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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: Р.М. Алексахин, д.б.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., В.Г. Минеев, д.с.-х.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Панасин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., П.Д. Попов, д.с.-х.н., В.Г. Сычев, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н.
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2017 / Issue 5
SOIL PROPERTIES AND IT’S FERTILITY
Aftereffect of liming and long-term application of fertilizers on dynamics of physical-chemical properties of light-grey forest soil
In article presents the results of long-term (1978-2015) researches on studying of influence of systematic introduction of the increasing doses of mineral fertilizers against an aftereffect of the lime application which is carried out agronomical are stated by the proved and raised doses on the physical-chemical properties of the light gray forest soil. Two-factor experience conducted in a hospital of the Nizhniy Novgorod Scientific-Research Institute for Agriculture in triplicates. It is established that positive action of lime application on acidity of the soil is shown within eight years after its carrying out (the I rotation of a crop rotation). In 16 years after introduction of dolomite powder (the II rotation of a crop rotation) action of lime application made 2/3 from initial. By the end of the IV rotation the greatest efficiency from an aftereffect of an ameliorant was noted at a dose of 1,5 H.a. Values of exchange acidity from the moment of laying of experience until the end of the IV rotation of a crop rotation were maintained at one level (average acid soil) by doses of dolomite powder of 2,0-2,5 H.a. at introduction of moderate doses of mineral fertilizers. Physical-chemical characteristics of soil in the experiment were changed with increasing doses of fertilizers: the hydrolytic acidity by 2015 has increased to 5.3 mEq/100 g of soil, and the amount of absorbed bases decreased to 6.8 mEq/100 g of soil. In process of increase in amount of the brought lime decrease in concentration of mobile aluminum in the soil, and against mineral fertilizers its increase is noted.
Keywords: stationary experience, light gray forest soil, physical-chemical properties of soil, liming, mineral fertilizers.
State of soils fertility in Stavropol region and ways for it’s zero-degradation level achievement in modern climatic conditions
Based on years of research assessed the current status of soil fertility in the Stavropol territory. Due to the natural characteristics and human impact in the region of 75% of agricultural land and 55% of arable land is exposed to degradation processes. The most damage to the humus condition of the soil cause water erosion and deflation. The purpose of research – assessment of soil fertility in the Stavropol territory and the development of a set of measures to reduce their degradation. The role of various activities in maintaining and improving the humus state of soils, achieve zero-degradation of soil cover of the region in the framework of the farming systems of new generation, which responds to environmental conditions. In the first place in the region requires optimization of the structure of sown areas. Evidence-based rotations reduce humus losses by 20-30%, increase the antierosion efficacy of green cover in 15-33% and increase the yield per hectare of crop rotation area by 6-7%. The placement of the rotation should conform to the principles of sustainability and patchiness. The stability of agrolandscapes provides anti-erosion land management. The development of ecological frame of forest and agrosteppe strips prevents erosion and ensures the accumulation of humus (0.17%), increases biodiversity (increasing the number of soil invertebrates on 118-159 ind/m2). Noted the stabilizing role of the long-term (37 years) application of phosphoric fertilizers in maintaining humus of the soil. It is established that application of organic fertilizers increases the content of mobile phosphorus 4-10 mg/kg (30%), exchangeable potassium 20-50 mg/kg (up 11.3%) and prevents soils dehumification. The amount of humus increases from 0.10 to 1.00% (or up to 23% of the initial level). Thus, reliable prevention of erosion, conservation and improvement of soil fertility is possible at complex use of all factors in the framework of modern effective management system of agriculture.
Keywords: soil, degradation, erosion, desertification, structure of sowing areas, land management, crotion.
Phosphorous regime of arable grey forest soil in Northern Trans-Ural
Presents the results of years of research phosphate mode of the three subtypes of grey forest soils of Northern Trans-Ural. It is established that arable dark-grey forest soils of Northern Urals are characterized increased availability of phosphorus. Its contents for the last 21 years ranged 186-319 mg/kg of soil. The content of mobile phosphorus in gray and light gray forest soils varies over 21 years in a wide range from 22 to 147 mg/kg. The only sources of phosphorus are organic fertilizers, since phosphate fertilizers are not used in agriculture. Making compost in the amount of 315 t/ha for 21 years does not provide recovery of phosphate regime of grey forest soils. The relative stability of phosphorus is characterized by dark-grey forest soil, all other subtypes are unstable. Annually from the total forms of phosphorus dark grey and grey forest passes of 53 and 41 kg/ha water soluble phosphates. Cultivation of crops on a light gray forest soils must be accompanied by the annual application of phosphorus fertilizers. On a gray and dark gray forest soils, the stabilization of the phosphorus status is due to the gradual release of phosphorus from total forms.
Keywords: light-gray forest and dark gray forest soils, plant-available phosphorus, fertilizers, arable land, Northern Trans-Ural, fertility, nutrient removal.
The diversity of physical-chemical properties of the arable grey forest soils profiles in the Bryansk opolie
The results of statistical processing data of soil mapping conducted in 80-s years of the ХХ century are discussed. The possible limits of physical-chemical properties most valuable in agronomical sense grey forest soils are presented. The necessity of taking into account the spatial variability of soil properties for monitoring and assessment of soil cover is discussed.
Keywords: grey forest soils, mapping, physical-chemical parameters, monitoring, Bryansk region.
Biologization of agriculture: experience in Belgorod region
The article considers the main results of the biologization of agriculture in the Belgorod region over the past five years. The soil cover is mainly represented by luvic chernozems and calcic chernozems. The data on the dynamics of fertilizer application and the volumes of liming of soils in the Central Chernozem District. It is established that due to the implementation of the biologization program for agriculture in 2012-2016, the level of application of organic fertilizers increased 3.43 times (to 6.65 tons/ha), liming volumes increased 11.1 times (up to 318.58 thousand hectares ) compared with 2007-2011. Over the same years, the share of legumes in the structure of sown areas increased by 3.6%, while the dimensions of symbiotic nitrogen fixation increased 1.53 times and reached an average of 17.4 kg/ha per year. The area on which biological plant protection products were used increased to 52.77 thousand ha/year. In order to protect the soil from erosion, forest melioration measures were carried out on a total area of 51.2 thousand hectares.
Keywords: biologization of agriculture, fertilizers, siderates, forest melioration, liming, symbiotic nitrogen, yield.
Fertility of arable lands in Chechnya Republic
The estimation of fertility condition of arable soils of the Chechnya Republic is given, which is actual from the point of view of preservation and reproduction of soil fertility, obtaining high yields of cultivated plants and production of ecologically clean agricultural products.
Keywords: fertility, soil, humus, fertilizer, diagnostics, harvest.
Agrochemical characteristic of arable soils in Astrakhan region
The results of agrochemical survey of arable soil in conjunction with agro-climatic characteristic of the Astrakhan region are highlighted in the article. In the dynamics for 50 years the phosphorus and potassium content is reproduced. Between 1965 and 1995 there was phosphorus increasing by 47.9 per cent; potassium increasing by 7.4 per cent, with subsequent reduction, respectively. The phosphorus content has remained almost unchanged from the beginning of 2000 to the present, but the potassium content is increasing. As of January 1, 2016, soils with a high and very high phosphorus content, average and high potassium content, very low content of organic matter and alkaline reaction of the soil compartment prevail in the region. On the content of the forms of microelements, arable soils are characterized as high-income by boron and manganese, middle-income by copper and low-income by cobalt and zinc. The nutrient balance of the farming in the region continues to be negative. The results of the field experiments have shown that in making mineral fertilizers in combination with microelements, a substantial addition of harvest is provided; qualitative features of obtained agricultural products are improving.
Keywords: Astrakhan region, agrochemical survey, arable soils, phosphorus and potassium content, microelements, organic matter.
Changes of chernozems soils acidity in northern forest-steppe of Kurgan region
The results of long-term monitoring of indicators of acidity Chernozem soils of Northern forest-steppe of Kurgan region is presented. It is established that during the period from 1993, there was a significant increase of acidity. pH of salt extract decreased on average by 0.4 units. Hydrolytic acidity increased from 3.67 to 5.21 mmol/100 g of soil. Arable chernozems of the northern forest-steppe of the Kurgan region are characterized by high potential acidity. This can be the cause of progressive acidification under the influence of a complex of external factors. As of 1965, the share of strongly acidic and medium-acid soils accounted for 2.1% of the total area of land. By 2013 the share of this group of soils has increased to 6%, and this situation began to form from the beginning of the 2000s, when chemical land reclamation was not carried out. From 2011 to 2016 phosphatization was carried out on an area of 10 thousand hectares. Liming in the farms of the service area in recent years is not conducted at all, as it is unprofitable. On 13 thousand hectares liming was carried out during the period from 1986 to 1995. In this case, the need for carrying out phosphating is preserved. Today, 104.4 thousand hectares of arable land have high acidity and low content of mobile phosphorus and require phosphating.
Keywords: exchange acidity, hydrolytic acidity, fertility, mobile phosphorus, agroecological monitoring.
Liming process of acid soils in Tatarstan Republic using local lime fertilizers
The description of works on liming of acidic soils, conducted in Tatarstan Republic, from 1967 to 2016 is given. The effectiveness of soil acidity decrease and growth of grain crops yield on gray forest soils of the Baltasinskiy district, as well as sugar beet cultivation in the experimental fields of the Sarmanovskiy district is shown. It is established that dolomite flour of local production changes agrochemical properties of soils depending on the granulometric composition and the term of interaction.
Keywords: grey forest soil, leached chernozem, acidity, liming, toxicants, yield, recoupment of costs.
PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS STUDY
Quality of clover meadow feed when processing seeds with nanopowder metals
The quality of fodder obtained from clover depends largely on the effectiveness of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, as well as on the availability of microelements to plants. At present, the use of microelement nanoforms is gaining ground. Nanochannels act on biological objects at the cellular level, introducing their excess energy into the processes occurring in plants and accelerating them. The study of ultradispersed particles was carried out at the experimental field of the Smolensk SAA. It is noted that the treatment with ultradispersed particles increases the content of crude protein, which is most characteristic of cobalt. The effect of ultradispersed particles of zinc oxide and iron was less pronounced. A similar trend was noted in the increase in the content of the crude cell, which may be due to the increase in the habit of plants and the proportion of stems in the crop. The natural effect of processing ultrafine particles on the content of raw ash, raw fat was not revealed. However, the fiber content is increased and the content of nitrogen-free extractives is reduced.
Keywords: clover meadow, UDC – ultrafine metal particles, presowing seed treatment, feed quality.
Results of development and research of chelated microfertilizers ZHUSS activity
There have been developed technologies for obtaining new liquid chelated forms of microfertilizers of the brand ZHUSS, containing single and double combinations of different trace elements (15 variants). Double combinations of trace elements are selected from among the most deficient for a given culture in specific soil conditions. A study of the mechanism of action has shown that these microfertilizers are multifunctional compositions showing growth-stimulating, adaptogenic, membrane-stabilizing, antioxidant, regulatory, protective, antimutagenic action and aftereffect. The application of the ZHUSS in the field provides for the growth of the symbiotic potential of legumes, photosynthetic activity and the stability of crops, increases the germination of seeds, reduces the pesticide load in crop rotations by activating protective enzymes and the manifestation of fungistatic action, and also activates active and passive forms of immunity to various infectious diseases, increases the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the crop. The best ways to use them are seed incrustation, treatment of tubers, planting materials, as well as foliar top dressing and irrigation with drip irrigation. Optimal doses were developed for each method of use and for each culture.
Keywords: chelate microfertilizers, production technologies, polyfunctional mechanism of action, aftereffect, agricultural crops, yield.
YOUNG SCIENTISTS RESEARCH
Influence of application of fertilization systems on the humus status and properties of soddy-podzolic soil at permanent crops cultivation in long-term experiment
The influence of fertilization systems and liming of the soil on the active components of humus in the cultivation of potatoes and winter rye. For all combinations of the active components of humus more than anything in the organic-mineral system of fertilizers without liming, the number is in the control variant on the background of liming. The largest yields of potatoes (205.6 c/ha) are also found in organic-mineral system of fertilizer without lime, and the smallest (66.3 c/ha) in the control variant. However, the yield of winter rye is higher in limed variants. The effect of liming soils identified on the fertilizer. Liming did not affect the hydrolytic acidity of the soil. The content of mobile forms of nitrogen is very low (I-II class), and mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, on the contrary, very high (V-VI class).
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, fertilizers, humus, labile carbon, carbon of humic acids, carbon of fulvic acids, hydrolytic acidity and mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Evaluation of heavy metals content in corn and sunflower
There are presented the foundings of the main and by-products of maize and sunflower, as well as data of agroecological monitoring of arable soils of reference sites for the presence of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury). It was established that the background gross lead content (13.1 mg/kg), cadmium (0.32 mg/kg), arsenic (3.76 mg/kg) and mercury (0.023 mg/kg) in the soil of the region are significantly below the permissible concentrations. In the production of sunflower, the content of heavy metals is slightly higher than in corn. The highest concentration of lead (2.0 mg/kg dry weight), mercury (0.0104 mg/kg dry weight) and arsenic (0.025 mg/kg dry weight) marked in the straw, and cadmium (0.086 mg/kg dry weight) – in the seeds of sunflower. The average mercury content of corn by-products corresponds to its concentration in sunflower. Exceeding the maximum permissible levels of toxic elements in the cultures in question was not detected.
Keywords: cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, heavy metals, soil, corn, sunflower.
Productivity of maize when applying fertilizers in different layers of soddy-podzolic soil
The results of the microfield experience are presented, in which the possibility of obtaining the optimal yield of grain and green mass of corn under differentiated application of fertilizers to different layers of fallow soddy-podzolic soil was studied. The influence of the depth of application of macro- and microfertilizers on the green mass of maize, the mass of the ears and the yield of grain from the ear is established. The optimum depth of application of NPK fertilizers and trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mo) was determined for corn of Katerina SV grade, which amounted to 0-40 cm for nitrogen fertilizers, and in combination with phosphate-potassium fertilizers and micro-elements of 20-40 and 60-80 cm.
Keywords: soddy-podzolic soil, fertilizers, maize, productivity.
The effectiveness of phosphorus fertilizers, depending on the degree of cultivation of soddy-podzolic soil
In the field experiment on soddy-podzolic heavy loamy soil with varying degrees of cultivation, the regularities of the action of various doses of phosphorus fertilizers on the yield and indices of the quality of spring barley of the variety Nur were established. It is shown that on the poorly cultivated soil the same high yield is formed as well as cultivated when high doses of phosphorus fertilizers are applied.
Keywords: efficiency, phosphorus fertilizers, cultivation, soddy-podzolic soil, yield, quality, spring barley.
Influence of long-term application of fertilizers on 2,4-D herbicide activity
In the article is considered two types of soils destructive ability to 2,4-D herbicide with the application of different schemes of organic and mineral fertilizers. The studies were carried out using carboxyl 14C-labeled 2,4-D amine salt. The decomposition rate, as well as the degree of binding of 2,4-D in soils of two types are compared.
According to the study, the most optimal conditions for the decomposition of the 2,4-D herbicide on soddy-podzolic soil are achieved in applying a one and half dose of mineral fertilizers and manure (N255P135K405 + manure 40 t/ha). The slowest rate of the herbicide decomposition was observed in the variant with a triple dose of mineral fertilizers without manure (N510P270K810).
The effect of the fertilizer applications on the rate of 2,4-D decomposition in chernozem leached soil is not as noticeable as in soddy-podzolic soil. However, the application of a single dose of mineral fertilizers with a high dose of organic (N90P120K90 + manure 40 t/ha) on chernozem leached soil was accelerated the decomposition of the herbicide.
Keywords: herbicides, fertilizers, soil, migration.