes, plants, soil properties.