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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: Р.М. Алексахин, д.б.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., В.Г. Минеев, д.с.-х.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Панасин, д.с.-х.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., П.Д. Попов, д.с.-х.н., В.Г. Сычев, д.с.-х.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н., П.А. Чекмарев, д.с.-х.н.
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Отпечатано в ООО «САМ Полиграфист».
Москва, Протопоповский пер., д. 6.
Подписано в печать: 08.02.2017
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации.
Свидетельство № 011095.
2017 / Issue 1
INVITATION TO DISCUSSION
To the question about soil management with a very high content of phosphorus in intensive farming
A brief history of the study and the causes of soil with a very high content of mobile phosphorus compounds – over-phosphated soil. On the basis of agrochemical soil monitoring data in the time series for the whole of Russia and separate regions, the analysis of changes in the proportion of areas with low and very high content of mobile phosphates. The results of the model experiment microfield soil to create a predetermined content of mobile phosphorus compounds 300 mg/kg, 1300 and 2200 mg/kg. The content of mobile phosphates a year after the introduction of superphosphate to the soil is slightly higher than a predetermined level in two years – it corresponds to him, and after three years is reduced by 17-30%. Successive cropping with alternating «corn – rape – winter rye» revealed that the increase in the content of mobile phosphorus in soil from 300 to 1300 mg/kg significantly increases the yield of green mass of plants, and up to 2200 mg/kg of productivity growth does not occur. With the increasing availability of soil mobile phosphorus reduced its utilization rate on average per year, not to exceed 2% on a minimum background and 1.1% – to the maximum.
Keywords: available phosphorous, over-phosphated, green mass yield, phosphorous content in plant, soil phosphorous use coefficient.
The reliability of soil fertility as a criterion of the efficiency when operating reclamation projects
The research was carried out to improve the technical and investment policy in the land reclamation through the development and application of innovative measures on the allocation of scarce resources to optimize the reliability of soil fertility in agricultural lands, such as efficiency of preventive measures and operation of the reclamation projects. The objective of the research is soil fertility improvement in the reclaimed land, subject of the study is to optimize the impact of the reclamation projects’ operating on the soil fertility for the agricultural land. The following procedures were applied: collection, analysis and synthesis of the existing standards – methodological materials. The methodical approaches on the criteria choice and estimation of the efficiency of the allocation of the limited investment in the reclamation projects while their operating to ensure high production in agriculture as well as preservation and rehabilitation of soil fertility, are given. A discrete optimization model on the operation of the amelioration projects, which is being applied as the information technology (IT), decision support on the development of the possible variants of repair, maintenance, etc., and as procedures, optimality analysis and the choice of an effective variant, has been developed. IT testing on the base of the data of the «Sevkavgiprovodhoz» on the technical conditions of irrigation and watering systems in the area of The Big Stavropol Canal showed high efficiency of the proposed approach in the development of the schedules for maintenance and repair. The annual economic effect is amounted about 100 thousand rubles, payback period for the total investments being 2 years.
Keywords: soil, fertility, reliability criteria, efficiency, operation, irrigation and drainage projects.
Relationship between the humus content in arable horizon and the brightness of the Red channel of satellite images
The non-linear equation that connect the brightness of the red channel of remote sensing image and the content of humus in arable horizon of Grayzems in the Bryansk Opole region. The coefficient of determination for the equation has proved to be very high (R2 = 0.965). The calculations using it almost coincided with the average values obtained from an independent determination of the humus content in the mixed samples taken from the elementary sections into which the territory field was divided. The results can be used not only for the purpose of contouring, but also to embed fixed points for monitoring the content of humus in the field.
Keywords: greyzems, organic matter content, remote sensing, red channel, non-linear relationship.
Lysimetric experiment of nutrient cycle in agroecosystems at dark-gray forest soil
In 2011-2015, in lysimetric experiment on dark-gray forest and soddy-podzolic soils was investigated the influence of different backgrounds power and field crop rotations for infiltration of precipitation through the root layer of soil. On average, over 5 years of research during the growing season depending on the background of power and type of rotation was leaked from 54.6 to 69.3 l/lysimeter. Application of organic fertilizers (manure, green manure, straw) in combination with mineral backgrounds (N30P30K30 and N60P60K60) contributed to the reduction of water infiltration on 10-21% compared with control. Growing clover in lysimetric helped reduce infiltration of precipitation at 4.8-10.4% in relation to the rotation of crops without perennial grasses. The maximum infiltration of precipitation through a 70 cm layer of soil during the growing period is marked in 2014-2015.
Keywords: dark-gray soil, crop rotation, nutrition background, lysimetric experiment, fertilizers, infiltration.
Methodical approaches for the differentiation of nitrogen topdressings using test sites
Optimization of N-fertilisers application combined with the necessity to reduce the ecological load on agricultural landscapes should result in finding new methods for mineral fertilizer use in agriculture. The paper proposed a method of using test sites for N-sensor calibration and technological zones identification to carry out of nitrogen fertilizing crops. Long-term experiment results show that the differential application of nitrogen fertilizers provide higher yields while reducing acquisition costs. The use of test sites enables spatially differentiated fertilizer application without the use of expensive nitrogen sensors that significantly reduces the cost of production.
Keywords: precision agriculture, test sites, nitrogen fertilization, N-sensor, aerial photography, remote sensing data.
Oat production in crop rotation in dependence of technological factors and weather conditions in Central Non-Chernozem regions
In the long-term stationary field crop rotation experiments on medium cultivated soddy-podzolic soils of the Central Non-Chernozem zone of Russia with an increased or high content in the arable layer of phosphorus, potassium and pHKCl 5,8-6,5 set rational composition predecessors, ways of the basic soil cultivation and fertilizer system grades oats selection Nemchinovskaya providing reception of 6 t/ha grains in normal and 3.0-3.5 t/ha in extreme conditions with moisture content of crude protein in the range 10-12%. To this end, it is recommended to sow the oats on the surface loosening of 10-12 cm in combination tillage system after the winter, walking in the rotation on a busy annual legume-grass mixtures couple or perennial grasses, using mineral or organo-mineral fertilizer system. plant protection system in addition to etching provides two processing tank mixture of pesticides.
Keywords: oat, crop rotation, soil treatment system, fertilizers, weather conditions, harvest.
Optimization of sugar beet and winter wheat nutrition regime in Belgorod region conditions
The results of the comparative evaluation of the optimization mathematical model of winter wheat and sugar beet production in the conditions of the Belgorod region for the 16-year period. Calculations show the size of un- used capacity in connection with the ill-founded application of fertilizers, is not relying on the soil and plant diagnostics. Loss of crops of wheat and beet in the average in the region amounted to 1.43-3.75 t/ha at the deteriorating financial and economic indicators.
Keywords: optimization modelling, statistical criteria, significance, profitability, conditional net income, Belgorod region.
Dynamics of elements in seeded grass mixtures in the embedding in the soil of different biomass
Shows the content of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca) in the aerial part seed cereal grass in the natural fertility of soddy-podzolic soil over-bushed and forested fallow, previously used (over 40 years) in field crop rotations; the dependence of the concentration (N, P, K, Ca) of perennial grasses from species composition and complex embedded in the soil biomass, the degree of mineralization and the content in the soil. The fact that the optimum conditions for the uptake of nitrogen the grasses are created by incorporation of the undergrowth of aspen, and the least favorable – when sealing low forest of birch from disposable making 40 t/ha manure. By incorporation of low forest of birch trees grass herbage and on the 5th year of life used the nitrogen from decayed only 69% of the biomass of the birch. Years of research have shown that after 5-6 years needed for organic fertilizing established grass sward on embedded in the ground of the low forest of birch and the top dressing of mineral nitrogen by perennial grasses, created by embedded in the soil, the undergrowth of aspen.
Keywords: biomass, accumulation, batteries, grass swards, dynamics, soil.
Effect of mineral fertilizers for oilseed flax in Central Non-Chernozem regions
The results of studies on the effectiveness of different doses of fertilizers under flax in the conditions of the Central Non-Chernozem regions. The high responsiveness of oilseed flax varieties LM 98 for mineral fertilizers. Increase of productivity of flax seeds was 15-44, flax straw – 21-63. The highest yield of oilseed flax obtained by applying the fertilizer in N45P60K90 doze.
Keywords: oilseed flax, soddy-podzolic soil, mineral fertilizers, dose NPK, yield.
Resistance of Helminthosporium Solani strains to Thiabendazol
In the paper 19 strains of Helminthosporium solani was studied for resistance to a fungicide thiabendazol (benzimidazole class). Thiabendazol is an active compound of pesticides widely applied in Russia, such as preparation Imikar for seed potato treatment and pyrogenic sticks «Vist» for use in potato storages. Data on testing of thiabendazol resistance under laboratory conditions (Petri plate method) are shown.
According to research data, thiabendazol effectively suppressed the growth of most H. solani strains (EC50 < 6.5 mg/l). Mycelium of sensitive strains didn't start growing on media with a fungicide concentration more than 10 mg/l even after 40 days of cultivation. The strains with a very high resistance (EC50 > 1000 mg/l) were detected. Therefore, the resistance of Russian H. solani strains is due to the same mutations as in European and American strains. For a detection of strains resistant to thiabendazol it is possible to use test-systems designated by foreign researchers and proved to be effective in application.
Keywords: silver scurf, Helminthosporium solani, benzimidazole fungicides, thiabendazole, resistance to fungicides.
Theoretical and practical substantiation of protective properties of polyfunctional chelated micronutrient fertilizers brand ZhUSS
New chelated micronutrient fertilizers brands ZhUSS activates protective enzymes of plant – peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase and thus, stimulate the natural defense system of plants, initiating the active and passive forms of immunity, as well as the compensatory mechanisms of plants. A pronounced protective effect is due to ZhUSS also bactericidal action of chelate micronutrients in connection with their ability to move through the xylem of plants in the undissociated state without precipitation inhibiting directly pathogen activity themselves. ZhUSS in optimal doses reduce the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in cells of crops, which indicates the possibility of stabilizition of the seed genetic apparatus under the influence of ZhUSS and its effectiveness as an inducer of plant resistance. This immunization of plants provides the relative level of non-specific resistance and has aftereffect. It combines the advantages of contact and systemic pesticides and are devoid their drawbacks. ZhUSS are supposed to be abiogenous elicitors, triggering protective signaling systems of plant cells. For the ligands of ZhUSS production were used monoethanolamine and citric acid. ZhUSS are stable over a wide pH range; sufficiently soluble in water and have good adhesive properties; essentially non-phytotoxic; less than micronutrient ions sorbed by soil, allowing them to be retained for a long time on the treated surface, as well may be used in combination with the pesticides. ZhUSS are multifunctionality and increase not only the plant resistance and their antimutagenic potential but also germination, development and duration of root hairs and root system operation. Every money (ruble) invested in the use of ZhUSS is provided the profit-maker 3-14 rubles.
Keywords: new chelated micronutrient fertilizers, ZhUSS, protective enzymes, immunization plants, abiogenic elicitors, multifunctionality.
Protective and stimulating effect of different protective measures for spring wheat in Priamurye
Experimental data on agroecological assessment and effectiveness of the new age protective preparations against diseases and stressful environmental conditions for spring wheat are represented. The most effective complex protective systems against pathogens including seed pretreatment with Vial TT and plants spraying during growing season with Abacus and Liquid Humic Fertilizers with biopreparations Extrasol and Lignogumat were determined. Field trial has shown that complex system of protective measures is effective, allows getting clear income from 5079 to 6689 rubles per hectare with the payback of 1.4-1.48 times, obtaining higher quality seeds.
Keywords: spring wheat, growth regulators, plant protection measures, biopreparations, yield, Priamurye.
Bacterial communities structure of Calendula (Calendula officinalis) and Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) in agrocoenosis
It determines the number and taxonomic structure of epiphytic bacterial communities Calendula officinalis and Silybum marianum in a potato field. It was found that in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of plants there are significant restructuring in the taxonomic and ecological-trophic structure of epiphytic bacteria in the process of ontogenesis of these plants. We discuss the functions of epiphytic bacteria of medicinal plants. The soil under the plants studied taxonomic structure of the bacterial complex of little change. At all sampling periods are typically dominated by soil microorganisms – Arthrobacter. At the stage of seedling plants under them have been found except Arthrobacter, spore-forming bacteria (secondary dominants) and streptomycetes (subdominant). In periods of flowering plants as minor components of the soil were identified Flavobacterium and Micrococci, and during the ripening seeds – Myxobacteria and Proteobacteria.
Keywords: epiphytic community, medicinal plants, plant ontogenesis, bacterial taxones, functions.